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This document specifies a proposed standard interface between web servers and Erlang web applications or frameworks to promote web application portability across a variety of web server implementations.

This EEP is originally based on the Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0 (PEP 333).


At the time of writing, there is no standard way for Erlang applications to interact with a web server or HTTP toolkit. Many other languages (e.g. Python and Ruby) have dedicated significant research towards developing robust standards for web applications. In order for developers interesting in using Erlang to build web applications, such standards are important to encourage the reuse of code dealing with common HTTP problems such as cookies, sessions, and URL routing.

Specification Overview

The EWGI interface has two sides: the "server" or "gateway" side, and the "application" or "framework" side. The server side invokes a function or module (the "application") that is provided by the application side. The specifics of how that function or module is provided are up to the server or gateway. It is assumed that some servers or gateways will require an application's deployer to write a some code to create an instance of the server or gateway, and supply it with the application. Other servers and gateways may use configuration files or other mechanisms to specify where an application should be obtained.

In addition to "pure" servers/gateways and applications/frameworks, it is also possible to create "middleware" components that implement both sides of this specification. Such components act as an application to their containing server, and as a server to a contained application. They can be used to provide extended APIs, content transformations, navigation, and other useful functions.

Hot code reloading

It is important to note that one of the core features of the Erlang runtime system, hot code reloading, may be affected by the use of first-class functions. This specification does not deal directly with the problems associated with hot code reloading and maintains that it is the responsibility of the server and application developers to implement the desired release behaviour.

The Application/Framework Side

The application is simply a function that accepts a single 3-tuple argument. Applications MUST be able to be invoked more than once, as virtually all servers/gateways will make such repeated requests. The function should return a similarly-structured 3-tuple argument. The 3-tuple may be defined by a record for convenience, but this is not required. The first element of the context tuple MUST be the atom 'ewgi_context'.

Note: although we refer to it as an "application", this should not be construed to mean that application developers will use EWGI as a web programming API! It is assumed that application developers will continue to use high-level framework services to develop their applications. EWGI is a tool for framework and server developers, and is not necessarily intended to directly support application developers as "yet another web framework."

Here is an example of an application:

simple_app({ewgi_context, Request, _Response}) ->
    StatusCode = 200,
    ReasonPhrase = "OK",
    Status = {StatusCode, ReasonPhrase},
    ResponseHeaders = [{"Content-type", "text/plain"}],
    Body = [<<"Hello world!">>],
    Response = {ewgi_response, Status,
                ResponseHeaders, Body, undefined},
    {ewgi_context, Request, Response}.

As stated above, a record may be used for convenience:

-record(ewgi_context, {

The Server/Gateway Side

The server or gateway invokes the application callable once for each request it receives from an HTTP client that is directed at the application.

An example server using the MochiWeb HTTP toolkit is provided with the EWGI reference implementation.

Middleware: Components "that Play Both Sides"

Note that a single object may play the role of a server with respect to some application(s), while also acting as an application with respect to some server(s). Such "middleware" components can perform such functions as:

  • Routing a request to different application objects based on the target URL, after rewriting the Request accordingly.
  • Allowing multiple applications or frameworks to run side-by-side in the same process
  • Load balancing and remote processing by forwarding requests and responses over a network
  • Content postprocessing, such as applying XSL stylesheets

The presence of middleware in general is transparent to both the "server/gateway" and the "application/framework" sides of the interface, and should require no special support. A user who desires to incorporate middleware into an application simply provides the middleware component to the server as if it were an application and configures the middleware component to invoke the application as if the middleware component were a server. Of course, the "application" that the middleware wraps may in fact be another middleware component wrapping another application and so on, creating what is referred to as a "middleware stack" or "pipeline."

For the most part, middleware must conform to the restrictions and requirements of both the server and application sides of EWGI. In some cases, however, requirements for middleware are more stringent than for a "pure" server or application, and these points will be noted in the specification.

Following is an example which naively converts the output of an application to uppercase:

get_upcase_mw(A) when is_function(A, 1) ->
    F = fun(Ctx) ->
                {ewgi_context, Req, Rsp} = A(Ctx),
                Body = case element(4, Rsp) of
                           Body0 when is_function(Body0, 0) ->
                           Body0 when is_list(Body0) ->
                           Body0 when is_binary(Body0) ->
                {ewgi_context, Req, setelement(4, Rsp, Body)}

%% Lazily wrap a stream
upcase_chunks(F0) ->
    F = fun() ->
                case F0() of
                    {H, T} ->
                        {upcase_iolist(H), upcase_chunks(T)};
                    {} ->

upcase_binary(Bin) when is_binary(Bin) ->

upcase_iolist(L) ->
    lists:map(fun(A) when is_integer(A) ->
                 (A) when is_binary(A) ->
                 (A) when is_list(A) ->
              end, L).

Specification Details

The application callable must accept one 3-tuple argument. For the sake of illustration, we have named the second and third elements of this tuple request and response, and the specification shall refer to them by those names. A server or gateway must invoke the callable by passing the tuple argument (e.g. by calling Result = Application({ewgi_context, Request, Response}) as shown above).


The Request parameter is a tuple containing various CGI-influenced environment variables. This term must be an 21-tuple, and the application is allowed to modify the Request in any way it desires (except for HTTP header restrictions outlined later). Element 5 of the tuple must itself be a 6-tuple including certain EWGI-required terms (described in a later section), and may also include server-specific extension variables by making use of the final element (a bag or multiset). Element 7 of the tuple must itself be a 8-tuple including certain commonly-encountered HTTP headers and a dictionary for additional variables. The following records may be used for convenience:

-record(ewgi_spec, {
          data % set

-record(ewgi_http_headers, {
          other % multiset

-record(ewgi_request, {

EWGI request variables

The Request tuple is required to contain these CGI environment variables, as originally defined by the Common Gateway Interface specification.

auth_type: (Element 2) The type of authentication provided or 'undefined' if absent.

content_length: (Element 3) The contents of any Content-Length fields in the HTTP request. May be empty or 'undefined'.

content_type: (Element 4) The contents of any Content-Type fields in the HTTP request. May be empty or 'undefined'.

ewgi: (Element 5) See section below

gateway_interface: (Element 6) The gateway interface and revision used. Should be EWGI/1.1 for this version of the specification.

http_headers: (Element 7) See section below

path_info: (Element 8) The remainder of the request URL's "path", designating the virtual "location" of the request's target within the application. This may be an empty string, if the request URL targets the application root and does not have a trailing slash.

path_translated: (Element 9) The path as may be translated by the server to a physical location.

query_string: (Element 10) The portion of the request URL that follows the "?", if any. May be empty or 'undefined'.

remote_addr: (Element 11) The remote IP address of the client issuing the request

remote_host: (Element 12) The remote hostname of the client issuing the request. May be empty or 'undefined'.

remote_ident: (Element 13) If the server supports RFC 931 identification, this variable may be set to the remote user name. Should only be used for logging purposes.

remote_user: (Element 14) If authentication is supported by the server (or middleware), this should be set to the authenticated username.

remote_user_data: (Element 15) Any additional data provided by the authentication mechanism.

request_method: (Element 16) An atom or string describing the HTTP request method. Common methods MUST be atoms and include 'OPTIONS', 'GET', 'HEAD', 'POST', 'PUT', 'DELETE', 'TRACE', and 'CONNECT'. A value is always required and it MUST NOT be an empty string.

script_name: (Element 17) The initial portion of the request URL's "path" that corresponds to the application object, so that the application knows its virtual "location". This may be an empty string, if the application corresponds to the "root" of the server.

server_name, server_port: (Element 18,19) When combined with script_name and path_info, these variables can be used to complete the URL. Note, however, that http_host, if present, should be used in preference to server_name for reconstructing the request URL. server_name and server_port can never be empty strings, and so are always required.

server_protocol: (Element 20) The version of the protocol the client used to send the request. Typically this will be something like "HTTP/1.0" or "HTTP/1.1"``and may be used by the application to determine how to treat any HTTP request headers.  (This variable should probably be called ``request_protocol, since it denotes the protocol used in the request, and is not necessarily the protocol that will be used in the server's response. However, for compatibility with CGI we have to keep the existing name).

server_software: (Element 21) The name and revision of the server software answering the request.

EWGI-specification parameters

read_input: (Element 2) A 2-arity function which takes a Callback 1-arity function and a Size non-zero integer. The Callback function will be called with chunks of data in the form {data, Bin} where Bin is a binary. At the end of reading, the Callback function will be called with eof as its argument. The supplied function should return another function of the same kind.

write_error: (Element 3) A 1-arity function which takes an iolist and writes to the server-defined error log mechanism (usually error_logger).

url_scheme: (Element 4) A string representing the "scheme" portion of the URL at which the application is being invoked. Normally, this will have the value "http" or "https" where appropriate.

version: (Element 5) The tuple {1,1}, representing EWGI major version 1, minor version 1.

data: (Element 6) A dictionary (implemented by the OTP module gb_trees) which can be used for server or application-specific data to be included with the request. A common use for this dictionary is in configuring higher-level web frameworks or providing cached data. Additionally, a server or gateway should attempt to provide as many other CGI variables as are applicable. In addition, if SSL is in use, the server or gateway should also provide as many of the Apache SSL environment variables as are applicable, such as https and ssl_protocol. Note, however, that an application that uses any CGI variables other than the ones listed above are necessarily non-portable to web servers that do not support the relevant extensions. An EWGI-compliant server or gateway should document what variables it provides, along with their definitions as appropriate. Applications should check for the presence of any variables they require, and have a fallback plan in the event such a variable is 'undefined'.

HTTP headers

EWGI provides a tuple with commonly-used HTTP request headers to optimise retrieval. Each of the values is a list of 2-tuples of the form {FieldName, FieldValue}. Servers MUST preserve the order of headers as they are given in the request. Servers SHOULD preserve the case of the FieldName values.

http_accept: (Element 2) The Accept: header

http_cookie: (Element 3) The Cookie: header

http_host: (Element 4) The Host: header

http_if_modified_since: (Element 5) The If-Modified-Since: header

http_user_agent: (Element 6) The User-Agent: header

http_x_http_method_override: (Element 7) The X-Http-Method-Override: header. While not part of the HTTP 1.1 specification, this header can be used to overcome a common browser limitation which prevents browsers from sending a PUT or DELETE request to a URI.

other: (Element 8) A multiset (implemented by the OTP module gb_trees) which contains all other HTTP request headers. The keys of the dictionary should be lower-case representations of the header names and the values should be a list of tuples of the form {HeaderName, HeaderValue}. Servers SHOULD attempt to preserve the original case of header names in the tuple list.


Missing variables (where allowed, such as remote_user when no authentication has occurred) should be defined by the atom 'undefined'. Also note that CGI-defined variables must be strings if they are defined. It is a violation of this specification for a CGI variable's value to be of any type other than string or the 'undefined' atom.


The Response parameter is a 5-tuple of the form {ewgi_response, {StatusCode, ReasonPhrase}, HeaderList, MessageBody, Error}. and A convenient record definition is:

-record(ewgi_response, {
          status={200, "OK"},

Status Code

The StatusCode parameter should be a 3-digit integer corresponding to the HTTP status code as defined in the HTTP specification (See RFC 2616, Section 6.1.1 for more information). For example, 200 corresponds to a successful request.

Reason Phrase

The ReasonPhrase parameter is intended to be a human readable representation of StatusCode and should be a string or binary.


Headers is a list of {HeaderName, HeaderValue} tuples describing the HTTP response headers.

Each HeaderName must be a valid HTTP header field-name (as defined by RFC 2616, Section 4.2), without a trailing colon or bother punctuation. Note: HeaderName is case insensitive, but should be lower-case for optimising comparisons. (A reminder for server/gateway authors: be sure to take that into consideration when examining application-supplied headers).

Each HeaderValue must not include any control characters, including CR or LF, in any position.

In general, the server or gateway is responsible for ensuring that correct headers are sent to the client: if the application omits a header required by HTTP (or other relevant specifications that are in effect), the server or gateway must add it. For example, the HTTP Date: and Server: headers would normally be supplied by the server or gateway.

Applications and middleware are forbidden from using HTTP/1.1 "hop-by-hop" features or headers, any equivalent features in HTTP/1.0, or any headers that would affect the persistence of the client's connection to the web server. These features are the exclusive province of the actual web server, and a server or gateway should consider it a fatal error for an application to attempt sending them, and raise an error if they are supplied.

For example:

[{"content-type", "application/json"}, {"etag", "8a920bc001df"}]

Message Body

The MessageBody parameter is either an iolist or a "stream," which is a lazy, recursive list-like structure. A stream is a zero-arity function which returns either the empty tuple {} or a 2-tuple of the form {Head, Tail} where Head is an iolist and Tail is another stream. Servers may choose to transmit message bodies represented by a stream using the chunked transfer encoding. However, the server or gateway must transmit iolist``s to the client in an unbuffered fashion, completing the transmission of each ``iolist before requesting another one. (In other words, applications should perform their own buffering).

The server or gateway should not alter the iolist returned by the application in any way. The application is responsible for ensuring that the iolist to be written is in a format suitable for the client. However, the server or gateway may apply HTTP transfer encodings or perform other transformations for the purpose of implementing HTTP features such as byte-range transmission.

EWGI Reference Implementation

The EWGI reference implementation includes an API module ewgi_api which defines helper functions to access and modify the EWGI context, parse query strings, etc. It also includes a module ewgi_application which contains convenience functions for dealing with application functions as well as sample middleware components. An include file (include/ewgi.hrl) is also provided, which contains macros for standard HTTP status values and the convenience record definitions. These may be used to help development of servers and applications, but should not be required.


This document has been placed in the public domain.

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