configuration backup software (IOS, JunOS) - silly attempt at rancid
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Latest commit 1b7b5e6 Jan 11, 2017 @ytti committed on GitHub Merge pull request #665 from devicenull/patch-4
Add suggestion to set `ip` variable in CSV reader

Oxidized Build Status Gem Version Join the chat at

Oxidized is a network device configuration backup tool. It's a RANCID replacement!

  • automatically adds/removes threads to meet configured retrieval interval
  • restful API to move node immediately to head-of-queue (GET/POST /node/next/[NODE])
    • syslog udp+file example to catch config change event (ios/junos) and trigger config fetch
    • will signal ios/junos user who made change, which output modules can use (via POST)
    • The git output module uses this info - 'git blame' will for each line show who made the change and when
  • restful API to reload list of nodes (GET /reload)
  • restful API to fetch configurations (/node/fetch/[NODE] or /node/fetch/group/[NODE])
  • restful API to show list of nodes (GET /nodes)
  • restful API to show list of version for a node (/node/version[NODE]) and diffs

Youtube Video: Oxidized TREX 2014 presentation


  1. Supported OS Types
  2. Installation
  3. Initial Configuration
  4. Installing Ruby 2.1.2 using RVM
  5. Running with Docker
  6. Cookbook
  7. Ruby API

Supported OS types



Install all required packages and gems.

apt-get install ruby ruby-dev libsqlite3-dev libssl-dev pkg-config cmake libssh2-1-dev
gem install oxidized
gem install oxidized-script oxidized-web # if you don't install oxidized-web, make sure you remove "rest" from your config

CentOS, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Linux

On CentOS 6 / RHEL 6, install Ruby greater than 1.9.3 (for Ruby 2.1.2 installation instructions see "Installing Ruby 2.1.2 using RVM"), then install Oxidized dependencies

yum install cmake sqlite-devel openssl-devel libssh2-devel

RHEL 7 / CentOS 7 will work out of the box with the following package list:

yum install cmake sqlite-devel openssl-devel libssh2-devel ruby gcc ruby-devel

Now let's install oxidized via Rubygems:

gem install oxidized
gem install oxidized-script oxidized-web


Oxidized configuration is in YAML format. Configuration files are subsequently sourced from /etc/oxidized/config then ~/.config/oxidized/config. The hashes will be merged, this might be useful for storing source information in a system wide file and user specific configuration in the home directory (to only include a staff specific username and password). Eg. if many users are using oxs, see Oxidized::Script.

It is recommended practice to run Oxidized using its own username. This username can be added using standard command-line tools:

useradd oxidized

It is recommended not to run Oxidized as root.

To initialize a default configuration in your home directory ~/.config/oxidized/config, simply run oxidized once. If you don't further configure anything from the output and source sections, it'll extend the examples on a subsequent oxidized execution. This is useful to see what options for a specific source or output backend are available.

You can set the env variable OXIDIZED_HOME to change its home directory.


$ tree -L 1 /etc/oxidized
├── config
├── log-router-ssh
├── log-router-telnet
├── pid
├── router.db
└── repository.git


Oxidized supports CSV, SQLite and HTTP as source backends. The CSV backend reads nodes from a rancid compatible router.db file. The SQLite backend will fire queries against a database and map certain fields to model items. The HTTP backend will fire queries against a http/https url. Take a look at the Cookbook for more details.


Possible outputs are either file or git. The file backend takes a destination directory as argument and will keep a file per device, with most recent running version of a device. The GIT backend (recommended) will initialize an empty GIT repository in the specified path and create a new commit on every configuration change. Take a look at the Cookbook for more details.

Maps define how to map a model's fields to model model fields. Most of the settings should be self explanatory, log is ignored if use_syslog(requires Ruby >= 2.0) is set to true.

First create the directory where the CSV output is going to store device configs and start Oxidized once.

mkdir -p ~/.config/oxidized/configs

Now tell Oxidized where it finds a list of network devices to backup configuration from. You can either use CSV or SQLite as source. To create a CSV source add the following snippet:

  default: csv
    file: ~/.config/oxidized/router.db
    delimiter: !ruby/regexp /:/
      name: 0
      model: 1

Now lets create a file based device database (you might want to switch to SQLite later on). Put your routers in ~/.config/oxidized/router.db (file format is compatible with rancid). Simply add an item per line:

Run oxidized again to take the first backups.

Installing Ruby 2.1.2 using RVM

Install Ruby 2.1.2 build dependencies

yum install curl gcc-c++ patch readline readline-devel zlib zlib-devel
yum install libyaml-devel libffi-devel openssl-devel make cmake
yum install bzip2 autoconf automake libtool bison iconv-devel libssh2-devel

Install RVM

curl -L | bash -s stable

Setup RVM environment and compile and install Ruby 2.1.2 and set it as default

source /etc/profile.d/
rvm install 2.1.2
rvm use --default 2.1.2

Running with Docker

clone git repo:

git clone

build container locally:

docker build -q -t oxidized/oxidized:latest oxidized/

create config directory in main system:

mkdir /etc/oxidized

run container the first time: _Note: this step in only needed for creating Oxidized's configuration file and can be skipped if you already have it

docker run --rm -v /etc/oxidized:/root/.config/oxidized -p 8888:8888/tcp -t oxidized/oxidized:latest oxidized

If the RESTful API and Web Interface are enabled, on the docker host running the container edit /etc/oxidized/config and modify 'rest:' by 'rest:' this will bind port 8888 to all interfaces then expose port out. (Issue #445)

You can also use docker-compose to launch oxidized container:

# docker-compose.yml
# docker-compose file example for oxidized that will start along with docker daemon
  restart: always
  image: oxidized/oxidized:latest
    - 8888:8888/tcp
    - /etc/oxidized:/root/.config/oxidized

create the /etc/oxidized/router.db

vim /etc/oxidized/router.db

run container again:

docker run -v /etc/oxidized:/root/.config/oxidized -p 8888:8888/tcp -t oxidized/oxidized:latest
oxidized[1]: Oxidized starting, running as pid 1
oxidized[1]: Loaded 1 nodes
Puma 2.13.4 starting...
* Min threads: 0, max threads: 16
* Environment: development
* Listening on tcp://

If you want to have the config automatically reloaded (e.g. when using a http source that changes)

docker run -v /etc/oxidized:/root/.config/oxidized -p 8888:8888/tcp -e CONFIG_RELOAD_INTERVAL=3600 -t oxidized/oxidized:latest



In case a model plugin doesn't work correctly (ios, procurve, etc.), you can enable live debugging of SSH/Telnet sessions. Just add a debug option containing the value true to the input section. The log files will be created depending on the parent directory of the logfile option.

The following example will log an active ssh/telnet session /home/oxidized/.config/oxidized/log/<IP-Adress>-<PROTOCOL>. The file will be truncated on each consecutive ssh/telnet session, so you need to put a tailf or tail -f on that file!

log: /home/oxidized/.config/oxidized/log


  default: ssh, telnet
  debug: true
    secure: false

Privileged mode

To start privileged mode before pulling the configuration, Oxidized needs to send the enable command. You can globally enable this, by adding the following snippet to the global section of the configuration file.

   enable: S3cre7

Removing secrets

To strip out secrets from configurations before storing them, Oxidized needs the the remove_secrets flag. You can globally enable this by adding the following snippet to the global sections of the configuration file.

  remove_secret: true

Device models can contain substitution filters to remove potentially sensitive data from configs.

As a partial example from ios.rb:

  cmd :secret do |cfg|
    cfg.gsub! /^(snmp-server community).*/, '\\1 <configuration removed>'

The above strips out snmp community strings from your saved configs.

NOTE: Removing secrets reduces the usefulness as a full configuration backup, but it may make sharing configs easier.

Disabling SSH exec channels

Oxidized uses exec channels to make information extraction simpler, but there are some situations where this doesn't work well, e.g. configuring devices. This feature can be turned off by setting the ssh_no_exec variable.

  ssh_no_exec: true

Source: CSV

One line per device, colon seperated. If ip isn't present, a DNS lookup will be done against name. For large installations, setting ip will dramatically reduce startup time.

  default: csv
    file: /var/lib/oxidized/router.db
    delimiter: !ruby/regexp /:/
      name: 0
      ip: 1
      model: 2
      username: 3
      password: 4
      enable: 5

SSH Proxy Command

Oxidized can ssh through a proxy as well. To do so we just need to set ssh_proxy variable.

  name: 0
  model: 1
  enable: 2
  ssh_proxy: 3

Source: SQL

Oxidized uses the sequel ruby gem. You can use a variety of databases that aren't explicitly listed. For more information visit Make sure you have the correct adapter!

Source: MYSQL

sudo apt-get install libmysqlclient-dev

The values correspond to your fields in the DB such that ip, model, etc are field names in the DB

  default: sql
    adapter: mysql2
    database: oxidized
    table: nodes
    username: root
    password: rootpass
      name: ip
      model: model
      username: username
      password: password
      enable: enable

Source: SQLite

One row per device, filtered by hostname.

  default: sql
    adapter: sqlite
    database: "/var/lib/oxidized/devices.db"
    table: devices
      name: fqdn
      model: model
      username: username
      password: password
      enable: enable

Source: HTTP

One object per device.

HTTP Supports basic auth, configure the user and pass you want to use under the http: section.

  default: http
    url: https://url/api
    scheme: https
    delimiter: !ruby/regexp /:/
    user: username
    pass: password
      name: hostname
      model: os
      username: username
      password: password
      enable: enable
      X-Auth-Token: 'somerandomstring'

You can also pass secure: false if you want to disable ssl certificate verification:

  default: http
    url: https://url/api
    scheme: https
    secure: false

Output: File

Parent directory needs to be created manually, one file per device, with most recent running config.

    directory: /var/lib/oxidized/configs

Output: Git

This uses the rugged/libgit2 interface. So you should remember that normal Git hooks will not be executed.

For a single repositories for all devices:

  default: git
    user: Oxidized
    repo: "/var/lib/oxidized/devices.git"

And for groups repositories:

  default: git
    user: Oxidized
    repo: "/var/lib/oxidized/git-repos/default.git"

Oxidized will create a repository for each group in the same directory as the default.git. For example:


This will generate the following repositories:

$ ls /var/lib/oxidized/git-repos

default.git first.git second.git

If you would like to use groups and a single repository, you can force this with the single_repo config.

  default: git
    single_repo: true
    repo: "/var/lib/oxidized/devices.git"

Output: Http

POST a config to the specified URL

  default: http
    user: admin
    password: changeit
    url: ""

Output types

If you prefer to have different outputs in different files and/or directories, you can easily do this by modifying the corresponding model. To change the behaviour for IOS, you would edit lib/oxidized/model/ios.rb (run gem contents oxidized to find out the full file path).

For example, let's say you want to split out show version and show inventory into separate files in a directory called nodiff which your tools will not send automated diffstats for. You can apply a patch along the lines of

-  cmd 'show version' do |cfg|
-    comment cfg.lines.first
+  cmd 'show version' do |state|
+    state.type = 'nodiff'
+    state

-  cmd 'show inventory' do |cfg|
-    comment cfg
+  cmd 'show inventory' do |state|
+    state.type = 'nodiff'
+    state
+  end

-  cmd 'show running-config' do |cfg|
-    cfg = cfg.each_line.to_a[3..-1].join
-    cfg.gsub! /^Current configuration : [^\n]*\n/, ''
-    cfg.sub! /^(ntp clock-period).*/, '! \1'
-    cfg.gsub! /^\ tunnel\ mpls\ traffic-eng\ bandwidth[^\n]*\n*(
+  cmd 'show running-config' do |state|
+    state = state.each_line.to_a[3..-1].join
+    state.gsub! /^Current configuration : [^\n]*\n/, ''
+    state.sub! /^(ntp clock-period).*/, '! \1'
+    state.gsub! /^\ tunnel\ mpls\ traffic-eng\ bandwidth[^\n]*\n*(
                   (?:\ [^\n]*\n*)*
                   tunnel\ mpls\ traffic-eng\ auto-bw)/mx, '\1'
-    cfg
+    state = state
+    state.type = 'nodiff'
+    state

which will result in the following layout


RESTful API and Web Interface

The RESTful API and Web Interface is enabled by configuring the rest: parameter in the config file. This parameter can optionally contain a relative URI.

# Listen on
# Listen on

Advanced Configuration

Below is an advanced example configuration. You will be able to (optionally) override options per device. The router.db format used is hostname:model:username:password:enable_password. Hostname and model will be the only required options, all others override the global configuration sections.

username: oxidized
password: S3cr3tx
model: junos
interval: 3600
log: ~/.config/oxidized/log
debug: false
threads: 30
timeout: 20
retries: 3
prompt: !ruby/regexp /^([\w.@-]+[#>]\s?)$/
  enable: S3cr3tx
groups: {}
pid: ~/.config/oxidized/
  default: ssh, telnet
  debug: false
    secure: false
  default: git
      user: Oxidized
      repo: "~/.config/oxidized/oxidized.git"
  default: csv
    file: ~/.config/oxidized/router.db
    delimiter: !ruby/regexp /:/
      name: 0
      model: 1
      username: 2
      password: 3
      enable: 4
  cisco: ios
  juniper: junos

Advanced Group Configuration

For group specific credentials

    username: admin
    password: blank
    username: ubnt
    password: ubnt

and add group mapping

  model: 0
  name: 1
  group: 2


You can define arbitrary number of hooks that subscribe different events. The hook system is modular and different kind of hook types can be enabled.


Following configuration keys need to be defined for all hooks:

  • events: which events to subscribe. Needs to be an array. See below for the list of available events.
  • type: what hook class to use. See below for the list of available hook types.


  • node_success: triggered when configuration is succesfully pulled from a node and right before storing the configuration.
  • node_fail: triggered after retries amount of failed node pulls.
  • post_store: triggered after node configuration is stored (this is executed only when the configuration has changed).

Hook type: exec

The exec hook type allows users to run an arbitrary shell command or a binary when triggered.

The command is executed on a separate child process either in synchronous or asynchronous fashion. Non-zero exit values cause errors to be logged. STDOUT and STDERR are currently not collected.

Command is executed with the following environment:


Exec hook recognizes following configuration keys:

  • timeout: hard timeout for the command execution. SIGTERM will be sent to the child process after the timeout has elapsed. Default: 60
  • async: influences whether main thread will wait for the command execution. Set this true for long running commands so node pull is not blocked. Default: false
  • cmd: command to run.

Hook configuration example

    type: exec
    events: [node_success]
    cmd: 'echo "Node success $OX_NODE_NAME" >> /tmp/ox_node_success.log'
    type: exec
    events: [post_store, node_fail]
    cmd: 'echo "Doing long running stuff for $OX_NODE_NAME" >> /tmp/ox_node_stuff.log; sleep 60'
    async: true
    timeout: 120


This hook configures the repository remote and push the code when the specified event is triggerd. If the username and password are not provided, the Rugged::Credentials::SshKeyFromAgent will be used.

githubrepo hook recognizes following configuration keys:

  • remote_repo: the remote repository to be pushed to.
  • username: username for repository auth.
  • password: password for repository auth.
  • publickey: publickey for repository auth.
  • privatekey: privatekey for repository auth.

When using groups repositories, each group must have its own remote in the remote_repo config.

      routers: git@git.intranet:oxidized/routers.git
      switches: git@git.intranet:oxidized/switches.git
      firewalls: git@git.intranet:oxidized/firewalls.git

Hook configuration example

    type: githubrepo
    events: [post_store]
    remote_repo: git@git.intranet:oxidized/test.git
    username: user
    password: pass

Hook type: awssns

The awssns hook publishes messages to AWS SNS topics. This allows you to notify other systems of device configuration changes, for example a config orchestration pipeline. Multiple services can subscribe to the same AWS topic.

Fields sent in the message:

  • event: Event type (e.g. node_success)
  • group: Group name
  • model: Model name (e.g. eos)
  • node: Device hostname

Configuration example:

    type: awssns
    events: [node_fail,node_success,post_store]
    region: us-east-1
    topic_arn: arn:aws:sns:us-east-1:1234567:oxidized-test-backup_events

AWS SNS hook requires the following configuration keys:

  • region: AWS Region name
  • topic_arn: ASN Topic reference

Your AWS credentials should be stored in ~/.aws/credentials.

Ruby API

The following objects exist in Oxidized.


  • gets config from nodes
  • must implement 'connect', 'get', 'cmd'
  • 'ssh', 'telnet, ftp, and tftp' implemented


  • stores config
  • must implement 'store' (may implement 'fetch')
  • 'git' and 'file' (store as flat ascii) implemented


  • gets list of nodes to poll
  • must implement 'load'
  • source can have 'name', 'model', 'group', 'username', 'password', 'input', 'output', 'prompt'
    • name - name of the devices
    • model - model to use ios/junos/xyz, model is loaded dynamically when needed (Also default in config file)
    • input - method to acquire config, loaded dynamically as needed (Also default in config file)
    • output - method to store config, loaded dynamically as needed (Also default in config file)
    • prompt - prompt used for node (Also default in config file, can be specified in model too)
  • 'sql', 'csv' and 'http' (supports any format with single entry per line, like router.db)


  • lists commands to gather from given device model
  • can use 'cmd', 'prompt', 'comment', 'cfg'
  • cfg is executed in input/output/source context
  • cmd is executed in instance of model
  • 'junos', 'ios', 'ironware' and 'powerconnect' implemented

License and Copyright

Copyright 2013-2015 Saku Ytti 2013-2015 Samer Abdel-Hafez

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.