The Stack Frame

Marc Jacobi edited this page Dec 29, 2018 · 3 revisions

All the compiled procedural languages need a way to pass parameters to the functions.

The z88dk parameter passing mechanism normally relies on the stack: local variables declared in a C program are allocated on the stack as a function is entered and are popped off the stack as functions are exited. z88dk supports multiple calling conventions so care should be taken when writing assembler that interfaces with C.

Such parameters are dynamic (in that memory is allocated and deallocated from the stack as required) and transient (in that referring to their addresses has no meaning after the function terminates).

sccz80 makes no assumptions about registers that need to be preserved, however the target platform may. For example on the ZX Spectrum, the iy register should not be disturbed unless you are using your own interrupt manager and you don't call any ROM routines.

Example: accessing local variables from assembler embedded in a C function.

int myfunc(char b, unsigned char *p) { #asm

  ld hl,2
  add hl,sp              ; skip over return address on stack
  ld e,(hl)
  inc hl
  ld d,(hl)              ; de = p
  inc hl
  ld a,(hl)              ; a = b, "char b" occupies 16 bits on stack
                         ;  but only the LSB is relevant
  ...
  
  ld hl,1                ; hl is the return parameter
  
  #endasm

}

passing two 8-bit values share a 16-bit stack location.

void myfunc(char x, char y) { #asm

  ld hl,2
  add hl,sp              ; skip over return address on stack
  ld e,(hl)              ; e = y
  inc hl
  ld c,(hl)              ; c = x
  ...
        
  #endasm

}

At the call location the sp is manipulated as follows:

ld l, 'x'
ld a, 'y'
push hl
inc  sp
push af
inc  sp

A "long" parameter takes 4 bytes on the stack; the following example could be used in case of a single long parameter being passed to a function, loading it in the DE-HL word pair :

my_function:
    pop     bc
    pop     hl
    pop     de
    push    bc      ;return address to program
    ...
    ...

Exceptions

__z88dk_fastcall qualifier

z88dk's special __z88dk_fastcall qualifier can be used if the C function has just one parameter. In that case, the parameter is passed in the HL register pair instead of being allocated on the stack.

int myfunc(unsigned char *p) __z88dk_fastcall __naked { #asm

  ; hl = p
  
  ...
  
  ; return value in hl
  
  #endasm

}

Floating Point numbers

Calling C functions from within an assembly program

An assembly written function needs to get the parameters from the stack; in example, here is how the "plot" function recovers the X and Y coordinates (using only the lower byte of the int parameter):

plot:
	ld	ix,0
	add	ix,sp
	ld	l,(ix+2)    ; Y coordinate
	ld	h,(ix+4)    ; X coordinate
	...
	...

Including other language's functions

At a machine level, different languages can be mixed as long as they use the same data format and the same parameter passing mechanism.

The BDS C compiler, in example, uses a static frame, pointing to maximum 7 different parameters: in this case we need to provide a parameter conversion routine to make it work, which will pick the data from the stack and will put them in reverse order in pre-set positions:

GLOBAL	arghak

GLOBAL	arg1
GLOBAL	arg2
GLOBAL	arg3
GLOBAL	arg4
GLOBAL	arg5
GLOBAL	arg6
GLOBAL	arg7


;
; This routine takes the first 7 args on the stack
; and places them contiguously at the "args" ram area.
; This allows a library routine to make one call to arghak
; and henceforth have all it's args available directly
; through ld hl,() instead of having to hack the stack as it
; grows and shrinks. Note that arghak should be called as the
; VERY FIRST THING a function does, before even pushing BC.
;

arghak:	LD	DE,args	;destination for block move in DE
	LD	HL,4	;pass over two return address
	ADD	HL,sp	;source for block move in HL
	PUSH	BC	;save BC
	LD 	b,14	;countdown in B
arghk2:	LD 	a,(HL)	;copy loop
	LD	(DE),A
	INC	HL
	INC	DE
	DEC	b
	JP	NZ,arghk2	
	pop	BC	;restore BC
	ret

args:
arg1:
	defw	0
arg2:
	defw	0
arg3:
	defw	0
arg4:
	defw	0
arg5:
	defw	0
arg6:
	defw	0
arg7:
	defw	0
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