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👮 Validate data against a JSON schema
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README.pod

package JSON::Validator; use Mojo::Base -base; use B; use Carp 'confess'; use Exporter 'import'; use JSON::Validator::Error; use JSON::Validator::Ref; use JSON::Validator::Joi; use Mojo::File 'path'; use Mojo::JSON::Pointer; use Mojo::JSON; use Mojo::Loader; use Mojo::URL; use Mojo::Util qw(url_unescape sha1_sum); use Scalar::Util qw(blessed refaddr looks_like_number); use Time::Local (); use constant CASE_TOLERANT => File::Spec->case_tolerant; use constant COLORS => eval { require Term::ANSIColor }; use constant DEBUG => $ENV{JSON_VALIDATOR_DEBUG} || 0; use constant REPORT => $ENV{JSON_VALIDATOR_REPORT} // DEBUG >= 2; use constant RECURSION_LIMIT => $ENV{JSON_VALIDATOR_RECURSION_LIMIT} || 100; use constant SPECIFICATION_URL => 'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#'; use constant VALIDATE_HOSTNAME => eval 'require Data::Validate::Domain;1'; use constant VALIDATE_IP => eval 'require Data::Validate::IP;1'; our $ERR; # ugly hack to improve validation errors our $VERSION = '2.18'; our @EXPORT_OK = qw(joi validate_json); my $BUNDLED_CACHE_DIR = path(path(__FILE__)->dirname, qw(Validator cache)); my $HTTP_SCHEME_RE = qr{^https?:}; sub D { Data::Dumper->new([@_])->Sortkeys(1)->Indent(0)->Maxdepth(2)->Pair(':')->Useqq(1)->Terse(1)->Dump; } sub E { JSON::Validator::Error->new(@_) } sub S { Mojo::Util::md5_sum(Data::Dumper->new([@_])->Sortkeys(1)->Useqq(1)->Dump) } has cache_paths => sub { [split(/:/, $ENV{JSON_VALIDATOR_CACHE_PATH} || ''), $BUNDLED_CACHE_DIR] }; has formats => sub { shift->_build_formats }; has version => 4; has ua => sub { require Mojo::UserAgent; my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent->new; $ua->proxy->detect; $ua->max_redirects(3); $ua; }; sub bundle { my ($self, $args) = @_; my @topics = ([undef, my $bundle = {}]); my ($cloner, $tied); $topics[0][0] = $args->{schema} ? $self->_resolve($args->{schema}) : $self->schema->data; if ($args->{replace}) { $cloner = sub { my $from = shift; my $ref = ref $from; $from = $tied->schema if $ref eq 'HASH' and $tied = tied %$from; my $to = $ref eq 'ARRAY' ? [] : $ref eq 'HASH' ? {} : $from; push @topics, [$from, $to] if $ref; return $to; }; } else { my $ref_key = $args->{ref_key} || 'x-bundled'; $bundle->{$ref_key} = $topics[0][0]{$ref_key} || {}; $cloner = sub { my $from = shift; my $ref = ref $from; if ($ref eq 'HASH' and my $tied = tied %$from) { my $ref_name = $tied->fqn; return $from if $ref_name =~ m!^\Q$self->{root_schema_url}\E\#!; if (-e $ref_name) { $ref_name = sprintf '%s-%s', substr(sha1_sum($ref_name), 0, 10), path($ref_name)->basename; } else { $ref_name =~ s![^\w-]!_!g; } push @topics, [$tied->schema, $bundle->{$ref_key}{$ref_name} = {}]; tie my %ref, 'JSON::Validator::Ref', $tied->schema, "#/$ref_key/$ref_name"; return \%ref; } my $to = $ref eq 'ARRAY' ? [] : $ref eq 'HASH' ? {} : $from; push @topics, [$from, $to] if $ref; return $to; }; } while (@topics) { my ($from, $to) = @{shift @topics}; if (ref $from eq 'ARRAY') { for (my $i = 0; $i < @$from; $i++) { $to->[$i] = $cloner->($from->[$i]); } } elsif (ref $from eq 'HASH') { while (my ($key, $value) = each %$from) { $to->{$key} //= $cloner->($from->{$key}); } } } return $bundle; } sub coerce { my $self = shift; return $self->{coerce} ||= {} unless @_; $self->{coerce} = $_[0] eq '1' ? {booleans => 1, numbers => 1, strings => 1} : ref $_[0] ? {%{$_[0]}} : {@_}; $self; } sub get { my ($self, $pointer) = @_; $pointer = [ref $pointer ? @$pointer : length $pointer ? split('/', $pointer, -1) : $pointer]; shift @$pointer if @$pointer and defined $pointer->[0] and !length $pointer->[0]; $self->_get($self->schema->data, $pointer, ''); } sub _get { my ($self, $data, $path, $pos, $cb) = @_; my $tied; while (@$path) { my $p = shift @$path; unless (defined $p) { my $i = 0; return Mojo::Collection->new(map { $self->_get($_->[0], [@$path], _path($pos, $_->[1]), $cb) } ref $data eq 'ARRAY' ? map { [$_, $i++] } @$data : ref $data eq 'HASH' ? map { [$data->{$_}, $_] } sort keys %$data : [$data, '']); } $p =~ s!~1!/!g; $p =~ s/~0/~/g; $pos = _path($pos, $p) if $cb; if (ref $data eq 'HASH' and exists $data->{$p}) { $data = $data->{$p}; } elsif (ref $data eq 'ARRAY' and $p =~ /^\d+$/ and @$data > $p) { $data = $data->[$p]; } else { return undef; } $data = $tied->schema if ref $data eq 'HASH' and $tied = tied %$data; } return $cb->($data, $pos) if $cb; return $data; } sub joi { return JSON::Validator::Joi->new unless @_; my ($data, $joi) = @_; return $joi->validate($data, $joi); } sub load_and_validate_schema { my ($self, $spec, $args) = @_; my $schema = $args->{schema} || SPECIFICATION_URL; $self->version($1) if !$self->{version} and $schema =~ /draft-0+(\w+)/; $spec = $self->_resolve($spec); my @errors = $self->new(%$self)->schema($schema)->validate($spec); confess join "\n", "Invalid JSON specification $spec:", map {"- $_"} @errors if @errors; $self->{schema} = Mojo::JSON::Pointer->new($spec); $self; } sub schema { my $self = shift; return $self->{schema} unless @_; $self->{schema} = Mojo::JSON::Pointer->new($self->_resolve(shift)); return $self; } sub singleton { state $validator = shift->new } sub validate { my ($self, $data, $schema) = @_; $schema ||= $self->schema->data; return E '/', 'No validation rules defined.' unless $schema and %$schema; local $self->{grouped} = 0; local $self->{schema} = Mojo::JSON::Pointer->new($schema); local $self->{seen} = {}; $self->{report} = []; my @errors = $self->_validate($data, '', $schema); $self->_report if DEBUG and REPORT; return @errors; } sub validate_json { __PACKAGE__->singleton->schema($_[1])->validate($_[0]); } sub _build_formats { return { 'date-time' => \&_is_date_time, 'email' => \&_is_email, 'hostname' => VALIDATE_HOSTNAME ? \&Data::Validate::Domain::is_domain : \&_is_domain, 'ipv4' => VALIDATE_IP ? \&Data::Validate::IP::is_ipv4 : \&_is_ipv4, 'ipv6' => VALIDATE_IP ? \&Data::Validate::IP::is_ipv6 : \&_is_ipv6, 'regex' => \&_is_regex, 'uri' => \&_is_uri, 'uri-reference' => \&_is_uri_reference, }; } sub _id_key { $_[0]->version < 7 ? 'id' : '$id' } sub _load_schema { my ($self, $url) = @_; if ($url =~ m!^https?://!) { warn "[JSON::Validator] Loading schema from URL $url\n" if DEBUG; return $self->_load_schema_from_url(Mojo::URL->new($url)->fragment(undef)), "$url"; } if ($url =~ m!^data://([^/]*)/(.*)!) { my ($file, @modules) = ($2, ($1)); @modules = _stack() unless $modules[0]; for my $module (@modules) { warn "[JSON::Validator] Looking for $file in $module\n" if DEBUG; my $text = Mojo::Loader::data_section($module, $file); return $self->_load_schema_from_text(\$text), "$url" if $text; } confess "$file could not be found in __DATA__ section of @modules."; } if ($url =~ m!^\s*[\[\{]!) { warn "[JSON::Validator] Loading schema from string.\n" if DEBUG; return $self->_load_schema_from_text(\$url), ''; } my $file = $url; $file =~ s!#$!!; $file = path(split '/', $file); if (-e $file) { $file = $file->realpath; warn "[JSON::Validator] Loading schema from file: $file\n" if DEBUG; return $self->_load_schema_from_text(\$file->slurp), CASE_TOLERANT ? path(lc $file) : $file; } elsif ($url =~ m!^/! and $self->ua->server->app) { warn "[JSON::Validator] Loading schema from URL $url\n" if DEBUG; return $self->_load_schema_from_url(Mojo::URL->new($url)->fragment(undef)), "$url"; } confess "Unable to load schema '$url' ($file)"; } sub _load_schema_from_text { my ($self, $text) = @_; my $visit; # JSON return Mojo::JSON::decode_json($$text) if $$text =~ /^\s*\{/s; # YAML $visit = sub { my $v = shift; $visit->($_) for grep { ref $_ eq 'HASH' } values %$v; return $v unless $v->{type} and $v->{type} eq 'boolean' and exists $v->{default}; %$v = (%$v, default => $v->{default} ? Mojo::JSON->true : Mojo::JSON->false); return $v; }; local $YAML::Syck::ImplicitTyping = 1; # Not in use local $YAML::XS::Boolean = 'JSON::PP'; return $visit->($self->_yaml_module->can('Load')->($$text)); } sub _load_schema_from_url { my ($self, $url) = @_; my $cache_path = $self->cache_paths->[0]; my $cache_file = Mojo::Util::md5_sum("$url"); my ($err, $tx); for (@{$self->cache_paths}) { my $path = path $_, $cache_file; warn "[JSON::Validator] Looking for cached spec $path ($url)\n" if DEBUG; next unless -r $path; return $self->_load_schema_from_text(\$path->slurp); } $tx = $self->ua->get($url); $err = $tx->error && $tx->error->{message}; confess "GET $url == $err" if DEBUG and $err; die "[JSON::Validator] GET $url == $err" if $err; if ( $cache_path and ($cache_path ne $BUNDLED_CACHE_DIR or $ENV{JSON_VALIDATOR_CACHE_ANYWAYS}) and -w $cache_path) { $cache_file = path $cache_path, $cache_file; warn "[JSON::Validator] Caching $url to $cache_file\n" unless $ENV{HARNESS_ACTIVE}; $cache_file->spurt($tx->res->body); } return $self->_load_schema_from_text(\$tx->res->body); } sub _ref_to_schema { my ($self, $schema) = @_; my @guard; while (my $tied = tied %$schema) { push @guard, $tied->ref; confess "Seems like you have a circular reference: @guard" if @guard > RECURSION_LIMIT; $schema = $tied->schema; } return $schema; } sub _register_schema { my ($self, $schema, $fqn) = @_; $fqn =~ s!(.)#$!$1!; $self->{schemas}{$fqn} = $schema; } sub _report { my $table = Mojo::Util::tablify($_[0]->{report}); $table =~ s!^(\W*)(N?OK|<<<)(.*)!{ my ($x, $y, $z) = ($1, $2, $3); my $c = $y eq 'OK' ? 'green' : $y eq '<<<' ? 'blue' : 'magenta'; $c = "$c bold" if $z =~ /\s\w+Of\s/; Term::ANSIColor::colored([$c], "$x$y$z") }!gme if COLORS; warn "---\n$table"; } sub _report_errors { my ($self, $path, $type, $errors) = @_; push @{$self->{report}}, [ ((' ') x $self->{grouped}) . (@$errors ? 'NOK' : 'OK'), $path || '/', $type, join "\n", @$errors ]; } sub _report_schema { my ($self, $path, $type, $schema) = @_; push @{$self->{report}}, [((' ') x $self->{grouped}) . ('<<<'), $path || '/', $type, D $schema]; } # _resolve() method is used to convert all "id" into absolute URLs and # resolve all the $ref's that we find inside JSON Schema specification. sub _resolve { my ($self, $schema) = @_; my $id_key = $self->_id_key; my ($id, $resolved, @refs); local $self->{level} = $self->{level} || 0; delete $_[0]->{schemas}{''} unless $self->{level}; if (ref $schema eq 'HASH') { $id = $schema->{$id_key} // ''; return $resolved if $resolved = $self->{schemas}{$id}; } elsif ($resolved = $self->{schemas}{$schema // ''}) { return $resolved; } else { ($schema, $id) = $self->_load_schema($schema); $id = $schema->{$id_key} if $schema->{$id_key}; } unless ($self->{level}) { my $rid = $schema->{$id_key} // $id; if ($rid) { confess "Root schema cannot have a fragment in the 'id'. ($rid)" if $rid =~ /\#./; confess "Root schema cannot have a relative 'id'. ($rid)" unless $rid =~ /^\w+:/ or -e $rid or $rid =~ m!^/!; } warn sprintf "[JSON::Validator] Using root_schema_url of '$rid'\n" if DEBUG; $self->{root_schema_url} = $rid; } $self->{level}++; $self->_register_schema($schema, $id); my @topics = ([$schema, UNIVERSAL::isa($id, 'Mojo::File') ? $id : Mojo::URL->new($id)]); while (@topics) { my ($topic, $base) = @{shift @topics}; if (UNIVERSAL::isa($topic, 'ARRAY')) { push @topics, map { [$_, $base] } @$topic; } elsif (UNIVERSAL::isa($topic, 'HASH')) { push @refs, [$topic, $base] and next if $topic->{'$ref'} and !ref $topic->{'$ref'}; if ($topic->{$id_key} and !ref $topic->{$id_key}) { my $fqn = Mojo::URL->new($topic->{$id_key}); $fqn = $fqn->to_abs($base) unless $fqn->is_abs; $self->_register_schema($topic, $fqn->to_string); } push @topics, map { [$_, $base] } values %$topic; } } # Need to register "id":"..." before resolving "$ref":"..." $self->_resolve_ref(@$_) for @refs; return $schema; } sub _location_to_abs { my ($location, $base) = @_; my $location_as_url = Mojo::URL->new($location); return $location_as_url if $location_as_url->is_abs; # definitely relative now if ($base->isa('Mojo::File')) { return $base if !length $location; return $base->sibling(split '/', $location)->realpath; } return $location_as_url->to_abs($base); } sub _resolve_ref { my ($self, $topic, $url) = @_; return if tied %$topic; my $other = $topic; my ($location, $fqn, $pointer, $ref, @guard); while (1) { $ref = $other->{'$ref'}; push @guard, $other->{'$ref'}; confess "Seems like you have a circular reference: @guard" if @guard > RECURSION_LIMIT; last if !$ref or ref $ref; $fqn = $ref =~ m!^/! ? "#$ref" : $ref; ($location, $pointer) = split /#/, $fqn, 2; $url = $location = _location_to_abs($location, $url); $pointer = undef if length $location and !length $pointer; $pointer = url_unescape $pointer if defined $pointer; $fqn = join '#', grep defined, $location, $pointer; $other = $self->_resolve($location); if (defined $pointer and length $pointer) { $other = Mojo::JSON::Pointer->new($other)->get($pointer) or confess qq[Possibly a typo in schema? Could not find "$pointer" in "$location" ($ref)]; } } tie %$topic, 'JSON::Validator::Ref', $other, $topic->{'$ref'}, $fqn; } sub _stack { my @classes; my $i = 2; while (my $pkg = caller($i++)) { no strict 'refs'; push @classes, grep { !/(^JSON::Validator$|^Mojo::Base$|^Mojolicious$|\w+::_Dynamic)/ } $pkg, @{"$pkg\::ISA"}; } return @classes; } sub _validate { my ($self, $data, $path, $schema) = @_; my ($seen_addr, $type, @errors); $schema = $self->_ref_to_schema($schema) if $schema->{'$ref'}; $seen_addr = refaddr $schema; $seen_addr .= ':' . (ref $data ? refaddr $data : "s:$data") if defined $data; # Avoid recursion if ($self->{seen}{$seen_addr}) { $self->_report_schema($path || '/', 'seen', $schema) if REPORT; return @{$self->{seen}{$seen_addr}}; } $self->{seen}{$seen_addr} = \@errors; # Make sure we validate plain data and not a perl object $data = $data->TO_JSON if blessed $data and UNIVERSAL::can($data, 'TO_JSON'); $type = $schema->{type} || _guess_schema_type($schema, $data); # Test base schema before allOf, anyOf or oneOf if (ref $type eq 'ARRAY') { push @errors, $self->_validate_any_of($data, $path, [map { +{%$schema, type => $_} } @$type]); } elsif ($type) { my $method = sprintf '_validate_type_%s', $type; $self->_report_schema($path || '/', $type, $schema); @errors = $self->$method($data, $path, $schema); $self->_report_errors($path, $type, \@errors) if REPORT; return @errors if @errors; } if ($schema->{enum}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_type_enum($data, $path, $schema); $self->_report_errors($path, 'enum', \@errors) if REPORT; return @errors if @errors; } if (my $rules = $schema->{not}) { push @errors, $self->_validate($data, $path, $rules); $self->_report_errors($path, 'not', \@errors) if REPORT; return @errors ? () : (E $path, 'Should not match.'); } if (my $rules = $schema->{allOf}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_all_of($data, $path, $rules); } elsif ($rules = $schema->{anyOf}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_any_of($data, $path, $rules); } elsif ($rules = $schema->{oneOf}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_one_of($data, $path, $rules); } return @errors; } sub _validate_all_of { my ($self, $data, $path, $rules) = @_; my $type = _guess_data_type($data); my (@errors, @expected); $self->_report_schema($path, 'allOf', $rules) if REPORT; $self->{grouped}++; my $i = 0; for my $rule (@$rules) { my @e = $self->_validate($data, $path, $rule) or next; my $schema_type = _guess_schema_type($rule); push @errors, [$i, @e] and next if !$schema_type or $schema_type eq $type; push @expected, $schema_type; } continue { $i++; } $self->{grouped}--; $self->_report_errors($path, 'allOf', \@errors) if REPORT; my $expected = join ' or ', _uniq(@expected); return E $path, "/allOf Expected $expected, not $type." if $expected and @errors + @expected == @$rules; return _add_path_to_error_messages(allOf => @errors) if @errors; return; } sub _validate_any_of { my ($self, $data, $path, $rules) = @_; my $type = _guess_data_type($data); my (@e, @errors, @expected); $self->_report_schema($path, 'anyOf', $rules) if REPORT; $self->{grouped}++; my $i = 0; for my $rule (@$rules) { @e = $self->_validate($data, $path, $rule); if (!@e) { $self->_report_errors($path, 'anyOf', \@errors) if REPORT; return; } my $schema_type = _guess_schema_type($rule); push @errors, [$i, @e] and next if !$schema_type or $schema_type eq $type; push @expected, $schema_type; } continue { $i++; } $self->{grouped}--; $self->_report_errors($path, 'anyOf', \@errors) if REPORT; my $expected = join ' or ', _uniq(@expected); return E $path, "/anyOf Expected $expected, got $type." unless @errors; return _add_path_to_error_messages(anyOf => @errors); } sub _validate_one_of { my ($self, $data, $path, $rules) = @_; my $type = _guess_data_type($data); my (@errors, @expected); $self->_report_schema($path, 'oneOf', $rules) if REPORT; $self->{grouped}++; my $i = 0; for my $rule (@$rules) { my @e = $self->_validate($data, $path, $rule) or next; my $schema_type = _guess_schema_type($rule); push @errors, [$i, @e] and next if !$schema_type or $schema_type eq $type; push @expected, $schema_type; } continue { $i++; } $self->{grouped}--; if (REPORT) { my @e = @errors + @expected + 1 == @$rules ? () : @errors ? @errors : 'All of the oneOf rules match.'; $self->_report_errors($path, 'oneOf', \@e); } return if @errors + @expected + 1 == @$rules; my $expected = join ' or ', _uniq(@expected); return E $path, "All of the oneOf rules match." unless @errors + @expected; return E $path, "/oneOf Expected $expected, got $type." unless @errors; return _add_path_to_error_messages(oneOf => @errors); } sub _validate_type_enum { my ($self, $data, $path, $schema) = @_; my $enum = $schema->{enum}; my $m = S $data; for my $i (@$enum) { return if $m eq S $i; } local $" = ', '; return E $path, sprintf 'Not in enum list: %s.', join ', ', map { (!defined or ref) ? Mojo::JSON::encode_json($_) : $_ } @$enum; } sub _validate_type_const { my ($self, $data, $path, $schema) = @_; my $const = $schema->{const}; my $m = S $data; return if $m eq S $const; return E $path, sprintf 'Does not match const: %s.', Mojo::JSON::encode_json($const); } sub _validate_format { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema) = @_; my $code = $self->formats->{$schema->{format}}; local $ERR; return if $code and $code->($value); return do { warn "Format rule for '$schema->{format}' is missing"; return } unless $code; return E $path, $ERR || "Does not match $schema->{format} format."; } sub _validate_type_any { } sub _validate_type_array { my ($self, $data, $path, $schema) = @_; my @errors; if (ref $data ne 'ARRAY') { return E $path, _expected(array => $data); } if (defined $schema->{minItems} and $schema->{minItems} > @$data) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf 'Not enough items: %s/%s.', int @$data, $schema->{minItems}; } if (defined $schema->{maxItems} and $schema->{maxItems} < @$data) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf 'Too many items: %s/%s.', int @$data, $schema->{maxItems}; } if ($schema->{uniqueItems}) { my %uniq; for (@$data) { next if !$uniq{S($_)}++; push @errors, E $path, 'Unique items required.'; last; } } if (ref $schema->{items} eq 'ARRAY') { my $additional_items = $schema->{additionalItems} // {type => 'any'}; my @v = @{$schema->{items}}; if ($additional_items) { push @v, $additional_items while @v < @$data; } if (@v == @$data) { for my $i (0 .. @v - 1) { push @errors, $self->_validate($data->[$i], "$path/$i", $v[$i]); } } elsif (!$additional_items) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf "Invalid number of items: %s/%s.", int(@$data), int(@v); } } elsif (UNIVERSAL::isa($schema->{items}, 'HASH')) { for my $i (0 .. @$data - 1) { push @errors, $self->_validate($data->[$i], "$path/$i", $schema->{items}); } } return @errors; } sub _validate_type_boolean { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema) = @_; return if _is_blessed_boolean($value); if ( defined $value and $self->{coerce}{booleans} and (B::svref_2object(\$value)->FLAGS & (B::SVp_IOK | B::SVp_NOK) or $value =~ /^(true|false)$/)) { $_[1] = $value ? Mojo::JSON->true : Mojo::JSON->false; return; } return E $path, _expected(boolean => $value); } sub _validate_type_integer { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema) = @_; my @errors = $self->_validate_type_number($value, $path, $schema, 'integer'); return @errors if @errors; return if $value =~ /^-?\d+$/; return E $path, "Expected integer - got number."; } sub _validate_type_null { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema) = @_; return E $path, 'Not null.' if defined $value; return; } sub _validate_type_number { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema, $expected) = @_; my @errors; $expected ||= 'number'; if (!defined $value or ref $value) { return E $path, _expected($expected => $value); } unless (B::svref_2object(\$value)->FLAGS & (B::SVp_IOK | B::SVp_NOK) and 0 + $value eq $value and $value * 0 == 0) { return E $path, "Expected $expected - got string." if !$self->{coerce}{numbers} or !looks_like_number($value); $_[1] = 0 + $value; # coerce input value } if ($schema->{format}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_format($value, $path, $schema); } if (my $e = _cmp($schema->{minimum}, $value, $schema->{exclusiveMinimum}, '<')) { push @errors, E $path, "$value $e minimum($schema->{minimum})"; } if (my $e = _cmp($value, $schema->{maximum}, $schema->{exclusiveMaximum}, '>')) { push @errors, E $path, "$value $e maximum($schema->{maximum})"; } if (my $d = $schema->{multipleOf}) { if (($value / $d) =~ /\.[^0]+$/) { push @errors, E $path, "Not multiple of $d."; } } return @errors; } sub _validate_type_object { my ($self, $data, $path, $schema) = @_; my %required = map { ($_ => 1) } @{$schema->{required} || []}; my ($additional, @errors, %rules); if (ref $data ne 'HASH') { return E $path, _expected(object => $data); } my @dkeys = sort keys %$data; if (defined $schema->{maxProperties} and $schema->{maxProperties} < @dkeys) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf 'Too many properties: %s/%s.', int @dkeys, $schema->{maxProperties}; } if (defined $schema->{minProperties} and $schema->{minProperties} > @dkeys) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf 'Not enough properties: %s/%s.', int @dkeys, $schema->{minProperties}; } while (my ($k, $r) = each %{$schema->{properties}}) { push @{$rules{$k}}, $r; } while (my ($p, $r) = each %{$schema->{patternProperties} || {}}) { push @{$rules{$_}}, $r for sort grep { $_ =~ /$p/ } @dkeys; } $additional = exists $schema->{additionalProperties} ? $schema->{additionalProperties} : {}; if ($additional) { $additional = {} unless UNIVERSAL::isa($additional, 'HASH'); $rules{$_} ||= [$additional] for @dkeys; } elsif (my @k = grep { !$rules{$_} } @dkeys) { local $" = ', '; return E $path, "Properties not allowed: @k."; } for my $k (sort keys %required) { next if exists $data->{$k}; push @errors, E _path($path, $k), 'Missing property.'; delete $rules{$k}; } for my $k (sort keys %rules) { for my $r (@{$rules{$k}}) { next unless exists $data->{$k}; my @e = $self->_validate($data->{$k}, _path($path, $k), $r); push @errors, @e; push @errors, $self->_validate_type_enum($data->{$k}, _path($path, $k), $r) if $r->{enum} and !@e; push @errors, $self->_validate_type_const($data->{$k}, _path($path, $k), $r) if $r->{const} and !@e; } } return @errors; } sub _validate_type_string { my ($self, $value, $path, $schema) = @_; my @errors; if (!defined $value or ref $value) { return E $path, _expected(string => $value); } if ( B::svref_2object(\$value)->FLAGS & (B::SVp_IOK | B::SVp_NOK) and 0 + $value eq $value and $value * 0 == 0) { return E $path, "Expected string - got number." unless $self->{coerce}{strings}; $_[1] = "$value"; # coerce input value } if ($schema->{format}) { push @errors, $self->_validate_format($value, $path, $schema); } if (defined $schema->{maxLength}) { if (length($value) > $schema->{maxLength}) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf "String is too long: %s/%s.", length($value), $schema->{maxLength}; } } if (defined $schema->{minLength}) { if (length($value) < $schema->{minLength}) { push @errors, E $path, sprintf "String is too short: %s/%s.", length($value), $schema->{minLength}; } } if (defined $schema->{pattern}) { my $p = $schema->{pattern}; unless ($value =~ /$p/) { push @errors, E $path, "String does not match '$p'"; } } return @errors; } # FUNCTIONS ================================================================== sub _add_path_to_error_messages { my ($type, @errors_with_index) = @_; my @errors; for my $e (@errors_with_index) { my $index = shift @$e; push @errors, map { my $msg = sprintf '/%s/%s %s', $type, $index, $_->{message}; $msg =~ s!(\d+)\s/!$1/!g; E $_->path, $msg; } @$e; } return @errors; } sub _cmp { return undef if !defined $_[0] or !defined $_[1]; return "$_[3]=" if $_[2] and $_[0] >= $_[1]; return $_[3] if $_[0] > $_[1]; return ""; } sub _expected { my $type = _guess_data_type($_[1]); return "Expected $_[0] - got different $type." if $_[0] =~ /\b$type\b/; return "Expected $_[0] - got $type."; } sub _guess_data_type { local $_ = $_[0]; my $ref = ref; my $blessed = blessed $_; return 'object' if $ref eq 'HASH'; return lc $ref if $ref and !$blessed; return 'null' if !defined; return 'boolean' if $blessed and ("$_" eq "1" or !"$_"); return 'number' if B::svref_2object(\$_)->FLAGS & (B::SVp_IOK | B::SVp_NOK) and 0 + $_ eq $_ and $_ * 0 == 0; return $blessed || 'string'; } sub _guess_schema_type { return $_[0]->{type} if $_[0]->{type}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'object') if $_[0]->{additionalProperties}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'object') if $_[0]->{patternProperties}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'object') if $_[0]->{properties}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'object') if $_[0]->{required}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'object') if defined $_[0]->{maxProperties} or defined $_[0]->{minProperties}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'array') if $_[0]->{additionalItems}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'array') if $_[0]->{items}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'array') if $_[0]->{uniqueItems}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'array') if defined $_[0]->{maxItems} or defined $_[0]->{minItems}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'string') if $_[0]->{pattern}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'string') if defined $_[0]->{maxLength} or defined $_[0]->{minLength}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'number') if $_[0]->{multipleOf}; return _guessed_right($_[1], 'number') if defined $_[0]->{maximum} or defined $_[0]->{minimum}; return 'const' if $_[0]->{const}; return undef; } sub _guessed_right { return $_[1] unless defined $_[0]; return _guess_data_type($_[0]) eq $_[1] ? $_[1] : undef; } sub _invalid { $ERR = $_[0]; warn sprintf "[JSON::Validator] Failed validation: $_[0]\n" if DEBUG; return 0; } sub _is_date_time { my @time = $_[0] =~ m!^(\d{4})-(\d\d)-(\d\d)[T ](\d\d):(\d\d):(\d\d(?:\.\d+)?)(?:Z|([+-])(\d+):(\d+))?$!io; return 0 unless @time; @time = map { s/^0//; $_ } reverse @time[0 .. 5]; $time[4] -= 1; # month are zero based local $@; return 1 if eval { Time::Local::timegm(@time); 1 }; $JSON::Validator::ERR = (split / at /, $@)[0]; $JSON::Validator::ERR =~ s!('-?\d+'\s|\s[\d\.]+)!!g; $JSON::Validator::ERR .= '.'; return 0; } sub _is_domain { warn "Data::Validate::Domain is not installed"; return; } sub _is_email { state $email_rfc5322_re = do { my $atom = qr;[a-zA-Z0-9_!#\$\%&'*+/=?\^`{}~|\-]+;o; my $quoted_string = qr/"(?:\\[^\r\n]|[^\\"])*"/o; my $domain_literal = qr/\[(?:\\[\x01-\x09\x0B-\x0c\x0e-\x7f]|[\x21-\x5a\x5e-\x7e])*\]/o; my $dot_atom = qr/$atom(?:[.]$atom)*/o; my $local_part = qr/(?:$dot_atom|$quoted_string)/o; my $domain = qr/(?:$dot_atom|$domain_literal)/o; qr/$local_part\@$domain/o; }; return $_[0] =~ $email_rfc5322_re; } sub _is_ipv4 { my (@octets) = $_[0] =~ /^(\d{1,3})\.(\d{1,3})\.(\d{1,3})\.(\d{1,3})$/; return 4 == grep { $_ >= 0 && $_ <= 255 && $_ !~ /^0\d{1,2}$/ } @octets; } sub _is_ipv6 { warn "Data::Validate::IP is not installed"; return; } sub _is_blessed_boolean { return 0 if !blessed $_[0]; return 1 if UNIVERSAL::isa($_[0], 'JSON::PP::Boolean') or "$_[0]" eq "1" or !$_[0]; return 0; } sub _is_regex { eval {qr{$_[0]}}; } sub _is_uri { return unless defined $_[0]; return unless $_[0] =~ m!^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?!; my ($scheme, $auth_host, $path, $query, $fragment) = map { $_ // '' } ($2, $4, $5, $7, $9); return _invalid('Scheme missing from URI.') if length $auth_host and !length $scheme; return _invalid('Scheme, path or fragment are required.') unless length($scheme) + length($path) + length($fragment); return _invalid('Scheme must begin with a letter.') if length $scheme and lc($scheme) !~ m!^[a-z][a-z0-9\+\-\.]*$!; return _invalid('Invalid hex escape.') if $_[0] =~ /%[^0-9a-f]/i; return _invalid('Hex escapes are not complete.') if $_[0] =~ /%[0-9a-f](:?[^0-9a-f]|$)/i; if (defined $auth_host and length $auth_host) { return _invalid('Path cannot be empty or begin with a /') unless !length $path or $path =~ m!^/!; } else { return _invalid('Path cannot not start with //.') if $path =~ m!^//!; } return 1; } sub _is_uri_reference { return unless defined $_[0]; return unless $_[0] =~ m!^(([^:/?#]+):)?(//([^/?#]*))?([^?#]*)(\?([^#]*))?(#(.*))?!; my ($scheme, $auth_host, $path, $query, $fragment) = map { $_ // '' } ($2, $4, $5, $7, $9); return _invalid('Path cannot not start with //.') if $path =~ m!^//!; return 1 if length $path; return _is_uri($_[0]); return 1; } sub _path { local $_ = $_[1]; s!~!~0!g; s!/!~1!g; "$_[0]/$_"; } sub _uniq { my %uniq; grep { !$uniq{$_}++ } @_; } # Please report if you need to manually monkey patch this function # https://github.com/jhthorsen/json-validator/issues sub _yaml_module { state $yaml_module = eval qq[use YAML::XS 0.67; "YAML::XS"] || die "[JSON::Validator] The optional YAML::XS module is missing or could not be loaded: $@"; } 1; =encoding utf8 =head1 NAME JSON::Validator - Validate data against a JSON schema =head1 VERSION 2.18 =head1 SYNOPSIS use JSON::Validator; my $validator = JSON::Validator->new; # Define a schema - http://json-schema.org/examples.html # You can also load schema from disk or web $validator->schema( { type => "object", required => ["firstName", "lastName"], properties => { firstName => {type => "string"}, lastName => {type => "string"}, age => {type => "integer", minimum => 0, description => "Age in years"} } } ); # Validate your data @errors = $validator->validate({firstName => "Jan Henning", lastName => "Thorsen", age => -42}); # Do something if any errors was found die "@errors" if @errors; =head1 DESCRIPTION L is a class for validating data against JSON schemas. You might want to use this instead of L if you need to validate data against L of the specification. This module can be used standalone, but if you want to define a specification for your webserver's API, then have a look at L, which will replace L. =head2 Supported schema formats L can load JSON schemas in multiple formats: Plain perl data structured (as shown in L), JSON or YAML. The JSON parsing is done with L, while YAML files require the optional module L to be installed. IMPORTANT! L is not supported in L 2.00. Only L is supported, since it has proper boolean handling. Look for C<$YAML::XS::Boolean> in the documentation to see what is recognized as booleans. =head2 Resources Here are some resources that are related to JSON schemas and validation: =over 4 =item * L =item * L =item * L =item * L =back =head2 Bundled specifications This module comes with some JSON specifications bundled, so your application don't have to fetch those from the web. These specifications should be up to date, but please submit an issue if they are not. Files referenced to an URL will automatically be cached if the first element in L is a writable directory. Note that the cache headers for the remote assets are B honored, so you will manually need to remove any cached file, should you need to refresh them. To download and cache an online asset, do this: JSON_VALIDATOR_CACHE_PATH=/some/writable/directory perl myapp.pl Here is the list of the bundled specifications: =over 2 =item * JSON schema, draft 4, 6, 7 Web page: L C<$ref>: L, L, L. =item * JSON schema for JSONPatch files Web page: L C<$ref>: L =item * Swagger / OpenAPI specification, version 2 Web page: L C<$ref>: L =item * Custom error document There is a custom schema used by L as a default error document. This document might be extended later, but it will always be backward compatible. Specification: L C<$ref>: L. =item * Swagger Petstore This is used for unit tests, and should probably not be relied on by external users. =back =head1 ERROR OBJECT =head2 Overview The method L and the function L returns error objects when the input data violates the L. Each of the objects looks like this: bless { message => "Some description", path => "/json/path/to/node", }, "JSON::Validator::Error" See also L. =head2 Operators The error object overloads the following operators: =over 4 =item * bool Returns a true value. =item * string Returns the "path" and "message" part as a string: "$path: $message". =back =head2 Special cases Have a look at the L for documented examples of the error cases. Especially look at C, C and C. The special cases for "allOf", "anyOf" and "oneOf" will contain the error messages from all the failing rules below. It can be a bit hard to read, so if the error message is long, then you might want to run a smaller test with C. Example error object: bless { message => "(String is too long: 8/5. String is too short: 8/12)", path => "/json/path/to/node", }, "JSON::Validator::Error" Note that these error messages are subject for change. Any suggestions are most welcome! =head1 FUNCTIONS =head2 joi use JSON::Validator "joi"; my $joi = joi; my @errors = joi($data, $joi); # same as $joi->validate($data); Used to construct a new L object or perform validation. Note that this function iS EXPERIMENTAL. See L for more details. =head2 validate_json use JSON::Validator "validate_json"; @errors = validate_json $data, $schema; This can be useful in web applications: @errors = validate_json $c->req->json, "data://main/spec.json"; See also L and L for more details. =head1 ATTRIBUTES =head2 cache_paths $self = $self->cache_paths(\@paths); $array_ref = $self->cache_paths; A list of directories to where cached specifications are stored. Defaults to C environment variable and the specs that is bundled with this distribution. C can be a list of directories, each separated by ":". See L for more details. =head2 formats $hash_ref = $self->formats; $self = $self->formats(\%hash); Holds a hash-ref, where the keys are supported JSON type "formats", and the values holds a code block which can validate a given format. Note! The modules mentioned below are optional. =over 4 =item * date-time An RFC3339 timestamp in UTC time. This is formatted as "YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss.fffZ". The milliseconds portion (".fff") is optional =item * email Validated against the RFC5322 spec. =item * hostname Will be validated using L if installed. =item * ipv4 Will be validated using L if installed or fall back to a plain IPv4 IP regex. =item * ipv6 Will be validated using L if installed. =item * regex EXPERIMENTAL. Will check if the string is a regex, using C. =item * uri Validated against the RFC3986 spec. =back =head2 ua $ua = $self->ua; $self = $self->ua(Mojo::UserAgent->new); Holds a L object, used by L to load a JSON schema from remote location. Note that the default L will detect proxy settings and have L set to 3. (These settings are EXPERIMENTAL and might change without a warning) =head2 version $int = $self->version; $self = $self->version(7); Used to set the JSON Schema version to use. Will be set automatically when using L, unless already set. Note that this attribute is EXPERIMENTAL and might change without a warning. =head1 METHODS =head2 bundle $schema = $self->bundle(\%args); Used to create a new schema, where the C<$ref> are resolved. C<%args> can have: =over 2 =item * C<{replace => 1}> Used if you want to replace the C<$ref> inline in the schema. This currently does not work if you have circular references. The default is to move all the C<$ref> definitions into the main schema with custom names. Here is an example on how a C<$ref> looks before and after: {"$ref":"../some/place.json#/foo/bar"} => {"$ref":"#/definitions/____some_place_json-_foo_bar"} {"$ref":"http://example.com#/foo/bar"} => {"$ref":"#/definitions/_http___example_com-_foo_bar"} =item * C<{schema => {...}}> Default is to use the value from the L attribute. =back =head2 coerce $self = $self->coerce(booleans => 1, numbers => 1, strings => 1); $self = $self->coerce({booleans => 1, numbers => 1, strings => 1}); $hash = $self->coerce; Set the given type to coerce. Before enabling coercion this module is very strict when it comes to validating types. Example: The string C<"1"> is not the same as the number C<1>, unless you have coercion enabled. Loading a YAML document will enable "booleans" automatically. This feature is experimental, but was added since YAML has no real concept of booleans, such as L or other JSON parsers. The coercion rules are EXPERIMENTAL and will be tighten/loosen if bugs are reported. See L for more details. =head2 get $sub_schema = $self->get("/x/y"); $sub_schema = $self->get(["x", "y"]); Extract value from L identified by the given JSON Pointer. Will at the same time resolve C<$ref> if found. Example: $self->schema({x => {'$ref' => '#/y'}, y => {'type' => 'string'}}); $self->schema->get('/x') == undef $self->schema->get('/x')->{'$ref'} == '#/y' $self->get('/x') == {type => 'string'} This method is EXPERIMENTAL. The argument can also be an array-ref with the different parts of the pointer as each elements. =head2 load_and_validate_schema $self = $self->load_and_validate_schema($schema, \%args); Will load and validate C<$schema> against the OpenAPI specification. C<$schema> can be anything L accepts. The expanded specification will be stored in L on success. See L for the different version of C<$url> that can be accepted. C<%args> can be used to further instruct the validation process: =over 2 =item * schema Defaults to "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema#", but can be any structured that can be used to validate C<$schema>. =back =head2 schema $self = $self->schema($json_or_yaml_string); $self = $self->schema($url); $self = $self->schema(\%schema); $schema = $self->schema; Used to set a schema from either a data structure or a URL. C<$schema> will be a L object when loaded, and C by default. The C<$url> can take many forms, but needs to point to a text file in the JSON or YAML format. =over 4 =item * http://... or https://... A web resource will be fetched using the L, stored in L. =item * data://Some::Module/file.name This version will use L to load "file.name" from the module "Some::Module". It is also EXPERIMENTAL support for omitting C. This will result in searching up the C-tree for the file. =item * /path/to/file An URL (without a recognized scheme) will be loaded from disk. =back =head2 singleton $self = $class->singleton; Returns the L object used by L. =head2 validate @errors = $self->validate($data); @errors = $self->validate($data, $schema); Validates C<$data> against a given JSON L. C<@errors> will contain validation error objects or be an empty list on success. See L for details. C<$schema> is optional, but when specified, it will override schema stored in L. Example: $self->validate({hero => "superwoman"}, {type => "object"}); =head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Copyright (C) 2014-2015, Jan Henning Thorsen This program is free software, you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0. =head1 AUTHOR Jan Henning Thorsen - C Daniel Böhmer - C Ed J - C Kevin Goess - C Martin Renvoize - C =cut
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