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CanHasValidations

can_has_validations provides several additional validations for Rails and ActiveModel.

Validations provided:

  • Array
  • Email
  • Existence
  • Grandparent
  • Hash Keys
  • Hash Values
  • Hostname
  • IP address
  • Ordering
  • URL
  • Write Once

All validators use the newer Rails 3+ syntax:

validates :some_attribute, email: true

(That is, there's not a validates_email_of :some_attribute helper.)

Installation

Add it to your Gemfile:

gem 'can_has_validations'

Array validator

Many database engines allow for arrays of attributes. This validates each member element of those arrays.

It is able to use most existing validators that themselves work on individual attribute values (including standard Rails validators, others that are part of this gem, and likely many from other gems too).

By default, it will stop validation of an array attribute after the first error per validator, regardless of how many elements might fail validation. This both improves performance as well as avoids producing a large number of duplicate error messages. Add multiple_errors: true on :array or any individual sub-validator to instead return all errors (useful if each error message will vary based on the element's value).

validates :tags,
  array: {
    format: /\A[^aeiou]*\z/,
    length: 5..10
  }

validates :permissions,
  array: {
    multiple_errors: true,
    format: /\A[^aeiou]*\z/
  }

Email validator

Ensures an attribute is generally formatted as an email. It uses a basic regex that's designed to match something that looks like an email. It allows for any TLD, so as to not fail as ICANN continues to add TLDs.

validates :user_email, email: true

Existence validator

Rails 4 changed the default behavior of the Presence validator. In Rails 3.x, it always validated presence, even if allow_nil: true or allow_blank: true was set. The Rails 4 Presence validator now acts on allow_nil and allow_blank, which makes it semi-useless.

The Existence validator restores the previous behavior (but with a new name to avoid any potential conflicts).

Mongoid 3 and 4 also exhibit the same behavior as Rails 4, even under Rails 3, so this is useful with Mongoid as well.

validates :name, existence: true

Grandparent validator

Ensures two (or more) associations share a common parent value.

allow_nil: true will not only allow the attribute/association to be nil, but also any of the :scope values.

Consider a model tree like this:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_many :addresses
  has_many :phones
end

class Address < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :user
  has_many :orders
end

class Phone < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :user
  has_many :orders
end

class Order < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :address
  belongs_to :phone
  
  validates :phone, grandparent: {scope: :address, parent: :user}
end

For any Order, this ensures that both :address and :phone belong to the same :user, even though Order doesn't directly have an association to :user.

Basically it starts with the attribute being validated (:phone in this case) and the scoped attributes (just :address in this case, but you can supply an array if needed, eg: scope: [:billing_address, :mailing_address] ).

Then, it looks for the attribute that is the common parent (:user in the above example). So, it's looking for phone.user and address.user.

Finally, it's comparing those values to make sure they match. In this case, if phone.user and address.user match, then the validation passes. If the phone and address belong to different users, then the validation fails.

When the :parent value is an association, you can use the association (:user) or the database foreign key (:user_id). You can also use any other field. The test is merely that they match, not that they are associations.

Hash Keys validator

Many databases now allow storing hashes. This validates the keys of those hashes. It is conceptually the same as using the Array validator to validate hash_attribute.keys.

It is able to use most existing validators that themselves work on individual attribute values (including standard Rails validators, others that are part of this gem, and likely many from other gems too).

By default it reports only one validation error per sub-validator, regardless of how many keys fail validation. Use multiple_errors: true to report all errors. See Array validator for more details.

validates :subjects,
  hash_keys: {
    format: /\A[a-z]+\z/,
    # multiple_errors: true
  }

Hash Values validator

This is the companion to the Hash Keys validator and validates hash values instead. It is conceptually the same as using the Array validator to validate hash_attribute.values.

See Hash Keys validator for more details.

validates :subjects,
  hash_values: {
    length: 3..100,
    # multiple_errors: true
  }

Hostname validator

Ensures an attribute is generally formatted as a hostname. It allows for any TLD, so as to not fail as ICANN continues to add TLDs.

validates :domain, hostname: true

# allows '*.example.com'
validates :domain, hostname: {allow_wildcard: true}

# allows '_abc.example.com'
validates :domain, hostname: {allow_underscore: true}

# allows '4.0/25.3.2.1.example.com'
validates :domain, hostname: {allow_slash: true}

# allows 'a.example.com', but not 'example.com'
validates :domain, hostname: {segments: 3..100}

# allows 'subdomain'
validates :subdomain, hostname: {segments: 1, skip_tld: true}

# allows '1.2.3.4' or 'a.example.com'
validates :domain, hostname: {allow_ip: true}
# use 4 or 6 for ipv4 or ipv6 only

IP address validator

Ensures an attribute is generally formatted as a IP or IP block.

# allows '1.2.3.4' or '::1'
validates :ip, ipaddr: true

# allows '1.2.3.0/24' or '2001:db8::/64'
validates :cidr, ipaddr: {allow_block: true}

# if an ip block, the attribute must be fully contained within an allowed block.
# allows '10.0.0.1' and '10.0.0.0/24', but not '10.0.0.0/15'
validates :private_ip, ipaddr: {
  allow_block: true,
  within: [IPAddr.new('10.0.0.0/16'), '127.0.0.1']
    # allowed IPs and blocks may be IPAddrs or Strings
}

# the inverse of :within
validates :public_ip6, ipaddr: {without: ['fc00::/7']]}

# :within and :without may also be procs or method names
validates :ip, ipaddr: {
  within: :some_method,
  without: ->(record){ ... }
}

Ordering validators

Ensures two attribute values maintain a relative order to one another. This is often useful when two date or range values. Validations can be written using either :before or :after to make them readable. The special value of :now will automatically become Time.now (without needing a lambda).

Always skips over nil values; use :presence to validate those.

# Short versions:
validates :start_at, before: :finish_at
validates :finish_at, after: [:start_at, :alt_start_at]
validates :start_at, presence: true, before: :finish_at
# These two are the same, except `:now` produces a clearer error message:
validates :finish_at, after: :now
validates :finish_at, after: ->(r){ Time.now }

# Long versions, if you need to add extra validation options:
validates :start_at, before: {value_of: :finish_at, message: "..." }
validates :finish_at, after: {values_of: [:start_at, :alt_start_at], if: ... }

URL validator

Ensures an attribute is generally formatted as a URL. If addressable/uri is already loaded, it will be used to parse IDN's. Additionally, allowed schemes can be specified; they default to ['http','https'].

validates :website, url: true
validates :secure_url, url: {scheme: 'https'}

# Dynamic list of schemes. *Must* return an array.
validates :git, url: {scheme: :some_method}
validates :old_school, url: {scheme: ->(record){ %w(ftp gopher) }}

# With IDN parsing:
require 'addressable/uri'
validates :website, url: true

# Or, as part of your Gemfile:
gem 'addressable'
gem 'can_has_validations'

Write Once validator

Ensures that once a value is written, it becomes readonly. There are a few uses for this.

The first is as an equivalent to attr_readonly :user_id except that it also produces a validation error instead of silently ignoring the change as attr_readonly does.

validates :user_id, presence: true, write_once: true

The second use is to allow an attribute to be nil when the record is first created and allow it to be set once at some arbitrary point in the future, but once set, still make it immutable. A WORM (write once, read many) attribute of sorts.

validates :user_id, allow_nil: true, write_once: true

The third use is to allow a nil value, and treat the nil also as write-once.

validates :source, write_once: {immutable_nil: true}

Error messages

Validation error messages are localized and can be added to your locale files. Default messages are as follows:

en:
  errors:
    messages:
      invalid_email: "is an invalid email"
      invalid_hostname: "is an invalid hostname"
      invalid_ip: "is an invalid IP"
      ip_not_allowed: "is not an allowed IP"
      single_ip_required: "must be a single IP"
      invalid_url: "is an invalid URL"
      unchangeable: "cannot be changed"
      before: "must be before %{attribute2}"
      after: "must be after %{attribute2}"

Compatibility

The current version is tested with Ruby 2.5-2.6 and ActiveModel 5.2-6.0.

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Provides several additional validations for Rails and ActiveModel.

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