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Online resources


  • RDF 1.1 Primer: For some standards the W3C provides so called "Primers". This is always what you want to read before you dig deeper into a domain, as it gives a great overview with examples and not just pure formal specification. The RDF Primer provides an up-to-date introduction into RDF 1.1.

References (selection only)

This section provides links to several RDF related standards, mostly from W3C. This is by no means a complete list, its focus is on the most important standards to start with.


Free version online

  • Validating RDF, Homepage: A book about SHACL and ShEx: Two approaches for validating RDF Data. Beside this the book provides a good intro to RDF in general.
  • EUCLID Linked Data training. Provides free resources & books for Linked Data training. Finaced within an EU project.

Recommended additional books

  • Learning SPARQL, Homepage, Safari Books Online: This book is still the best and most complete introduction to SPARQL. It gives many real world examples and introduces advanced SPARQL concepts as well.
  • Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist Homepage, Safari Books Online: Beside a general introduction about RDF, this book provides probably the most complete resource about schema and ontology design. In particular it provides a very detailed overview about RDF Schema and OWL.

RDF libraries for programming languages

Tools & Standards for transforming data to RDF