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Implement Equihash PoW #27

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nathan-at-least opened this issue Dec 11, 2014 · 45 comments

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@nathan-at-least
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commented Dec 11, 2014

No description provided.

@daira daira added the mining label Dec 11, 2014

@daira daira changed the title Select a mining algorithm. Select a mining proof-of-work algorithm. Dec 11, 2014

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commented Dec 11, 2014

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commented Dec 11, 2014

How can we evaluate potential mining algorithms?

What are the feature-axes of comparison?

@matthewdgreen

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commented Dec 11, 2014

In our opinion, it will be difficult to analyze 'new' constructions like the Cuckoo hashing approach. Moreover, any existing Litecoin (CPU) mining enterprises will still be able to adapt to most new algorithms. We should decide whether we're using SHA256 or a memory-bound algorithm, then adopt one of the two standards.

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commented Dec 11, 2014

My current favorite is Lyra2 because it is being studied, by multiple people, as part of the Password Hashing Competition, and because it was designed by real cryptographers.

@daira daira added this to the MVP design feature freeze milestone Dec 11, 2014

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commented Mar 5, 2015

@nathan-at-least

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commented Mar 8, 2015

I created two distinct tickets for two distinct properties we may require of the algorithm:

  • #137 - low variance reward
  • #138 - non-outsourceable

Let's start to describe the properties we want to evaluate proposed designs.

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commented Apr 8, 2015

I'm rejecting SHA-256 and Scrypt. The candidates that I will consider are:

Request: if any of the 7S are interested, would you please examine these three and write us a little document that says what you think of them, compared to each other, for a memory-hard proof-of-work function? This document would primarily be for our own internal consumption, but it would also be good if we could subsequently publish it, for example as a blog post, in order to draw attention to our science+engineering efforts.

Adding the "7S help requested" label to this issue.

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commented Apr 8, 2015

(reminder: this issue tracker is destined to eventually be made public, so that the public can search the archives to find out why we chose what we did.)

John Tromp, the author of the Cuckoo Cycle PoW algorithm gave me the following arguments (on the #bitcoin-wizards channel on irc.freenode.net):

<zooko> tromp: personally, I'm heavily leaning toward using a Password Hashing
    Candidate for my memory-oriented PoW, because of the analyses from
    multiple cryptographers that some of those candidates are getting.
<tromp> zooko, so you prefer a tweaked scrypt over an asymetric PoW that can
    be seriously memory bound?!
<zooko> tromp: what do you mean by "seriously memory bound"?
<tromp> see the 4 properties MB1..MB4 in my paper
* zooko looks
<zooko> I've opened an issue ticket requesting the zerocash scientists, if
    they are interested, to analyze Cuckoo, Catena, and Lyra2.
<zooko> tromp: I believe Catena and Lyra2 are intended to provide MB1–MB4.
<tromp> well, they may provide MB2 and MB4
<zooko> Hm, yeah don't know about MB3.
<zooko> I think verification of e.g. Catena or Lyra2 can be acceptably fast,
    although it requires momentary use of a lot of RAM.
<tromp> zooko: using a memory-hard PHC as PoW means making compromises, such
    as poor performance on mobile devices, and limited asic-resistance
<zooko> tromp: performance on mobile and asic-resistance are both criteria
    that the PHC submitters and judges are thinking about.
<tromp> zooko: yes, they're thinking about it, but also accepting that it
    necessarily involves a compromise.
<zooko> *nod*
<zooko> tromp: you don't mind if I cut and paste from IRC to this issue ticket do you?
<tromp> zooko, please do
<zooko> tromp: it would be really great if the PHC folks would study Cuckoo, but I'm 
    not sure if it is exactly relevant to their work.
<zooko> It might be, for example, they might say "Perhaps we should conclude that 
    the PHC doesn't need to provide a PoW, because no PHC alg can do PoW well, 
    so we should eliminate that from our criteria.".
<zooko> disclosure: I'm on the PHC panel.
<zooko> Although I'm basically an absentee, useless panel member so far.
<zooko> I separated from my wife last year and completely dropped several 
    responsibilities, including that one.
<gmaxwell> zooko: someone on the list just responded saying Cuckoo was broken; 
    after I responded to a post that was making a lot of kind of crazy claims about 
    the acceptable properties of a function for cryptocurrency use. I really do not 
    think the PHC candidates are well suited.

(complete logs: https://botbot.me/freenode/bitcoin-wizards/2015-04-08/?msg=36140109&page=3 )

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commented Oct 1, 2015

This ticket so far has assertions about which candidates to accept/reject, but I'd really like to spell out our requirements so that future users understand our selection.

Here's a non-comprehensive list of requirements based on what I've heard:

  • it's feasible for a mobile phone to verify block headers
  • it relies on a well-known paper that has a lot of attention/review
  • it "resists economic centralization" because having a low barrier to entry into the mining system (ie: no specialized hardware dev/capital costs) allows new competitors to become miners in the long term
  • it "resists economic fragility" because miners have sunk capital costs which makes it costly for them to attack the network or switch away to another application

Note: the last two seem mutually exclusive!

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commented Oct 1, 2015

I consider resisting economic centralization to be the overriding desideratum for a consensus-protocol PoW. The argument about sunk capital costs is a weak consolation for having failed to resist economic centralization, and I've never been convinced by it.

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commented Feb 3, 2016

This is my current favourite PoW algorithm: https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/946

@nathan-at-least nathan-at-least changed the title Select a mining proof-of-work algorithm. Implement Equihash PoW Mar 29, 2016

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commented Mar 30, 2016

Here's the Python "toy" reference implementation: https://github.com/str4d/zcash-pow

Here's the current branch of the C++ implementation in the Zcash codebase: https://github.com/str4d/zcash/tree/equihash-pow

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commented Mar 30, 2016

I agree with @nathan-at-least's comment about desiderata:

#27 (comment)

Like @daira (#27 (comment)), I value decentralization more than the economic incentive for miners to protect the currency by requiring them to invest a sunk cost in capital.

I'd like to add a desideratum: that verification is lightweight enough to run in Ethereum! That would enable the implementation of a "ZRelay" service inside Ethereum, similar to BTCRelay (http://btcrelay.org/).

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commented Mar 30, 2016

paper about Equihash: https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/946

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commented Apr 1, 2016

After browsing through these hashing methods it seems obvious that the giant corporate miners will just modify their hardware according to the chosen algo. Wouldn't it be more sustainable to have mass uptake of mining zcash. This "fairness to all" mining would be more likely if it were to use multi-algo like Myriad as it is dynanic and can switch quickly.

Just another thought but is there a way to add a restriction so that a single mining unit can only achieve a reward based on location. So regardless of how much processing has taken place, a single unit can only achieve 1 mined coin based on the average amount of time it takes for a single unit anywhere in the world to process the coin. If any further coins are mined above the 1 coin (per average unit of time it would take any computer to mine a coin) because of a super asic excess power, that coin will be directed to a lottery database where anyone in the world could receive it. This will increase the amount of miners as everyone will be rewarded more often based on the lottery and will set the benchmark based on the average computing power of a single individual computer rather than benefiting the most financially able miner. A bit like the engine restrictions set up in 2014 for F1 racing.

I suppose it's a bit like having a pool inbuilt in the system that benefits everyone regardless of their hashing power.

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commented Apr 1, 2016

Multi-algorithm likely doesn't help with centralization, since large/centralized miners will mine whichever algorithm is most favourable to them at any given point. It may be slightly easier to add another algorithm, but that can be done anyway starting with a single algorithm.

Location is not a feasible input to the mining algorithm, especially in a system that aims for anonymity and location privacy.

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commented Apr 1, 2016

What I mean by location is any given source. So this could be a zcash address but preferably a random id stored in client. If a mining pool system is used it will be quite obvious from wallet id's which wallet id has been paid or not. Wallet ID database can be deleted every x amount of hours. Before deleting wallet ID's a payment is made beforehand to a zcash address belonging to a wallet. Once payment is made the wallet id will have to wait x amount of time to receive next coin or a new wallet ID is created after each payout. As this database is only for miners and only for a limited amount of time it does not add any load onto the payment system and users can still send and receive in good time.

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commented Apr 1, 2016

If you mean the address to which the block reward is paid, centralized miners would get around that by paying each block to a different address.

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commented Apr 1, 2016

@mrkellysch: Thanks for your comments! Like Daira, I don't see how a decentralized system can enforce the "location" property. (In fact, we have kicked around some science-fiction ideas about how to do such things, but nothing that we'll be able to implement and deploy in the next few months.)

Also like Daira, I don't think the "myriad" approach is necessarily sufficient to deter custom miners from winning.

But, I'd like to emphasize that the "Proof of RAM" approach that we're working on in this ticket may already be sufficient to give the advantage to commodity (decentralized, democratic, hobbyist) miners. Or maybe not! We'll see.

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commented Apr 8, 2016

@daira daira removed the mining label Apr 8, 2016

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commented Apr 8, 2016

@daira should interested parties re-read the paper for particular new details? thanks in advance!

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commented Apr 8, 2016

I don't think there are changes in the algorithm, just editorial changes and a different title.

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commented Apr 8, 2016

Done! #851

@ebfull ebfull closed this Apr 8, 2016

aayanl pushed a commit to aayanl/zclassic-addressindexing that referenced this issue Mar 2, 2017

kozyilmaz pushed a commit to kozyilmaz/zcash that referenced this issue Apr 26, 2017

Merge pull request zcash#27 from laanwj/2016_09_const_refs
Return const references from getKeys, getValues, get_str

zkbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue Mar 2, 2018

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commit 60104a7
Merge: be262f0 af7dfe0
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 08:41:48 2018 +0200

    Merge pull request #1 from rex4539/patch-1

    Fix typos

commit 1c65b2b
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 07:35:26 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 88fa2d9
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 07:21:00 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 40e73e2
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 07:14:21 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 4567667
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 06:44:40 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 4aeaa3a
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 05:55:25 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 5cdd1b2
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 05:36:46 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 70130d0
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 05:28:21 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 3377426
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 05:00:56 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 40643eb
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:51:57 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 23ead80
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:29:53 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 3612eab
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:19:36 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 5c3177f
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:13:03 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 60026ef
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:08:09 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit f979c00
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 04:01:44 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit c900722
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:52:33 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 1027543
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:36:19 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit f3fa89b
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:34:37 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 2699eca
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:30:29 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit f02ef2e
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:22:36 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 6485c90
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:10:06 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit fcc0828
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:06:26 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 8a688ff
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 03:02:50 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit bb60b83
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 02:59:25 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 53539bb
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 02:50:55 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 0808445
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 01:05:54 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 7a4f064
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 00:16:31 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 48c33fb
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 00:07:42 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 809f01c
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Tue Feb 27 00:02:34 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit fec279c
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 23:55:27 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit cf81b4e
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 23:48:43 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit 3bbcc3d
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 23:28:52 2018 +0200

    Fix typo

commit f639727
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 23:13:12 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

commit 55262fe
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 22:46:52 2018 +0200

    Remove space for word "backup"

commit 61d5279
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 22:23:31 2018 +0200

    Fix typos in zmq.md

commit f2ce50f
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 22:12:58 2018 +0200

    Fix typo in security-warnings.md

commit af7dfe0
Author: Dimitris Apostolou <dimitris.apostolou@icloud.com>
Date:   Mon Feb 26 21:59:24 2018 +0200

    Fix typos

Signed-off-by: Daira Hopwood <daira@jacaranda.org>
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