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= About
We describe ometa syntax on examples
ometa Greet {
goodbye = "good"? "bye"
| "so long"
hello = [hH] "ello" space+ ([wW] "orld" space+)*
grammar = (hello | goodbye):h -> ["Grammar", h.inspect]
token :w = seq(w)
ometa Greet {
In first line we define grammar with name Greet
A grammar consists of set of rules separated by empty line or comma.
goodbye = "good"? "bye"
This matches strings bye and goodbye. We match string in quotes literaly so "bye" matches bye.
As in regular expresions ? in "good"? makes occurence of good voluntary.
Moreover appending * or + makes term repetable as in regular expressions
| "so long"
Or it could match so long.
Matching alternatives is deterministic so called ordered choice. If more alternatives can be matched we choose which was stated first.
hello = <hH> "ello" (space+ <wW> "orld")*
<> corresponds to [] in regular expressions so <hH> "ello" matches hello and Hello.
space is predefined function matching any whitespace character so space+ matches sequence of white spaces
(space+ <wW> "orld")+
As in regexp we can surround sequence by parenthness to group it to single term. Here we match strings like " world world World world"
grammar = (hello | goodbye+):h -> ["Grammar", h.inspect]
We define that our grammar can be rule hello or sequence of goodbyes
:h assigns result of (hello | goodbye+) to variable h.
-> ["Grammar",h.inspect] Here we define result of rule grammar
Result of rule is defined similarly as result of methods in ruby:
result of sequence of rules is result of last rule
result of a|b|c is result of matched alternative
result of [pat] or "string" is matched character or string
result of rule* ,rule+ is array or results of rules
result of rule? is result of rule or nil
token :s = seq(s)
We cheated bit saying that "string" matches exactly strings because it by default matches string preceded by any whitespaces.
We redefine token rule.
This is parametrized rule. It takes as parameter string s and then calls parametrized rule seq which matches exactly string s.
Notice that whitespace in parametrized rule call is forbidden and in grouping its mandatory.
We advance to more advanced example
assume we defined ruby class
class Tree <Ometa_Node
attr_accessor :left,:right
and ometa code
ometa Greeter < Greet {
hello = "hel" .*
times :n :r = -> n.times{ }
bye = times(3, `"cya" | "bye"`)
goodbye = bye | super
tree = #Tree:t "()" -> t
| "(" tree:t.left ")" ->t
| "(" tree:t.left tree:t.right ")" ->t
grammar = Greet::hello
| tree
| ( <aA>?:s[] "hoy":s[] space+)+ -> s
| super
ometa Greeter < Greet {
We define grammar Greeter which inherits from grammar greet
hello = "hel" .*
We redefile hello rule
times :n :p = -> n.times{res=apply(p) };res
This ruby code should match n times pattern p
bye = times(3, `"cya" | "bye"`)
Using `pattern` in parametrized rule gives proc which matches given pattern. You could pass string "rule" as well if pattern is single rule.
goodbye = bye | super
As in ruby super does matching by parent method.
grammar = Greet::hello
Greet::hello is example of foreign rule invocation. You can use rule from any grammar you define by Grammar::rule
| ( <aA>?:s[] "hoy":s[] )+ -> s
A common problem is collect array of something. A rule:a[] appends result of rule to array a (which is initialy empty array)
tree = #Tree:t "()" -> t
| "(" tree:t.left ")" ->t
| "(" tree:t.left tree:t.right ")" ->t
Matching objects
Ometa can match any objects not just stream of characters. Assume we have structure
<Tree @size=3 @nodes={1=>[1,3],2=>[2,5] "a"=>[4,5]} >
We can match it by grammar
ometa Objects {
grammar = [tree]
tree = @size=>integer:size @nodes=>nodes
nodes = [ @a=>:a (@key=>:k @value=>values:v)* ]
values = [ ->{s=0} (:x ->{s+=x})* ] -> s
grammar = [tree]
We use [] to go inside matched object. We go inside matched object and try match it by rule tree
tree = @size=>integer:size @nodes=>nodes
When we are at object we access its content by syntax @name=>rule so we get size of tree by calling getter size and match content of variable @nodes with nodes rule.
nodes = [ @a=>:a (@key=>:k @value=>values:v)* ]
Matching @name=>rule does following
1. look if there is getter object.method (you can call any method by syntax @method(args)=>rule)
2. look if object has method as instance variable
3. look if what gives indexing object[:method] or object["method"]
For matching hashes we add keywords @key @value to match keys and values
values = [ ->{s=0} (:x ->{s+=x})* ] -> s
We match array and sum its values.
look at doc/ometa
* reporting of file position
* error message should show begin of last infinite rule
* error handler to access stack?
* integrate @method so we can use [] also on ordinary objects
* add formating capabilities for ometa2ometa
* make parametrized rules application ordinary calls istead prefixing with arguments
* add switch optimalization see pappy
* add indirect recursion support
* perhaps cache compiled rb files as "#{ometa_filename}.rb.cache" or
similar, and use them based on mtime / flag combination.
* try to optimize some more. profile wasn't particularly illuminating.
* then write some actual tests.
* i think that super is actually broken at the moment, and its not used
in the standard grammar. the js one uses it, so could test with that.