Uploading to pypi (or custom servers)
When the (full)release command tries to upload your package to a pypi server,
zest.releaser basically executes the command
python setup.py sdist and does a
twine upload. The twine command replaces the less safe
python setup.py sdist upload.
For safety reasons zest.releaser will only offer to upload your package to
https://pypi.python.org when the package is already registered there. If this
is not the case yet, you get a confirmation question whether you want to
register a new package with
If the upload or register command fails, you probably need to configure
your PyPI configuration file. And of course you need to have
twine installed, but that is done automatically
PyPI configuration file (
For uploads to PyPI to work you will need a
.pypirc file in your home directory that
has your pypi login credentials. This may contain alternative servers too:
[distutils] index-servers = pypi warehouse local [pypi] # default repository is pypi.python.org username:maurits password:secret [warehouse] # This is the successor for PyPI, which you can/should already use. repository:https://upload.pypi.org/legacy/ username:maurits password:secret [local] repository:http://localhost:8080/test/products/ username:maurits password:secret # You may need to specify the realm, which is the domain the # server sends back when you do a challenge: #realm:Zope
See the Python Packaging User Guide for more info.
When all this is configured correctly, zest.releaser will first upload
to the official PyPI (if the package is registered there already).
Then it will offer to upload to the other index servers that you have
Note that since version 3.15, zest.releaser also looks for this information in
setup.cfg if your package has that file. One way to use this, is to
restrict the servers that zest.releaser will ask you to upload to. If you have
defined 40 index-servers in your pypirc but you have the following in your
setup.cfg, you will not be asked to upload to any server:
[distutils] index-servers =
Note that after creating the tag we still ask you if you want to checkout that tag for tweaks or pypi/distutils server upload. We could add some extra checks to see if that is really needed, but someone who does not have index-servers listed, may still want to use an entry point like gocept.zestreleaser.customupload to do uploading, or do some manual steps first before uploading.
Since version 6.8, zest.releaser by default no longer registers a new package, but only uploads it. This is usually good. See Registering a package for an explanation.
Some people will hardly ever want to do a release on PyPI but in 99 out of 100
cases only want to create a tag. They won't like the default answer of 'yes'
to that question of whether to create a checkout of the tag. So since version
3.16 you can influence this default answer. You can add some lines to the
.pypirc file in your home directory to change the default answer for all
packages, or change it for individual packages in their
The lines are this:
[zest.releaser] release = no
You can use no/false/off/0 or yes/true/on/1 as answers; upper, lower or mixed case are all fine.
Uploading with twine
Since version 6.0, we always use twine for uploading to the Python
Package Index, because it is safer: it uses
https for uploading.
Since version 4.0 we already prefered it if it was available, but it
is now a core dependency, installed automatically.
Since version 6.6.6 we use it in a way that should work with
1.6.0 and higher, including future versions.
First, you should install the
zest.releaser[recommended] extra, or
pip install wheel yourself next to
create or edit
setup.cfg in your project (or globally in your
~/.pypirc) and add this to create and upload a wheel to upload to
[zest.releaser] create-wheel = yes
See http://pythonwheels.com for deciding whether this is a good idea for your package. Briefly, if it is a pure Python 2 or pure Python 3 package: just do it.
Registering a package
Registering a package does two things:
- It claims a package name on your behalf, so that you can upload a file to it.
- If you already registered the package previously, it updates the general package information. So every time you make a new release, you should register the package.
Well, that used to be the case, but things have changed.
Since version 6.8, zest.releaser by default no longer registers a package, but only uploads it. This is because for the standard Python Package Index (PyPI), registering a package is no longer needed: this is done automatically when uploading a distribution for a package. In fact, trying to register may fail. See this issue.
But you may be using your own package server, and registering
may be wanted or even required there. In this case
you will need to turn on the register function.
~/.pypirc, use the following to ensure that
register is called on the package server:
[zest.releaser] register = yes
If you have specified multiple package servers, this option is used for all of them. There is no way to register and upload to server A, and only upload to server B.
Adding extra text to a commit message
zest.releaser makes commits in the prerelease and postrelease
phase. Something like
Preparing release 1.0 and
development: 1.1. You can add extra text to these messages by
configuration in your
setup.cfg or global
~/.pypirc. One use
case for this is telling Travis to skip Continuous Integration builds:
[zest.releaser] extra-message = [ci skip]
Signing your commits or tags with git
If you are using git, maybe you want to sign your commits, or more likely your tags, with your gpg key.
zest.releaser does not do anything special for this: it just calls the normal
git commit or
So if you want to sign anything, you should set this up in your
git configuration, so it works outside of
zest.releaser as well.
Run these commands to configure gpg signing for git:
git config commit.gpgsign true git config tag.gpgsign true
Including all files in your release
By default, only the Python files and a
README.txt are included (by
setuptools) when you make a release. So you miss out on your changelog, json
files, stylesheets and so on. There are two strategies to include those other
- Add a
MANIFEST.infile in the same directory as your
setup.pythat lists the files you want to include. Don't worry, wildcards are allowed. Actually, zest.releaser will suggest a sample
MANIFEST.infor you if you don't already have it. The default is often good enough.
- Setuptools can detect which files are included in your version control system (svn, git, etc.) which it'll then automatically include.
The last approch has a problem: not every version control system is supported
out of the box. So you might need to install extra packages to get it to
work. So: use a
MANIFEST.in file to spare you the trouble. If not, here
are some extra packages:
- setuptools-git (Setuptools plugin for finding files under Git version control)
- setuptools_hg (Setuptools plugin for finding files under Mercurial version control)
- setuptools_bzr (Setuptools plugin for finding files under Bazaar version control)
- setuptools_subversion (Setuptools plugin for finding files under Subversion version control.) You probably need this when you upgrade to the recent subversion 1.7. If you suddenly start missing files in the sdists you upload to PyPI you definitely need it. Alternatively: set up a proper MANIFEST.in as that method works with any version control system.
In general, if you are missing files in the uploaded package, the best
is to put a proper
MANIFEST.in file next to your
See zest.pocompile for an example.
Running automatically without input
Sometimes you want to run zest.releaser without hitting
<enter> all the
time. You might want to run zest.releaser from your automatic test
environment, for instance. For that, there's the
option. Pass that and all defaults will be accepted automatically.
This means your version number and so must be OK. If you want to have a
different version number from the one in your
setup.py, you'll need to
change it yourself by hand. And the next version number will be chosen
automatically, too. So
1.2 will become
1.3. This won't detect that you
might want to do a
1.3 after a
1.2.1 bugfix release, but we cannot
perform feats of magic in zest.releaser :-)
In case you always want to accept the defaults, a setting in your
setup.cfg is available:
[zest.releaser] no-input = yes
An important reminder: if you want to make sure you never upload anything
automatically to the python package index, include the
release = no
[zest.releaser] no-input = yes release = no