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Interop Cats Effect

Project stage CI Releases Snapshots

This library provides instances required by Cats Effect.


libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio-interop-cats" % "<check-badge-for-latest-version>"

ZIO Cats Effect 3 instances

ZIO integrates with Typelevel libraries by providing an instance of Concurrent, Temporal and Async for Task as required, for instance, by fs2, doobie and http4s.

For convenience, we have defined an alias as follows:

type Task[A] = ZIO[Any, Throwable, A]

Therefore, we provide Cats Effect instances based on this specific datatype.


In order to get a Concurrent[Task] or Concurrent[RIO[R, *]] (note * is kind-projector notation) we need an implicit Runtime[R] in scope. The easiest way to get it is using ZIO.runtime:

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

def ceConcurrentForTaskExample = 
  ZIO.runtime.flatMap { implicit r: Runtime[Any] =>
    // the presence of a runtime allows you to summon Cats Effect Typeclasses
    val F: cats.effect.Concurrent[Task] = implicitly
    F.racePair(F.unit, F.unit)


Temporal requires a Runtime with zio.clock.Clock.

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

def ceTemporal =
  ZIO.runtime.flatMap { implicit r: Runtime[Clock] =>
    val F: cats.effect.Temporal[Task] = implicitly
    F.sleep(1.second) *> F.unit


Similar to the other examples, we require a Runtime with the zio.clock.Clock and zio.blocking.Blocking layer.

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

def ceAsync =
  ZIO.runtime.flatMap { implicit r: Runtime[Clock with Blocking] =>
    val F: cats.effect.Async[Task] = implicitly
    F.racePair(F.unit, F.sleep(1.second) *> F.unit)

Other typeclasses

There are many other typeclasses and useful conversions that this library provides implementations for:

  • See zio/interop/cats.scala file to see all available typeclass implementations for the Cats Effect 3 typeclasses
  • See zio/stream/interop/cats.scala for ZStream typeclass implementations
  • See zio/stream/interop/FS2StreamSyntax.scala for FS2 <-> ZStream conversions

Easier imports (at a cost)

In the examples above, we had to bring the Runtime[Clocking with Blocking] via the ZIO.runtime combinator. This may not be ideal since everywhere you use these typeclasses, you will now be required to feed in the Runtime. For example, with FS2:

def example(implicit rts: Runtime[Clock with Blocking]): Task[Unit] =
    .awakeDelay[Task](10.seconds) // this type annotation is mandatory
    .evalTap(in => cats.effect.std.Console.make[Task].println(s"Hello $in"))

Rather than requiring the runtime implicit, we can add an import (if we don't mind depending on Runtime.default):

import zio.interop.catz._
import zio.interop.catz.implicits._

val example: Task[Unit] =
    .evalTap(in => cats.effect.std.Console.make[Task].println(s"Hello $in"))

The major downside to doing this is you rely on live implementations of Clock and Blocking to summon instances which makes testing much more difficult for any Cats Effect code that you use.


If you only need instances for cats-core typeclasses, not cats-effect import zio.interop.catz.core._:

import zio.interop.catz.core._

Note that this library only has an Optional dependency on cats-effect – if you or your libraries don't depend on it, this library will not add it to the classpath.


The following example shows how to use ZIO with Doobie (a library for JDBC access) and FS2 (a streaming library), which both rely on Cats Effect instances (cats.effect.Async and cats.effect.Temporal):

import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._
import doobie._
import doobie.implicits._
import zio.blocking.Blocking
import zio.clock.Clock
import scala.concurrent.duration._

object DoobieH2Example extends App {
  override def run(args: List[String]): URIO[zio.ZEnv, ExitCode] =
    ZIO.runtime.flatMap { implicit r: Runtime[Clock with Blocking] =>
      val xa: Transactor[Task] =
        Transactor.fromDriverManager[Task]("org.h2.Driver", "jdbc:h2:mem:test;DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1", "user", "")

      sql"SELECT 42"
        .evalTap(i => blocking.blocking(Task.effectTotal(println(s"Data $i"))))