Skip to content
Permalink
master
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
 
 
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
768 lines (561 sloc) 24.7 KB

Configuring and Running Zope

Whichever method you used to install Zope and create a server instance (see :doc:`INSTALL`), the end result is configured and operated the same way.

Note

If you have installed Zope using zc.buildout in conjunction with plone.recipe.zope2instance as outlined in :doc:`INSTALL`, many of the following tasks are already done for you and some others differ slightly. You can immediately skip down to Running Zope.

Creating a Zope instance

Once you've installed Zope, you will need to create an "instance home". This is a directory that contains configuration and data for a Zope server process. The instance home is created using the mkwsgiinstance script:

$ bin/mkwsgiinstance -d .

The -d . argument specifies the directory to create the instance home in.

You will be asked to provide a user name and password for an administrator's account during mkwsgiinstance. To see all available command-line options, run the script with the --help option:

$ bin/mkwsgiinstance --help

If you followed the example and chose the current directory, you'll find the instances files in the subdirectories of the virtualenv:

  • etc/ will hold the configuration files.
  • var/ will hold the database files.
  • var/log will hold log files.

Filesystem Permissions

You need to set permissions on the directory Zope uses to store its data. This will normally be the var directory in the instance home. Zope needs to read and write data to this directory. Before running Zope you should ensure that you give adequate permissions to this directory for the user id Zope will run under.

Do not run Zope as root. Either create a user specifically for Zope or use an existing account with non-admin privileges.

Configuring Zope

Your instance's configuration is defined in its etc/zope.conf and etc/zope.ini configuration files.

Note

Any changes in these configuration files require you to restart your Zope instance before they become active.

zope.ini: WSGI configuration

The file etc/zope.ini contains all settings related to the WSGI pipeline, the WSGI server and logging.

When starting Zope, if you see errors indicating that an address is in use, then you may have to change the ports Zope uses for HTTP. The default HTTP port used by Zope is 8080. You can change the port used by editing the [server] configuration section, which defines settings for the WSGI server itself:

[server:main]
use = egg:waitress#main
host = 127.0.0.1
port = 8080

See the section Using alternative WSGI server software to learn how to integrate WSGI servers other than the default waitress.

Zope is configured in the [app] section. It defines the so-called "entry point" called by the WSGI server and where the Zope configuration file zope.conf is located:

[app:zope]
use = egg:Zope#main
zope_conf = /path/to/zope.conf

The logging configurations are part of the etc/zope.ini file as well. The default configurations created by mkwsgiinstance and plone.recipe.zope2instance are suitable for most applications. The Python Logging Cookbook has a great selection of topics for advanced configurations.

Keep in mind that different WSGI servers have different logging behaviors. Some have their own access and event logging, some don't log anything at all. For good control over your application's logging needs, the default configurations use the translogger WSGI middleware from the Paste package. It can capture and log all errors propagating from your application.

Note

If your application is created using a custom zc.buildout configuration and you want to use translogger for logging, make sure to specify the wsgi extra for Zope in your buildout's eggs specification, like Zope[wsgi].

zope.conf: Zope settings

You configure Zope itself in etc/zope.conf.

For a full description of the supported sections and directives for zope.conf, refer to the :ref:`configuration reference section <configuration_reference>`.

Running Zope

Running Zope in the foreground

To run Zope without detaching from the console, use:

$ bin/runwsgi -v etc/zope.ini
Starting server in PID 24934.
serving on http://127.0.0.1:8080

In this mode, Zope emits its log messages to the console, and does not detach from the terminal.

By default this command does not enable Zope's debug mode, so it can be used for production.

In order to enable debug mode, you can add the additional -d or --debug argument to the command:

$ bin/runwsgi -dv etc/zope.ini
Starting server in PID 55111.
serving on http://127.0.0.1:8080

The runwsgi commands takes a PasteDeploy configuration file as its argument. You can configure different WSGI capable servers, the WSGI pipeline or logging configuration in this file.

Now you are able to log in using a browser, as described in Logging In To Zope.

Running Zope as a Daemon

Zope itself has no built-in support for running as a daemon any more.

If you create your Zope instance using plone.recipe.zope2instance you can use its start/stop script to daemonize Zope. See the next section for how to do that.

Alternatively, you can use projects like supervisord to achieve this or use your operating system's built-in process manager, like systemd on most Linux versions. As an example, the following systemd service configuration works with the runwsgi script. It assumes your buildout is located at /opt/zopeinstance and the user account your Zope instance runs under is zope:

[Unit]
Description=Zope client zopeinstance
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=simple
User=zope
ExecStart=/opt/zopeinstance/bin/runwsgi /opt/zopeinstance/etc/zope.ini
KillMode=control-group
TimeoutStartSec=10
TimeoutStopSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Save this configuration under /etc/systemd/system/zopeinstance.service and execute systemctl daemon-reload for systemd to read it. After that you can use standard systemctl commands to start, restart or stop the Zope instance:

[root@server]# systemctl start zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl restart zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl status zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl stop zopeinstance
...

Debugging Zope

In order to debug the Zope application, it can be helpful to connect to its database and inspect or change it on the command line. This feature was previously available via the dedicated zopectl debug command - in the new WSGI setup this is available via the zconsole module and console script:

$ bin/zconsole debug etc/zope.conf
>>> app
<Application at >

>>> app.acl_users
<UserFolder at /acl_users>

>>> import transaction
>>> transaction.begin()
>>> app.acl_users._doAddUser('foo', 'bar', ['Manager'], [])
<User 'foo'>
>>> transaction.commit()

Running scripts

This was previously availabe using zopectl run <path_to_script> <scriparg1> .... Again in the WSGI setup the zconsole module and console script can be used:

$ bin/zconsole run etc/zope.conf <path_to_script> <scriptarg1> ...

Adding users

If you need to add a Manager to an existing Zope instance, you can do this using addzopeuser as follows:

$ bin/addzopeuser user password

The script expects to find the configuration file at etc/zope.conf.

Running Zope (plone.recipe.zope2instance install)

Scipt names and invocations vary slightly in installations that use plone.recipe.zope2instance, but the outcome is the same as described above. The following examples assume that the name of the buildout section was zopeinstance.

Running Zope in the foreground

To run Zope without detaching from the console, use:

$ bin/zopeinstance fg
...
Serving on http://127.0.0.1:8080

Running Zope as a Daemon

The zopeinstance runner script can daemonize the Zope process:

$ bin/zopeinstance start
...
daemon process started, pid=60116

Here's how to get status information and how to stop the Zope instance:

$ bin/zopeinstance status
program running; pid=60116
$ bin/zopeinstance stop
...
daemon process stopped

To have your instance start automatically upon reboot, you will need to integrate with your operating system's service startup facility. As an example, the following systemd service configuration works with the start/stop script generated by plone.recipe.zope2instance. It assumes the script name is zopeinstance, your buildout is located at /opt/zopeinstance and the user account your Zope instance runs under is zope:

[Unit]
Description=Zope client zopeinstance
After=network.target

[Service]
Type=forking
User=zope
ExecStart=/opt/zopeinstance/bin/zopeinstance start
PIDFile=/opt/zopeinstance/var/zopeinstance/Z4.pid
ExecStop=/opt/zopeinstance/bin/zopeinstance stop
ExecReload=/opt/zopeinstance/bin/zopeinstance stop && /opt/zopeinstance/bin/zopeinstance start
KillMode=control-group
TimeoutStartSec=10
TimeoutStopSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Save this configuration under /etc/systemd/system/zopeinstance.service and execute systemctl daemon-reload for systemd to read it. After that you can use standard systemctl commands to start, restart or stop the Zope instance:

[root@server]# systemctl start zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl restart zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl status zopeinstance
[root@server]# systemctl stop zopeinstance
...

Debugging Zope

Debugging can be done at the command line:

$ bin/zopeinstance debug
Starting debugger (the name "app" is bound to the top-level Zope object)
>>> app
<Application at >

>>> app.acl_users
<OFS.userfolder.UserFolder object at ...>

>>> import transaction
>>> transaction.begin()
>>> app.acl_users._doAddUser('foo', 'bar', ['Manager'], [])
<User 'foo'>
>>> transaction.commit()

Running scripts

You can run Python scripts from the command line. The name app is injected into the top level namespace, it represents the root application object for your site.

$ bin/zopeinstance run <path_to_script> <scriptarg1> ...

Adding users

If you need to add a Manager to an existing Zope instance:

$ bin/zopeinstance adduser user password
Created user: user

Logging In To Zope

Once you've started Zope, you can then connect to the Zope webserver by directing your browser to:

http://yourhost:8080/manage

where 'yourhost' is the DNS name or IP address of the machine running Zope. If you changed the HTTP port as described, use the port you configured.

You will be prompted for a user name and password. Use the user name and password you provided in response to the prompts issued during the Zope instance creation, or configured into your buildout configuration for installs based on plone.recipe.zope2instance.

Now you're off and running! You should be looking at the Zope management screen which is divided into two frames. On the left you can navigate between Zope objects and on the right you can edit them by selecting different management functions with the tabs at the top of the frame.

To create content to be rendered at http://yourhost:8080/ create a Page Template or DTML Document named index_html.

Special access user accounts

The Initial User

An initial username and password is needed to "bootstrap" the creation of normal managers of your Zope site. This is accomplished through the use of the 'inituser' file in the directory specified as the instance home.

The first time Zope starts, it will detect that no users have been defined in the root user folder. It will search for the 'inituser' file and, if it exists, will add the user defined in the file to the root user folder.

Normally, 'inituser' is created by the makewsgiinstance install script.

The super user ("break glass in emergency" user)

If you find yourself locked out of your Zope instance you can create a user by placing a file named access in the directory specified as the instance home. The file has one line with a colon-separated login and password, like:

superuser:mysecretpassword

Now restart Zope and use these credentials to log in. This type of user account cannot create any content, but it can add new users to the user folder or edit existing users to get you out of a bind.

Do not forget to delete the access file and restart Zope when you are done.

Troubleshooting

  • This version of Zope requires Python 3.6 and later. It will not run with any version of PyPy.
  • To build Python extensions you need to have Python configuration information available. If your Python comes from an RPM you may need the python-devel (or python-dev) package installed too. If you built Python from source all the configuration information should already be available.
  • See the :doc:`changes` for important notes on this version of Zope.

Using alternative WSGI server software

The WSGI integration gives you a choice of WSGI server software to run your Zope application. This section lists several options that were selected because they either have a PasteDeploy entry point or have one provided by shim software, which means they work with the default Zope scripts for starting/stopping the service.

Things to watch out for

The ZODB uses connection pooling where a working thread grabs a connection from the pool to serve content and then releases it when the work is done. The default size of this connection pool is 7. You should choose a number of application threads that stays safely below that number of ZODB connections. If the WSGI server lets you configure the number of threads, 4 is a safe choice.

Another recommendation from Zope 2 is still valid as well: If you have a choice between less Zope instances with a higher number of threads each, or more instances with less threads each, choose the latter. Create more separate Zope instances and set the WSGI server threads value to e.g. 2.

Warning

If the WSGI server software lets you configure a number of worker processes, like gunicorn does, do not configure more than a single worker. Otherwise you will see issues due to concurrent ZODB access by more than one process, which may corrupt your ZODB.

Test criteria for recommendations

A simple contrived load test was done with the following parameters:

  • 100 concurrent clients accessing Zope
  • 100 seconds run time
  • the clients just fetch "/"
  • standard Zope 4 instances, one with ZEO and one without
  • Python 2.7.16 on macOS Mojave/10.14.4
  • standard WSGI server configurations, the only changes are to number of threads and/or number of workers where available.

This load test uncovered several issues:

  • cheroot (tested version: 6.5.5) was magnitudes slower than all others. Unlike the others, it did not max out CPU. It is unclear where the slowdown originates. Others reached 500-750 requests/second. cheroot only served 12 requests/second per configured thread.
  • gunicorn (tested version: 19.9.0) showed very strange behavior against the non-ZEO Zope instance. It serves around 500 requests/second, but then hangs and serves no requests for several seconds, before picking up again.
  • gunicorn (tested version: 19.9.0) does not like the ZEO instance at all. No matter what configuration in terms of threads or workers was chosen gunicorn just hung so badly that even CTRL-C would not kill it. Switching to an asynchronous type of worker (tested with gevent) did not make a difference.
  • werkzeug (tested version: 0.15.2) does not let you specify the number of threads, you only tell it to use threads or not. In threaded mode it spawns too many threads and immedialy runs up agains the ZODB connection pool limits, so with Zope only the unthreaded mode is suitable. Even in unthreaded mode, the service speed was inconsistent. Just like gunicorn it had intermittent hangs before recovering.
  • bjoern (tested version: 3.0.0) is the clear speed winner with 740 requests/second against both the ZEO and non-ZEO Zope instance, even though it is single-threaded.
  • waitress (tested version: 1.3.0) is the all-around best choice. It's just 10-15% slower than bjoern, but both the built-in WSGI tools as well as plone.recipe.zope2instance use it as the default and make it very convenient to use.

Recommended WSGI servers

waitress (the default and recommended choice)

If you create a Zope instance using the mkwsgiinstance script described above or the plone.recipe.zope2instance buildout recipe, you will automatically get a waitress-based server. The default configurations set up for you will be sufficient for most applications. See the waitress documentation for additional information.

Here's a very simple configuration using plone.recipe.zope2instance:

[zopeinstance]
recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080

Note the empty eggs section, you cannot leave it out.

waitress has many options that you can add to the buildout section. A full list is part of the waitress documentation.

bjoern (the fastest)

The bjoern WSGI server can be integrated using a shim package called dataflake.wsgi.bjoern. See the Using this package section for details on how to integrate bjoern using Zope's own runwsgi script and how to create a suitable WSGI configuration.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, the following section will pull in the correct dependencies:

[zopeinstance]
recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
    dataflake.wsgi.bjoern
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/bjoern.ini

Problematic WSGI servers

werkzeug

werkzeug is a WSGI library that contains not just a WSGI server, but also a powerful debugger. It can easily integrate with Zope using a shim package called dataflake.wsgi.werkzeug. See the Using this package section for how to integrate werkzeug using Zope's own runwsgi script and how to create a suitable WSGI configuration.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, the following section will pull in the correct dependencies, after you have created a WSGI configuration file:

[zopeinstance]
recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
    dataflake.wsgi.werkzeug
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/werkzeug.ini

gunicorn

The gunicorn WSGI server has a built-in PasteDeploy entry point and integrates easily. The following example buildout configuration section will create a bin/runwsgi script that uses gunicorn.

[gunicorn]
recipe = zc.recipe.egg
eggs =
    Zope
    gunicorn
scripts =
    runwsgi

You can use this script with a WSGI configuration file that you have to create yourself. Please see the gunicorn documentation, especially the Configuration File section on Configuration Overview, for Paster Application configuration information. A very simple server configuration looks like this:

[server:main]
use = egg:gunicorn#main
host = 192.168.0.1
port = 8080
proc_name = zope

You can then run the server using runwsgi:

$ bin/runwsgi etc/gunicorn.ini
2019-04-22 11:45:39 INFO [Zope:45][MainThread] Ready to handle requests
Starting server in PID 84983.

Note

gunicorn version 19.9.0 or less will print an ominous warning message on the console upon startup that seems to suggest their WSGI entry point is deprecated in favor of using their own built-in scripts. This is misleading. Future versions will not show this message.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, you can make it use gunicorn by adding its egg to the buildout section and setting the WSGI configuration file path to the path of the configuration file you created yourself:

[zopeinstance]
recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
    gunicorn
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/gunicorn.ini

cheroot

The cheroot WSGI server can be integrated using a shim package called dataflake.wsgi.cheroot. See the Using this package section for details on how to integrate cheroot using Zope's own runwsgi script and how to create a suitable WSGI configuration.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, the following section will pull in the correct dependencies:

[zopeinstance]
recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
    dataflake.wsgi.cheroot
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/cheroot.ini

Debugging Zope applications under WSGI

You can debug a WSGI-based Zope application by adding a statement to activate the debugger. In addition, you can take advantage of WSGI middleware or debugging facilities built into the chosen WSGI server.

When developing your application or debugging, which is the moment you want to use debugging tools, you can start your Zope instance in exceptions debug mode. This will disable all registered exception views including standard_error_message so that exceptions are not masked or hidden.

This is how you run Zope in exceptions debug mode using the built-in runwsgi script:

$ bin/runwsgi -e etc/zope.ini

If you built your environment using plone.recipe.zope2instance you will need to do a manual change to your Zope configuration file. Enable exceptions debug mode by adding the debug-exceptions on setting before starting your application. The example presumes the Zope instance was named zopeinstance, your Zope configuration file will be at parts/zopeinstance/etc/zope.conf.

bin/zopeinstance fg

With Zope set up to let WSGI handle exceptions, these are a few options for the WSGI pipeline:

If you use waitress, you can make it output exception tracebacks in the browser by configuring expose_tracebacks. The keyword works in both standard and plone.recipe.zope2instance configurations:

[server:main]
use = egg:waitress#main
host = 127.0.0.1
port = 8080
expose_tracebacks = True

... or ...

[server:main]
paste.server_factory = plone.recipe.zope2instance:main
use = egg:plone.recipe.zope2instance#main
listen = 0.0.0.0:8080
threads = 2
expose_tracebacks = True

werkzeug includes a full-featured debugging tool. See the dataflake.wsgi.werkzeug documentation for how to enable the debugger. Once you're up and running, the werkzeug debugger documentation will show you how to use it.

Zope configuration reference

.. zconfig:: Zope2.Startup
    :file: wsgischema.xml