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Caching of web pages is a complicated process: there are many possible
policies to choose from, and the right policy can depend on factors such as
who is making the request, the URL is being retrieved and resource
negotiation settings such as accepted languages and encodings,

Hardcoding caching logic in an application is not desirable, especially for
reusable code. It is also not possible to allow an administrator to manually
configure the caching headers for every resource in an application. This
packages tries to address this problem by providing a cache ruleset
framework: it allows implementors to specify a ruleset for every component.
Administrators can then define a policy which dictates the correct caching
behaviour for each ruleset.

Depending on your environment there are different options for turning
the ruleset into HTTP caching headers.

* If you are using Plone_ 3 and CacheFu_ you can use `five.caching`_ to
  integrate with CacheSetup.
* If you are using Zope 2.12 or later, you can use `plone.caching`_ to
  integrate with the publisher events and `plone.cachepurging`_ if you require
  support for ``PURGE`` requests.
* If you are using Plone 4, you can also use ``_, which
  provides UI and default behaviour for `plone.caching`_ and
* In a WSGI environment you could set the ruleset in `environ` or a response
  header and add a piece of middleware which acts on those hints.


You can register rulesets using either ZCML or directly in python. If you
use ZCML you can use the ``<cache:ruleset />`` directive::

    <include package="z3c.caching" file="meta.zcml" />
        title="Plone content types"
        description="Non-folderish content types"

        permission="zope2.View" />


This example sets up a browser view called ``frontpage_view`` and
associates it with the ``plone.contentTypes`` ruleset.

**NOTE:** Ruleset names should be *dotted names*. That is, they should consist
only of upper or lowercase letters, digits, underscores and/or periods (dots).
The idea is that this forms a namespace similar to namespaces created by
packages and modules in Python.

You can specify either a class or an interface in the ``for`` attribute. As
with an adapter registration, a more specific registration can be used to
override a more generic one.

Above, we also add some metadata about the type of ruleset using the
``<cache:rulesetType />`` directive. This is principally useful for UI support
and can be often be skipped.

If you prefer to use python directly you can do so::

   from z3c.caching.registry import register
   from frontpage import FrontpageView

   register(FrontpageView, "plone.contentTypes")

To find the ruleset for an object use the ``lookup()`` method::

   from z3c.caching.registry import lookup
   cacheRule = lookup(FrontpageView)

To declare the ruleset type metadata, use the ``declareType`` method::

   from z3c.caching.registry import declareType
   declareType = declareType(name="plone.contentTypes", \
                             title=u"Plone content types", \
                             description=u"Non-folderish content types")

If you want to get a list of all declared types, use the ``enumerateTypes()``

    from z3c.caching.registry import enumerate
    for type_ in enumerateTypes():

The ``type_`` object provides ``IRulesetType`` and has attributes for
``name``, ``title`` and ``description``.

Strict mode

By default, you are not required to declare the type of a ruleset before using
it. This is convenient, but increases the risk of typos or a proliferation of
rulesets that are semantically equivalent. If you want to guard against this
case, you can put the ruleset into explicit mode, like this::

    from z3c.caching.registry import setExplicitMode

Information about cacheable resources

This package is intentionally simple, and depends only on a small set of core
Zope Toolkit packages. However, real-world caching often requires specific
information about published (and potentially cacheable) resources, such as
when the underlying resource was last modified, and which URLs to purge if
the caching proxy needs to be purged.

``z3c.caching`` aims to be a "safe" and minimalist dependency for packages
which want to declare how they can be cached. Hence, whilst the implementation
of such things as setting cache control response headers and supporting
purging of a caching reverse proxy are left up to other packages,
``z3c.caching`` provides a few interfaces which "caching-aware" packages can
implement, for higher level frameworks (such as `plone.caching`_ and
`plone.cachepurging`_) to rely on. This avoids a direct dependency between
such packages and those higher level frameworks.

These interfaces are described below. A few helper components are also
provided. To configure them, you can include ``z3c.caching``'s ZCML

    <include package="z3c.caching" />

Last modified date/time

The ``ILastModified`` adapter interface can be used to describe the last
modified date of a given published object::

    class ILastModified(Interface):
        """An abstraction to help obtain a last-modified date for a published
        Should be registered as an unnamed adapter from a published object
        (e.g. a view).
        def __call__():
            """Return the last-modified date, as a Python datetime object.
            The datetime returned must be timezone aware and should normally
            be in the local timezone.
            May return None if the last modified date cannot be determined.

One implementation for this interface is provided by default: When looked up
for a Zope browser view, it will delegate to an ``ILastModified`` adapter on
the view's context. Higher level packages may choose to implement this adapter
for other types of publishable resources, and/or different types of view

Cache purging

High-traffic sites often put a caching proxy such as `Squid`_ or `Varnish`_
in front of the web application server to offload the caching of resources.
Such proxies can be controlled via response headers (perhaps set via caching
operations looked up based on ``z3c.caching`` rulesets). Most caching proxies
also support so-called ``PURGE`` requests, where the web application sends a
request directly to the caching proxy asking it to purge (presumably old)
copies it may hold of a resource (e.g. because that resource has changed).

This package does not implement any communication with caching proxies. If
you need that in a Zope 2 context, consider `plone.cachepurging`_. However,
a few components are included to help packages declare their behaviour in
relation to a caching proxy that supports purging.

Firstly, ``z3.caching`` defines a ``Purge`` event, described the interface

    class IPurgeEvent(IObjectEvent):
        """Event which can be fired to purge a particular object.
        This event is not fired anywhere in this package. Instead, higher level
        frameworks are expected to fire this event when an object may need to be
        It is safe to fire the event multiple times for the same object. A given
        object will only be purged once.

If an object has been changed so that it may need to be purged, you can fire
the event, like so::

    from z3c.caching.purge import Purge
    from zope.event import notify

A higher level framework such as `plone.cachepurging`_ can listen to this
event to queue purge requests for the object.

Of course, the most common reason to purge an object's cached representations
is that it has been modified or removed. ``z3c.caching`` provides event
handlers for the standard ``IObjectModifiedEvent``, ``IObjectMovedEvent`` and
``IObjectRemovedEvent`` events, which re-broadcasts a ``Purge`` event for
the modified/moved/removed object.

To opt into these event handlers, simply mark your content object with the
``IPurgeable`` interface, e.g.::

    from z3c.caching.interfaces import IPurgeable
    class MyContent(Persistent):

You can also do this declaratively in ZCML, even for classes not under your

    <class class=".content.MyContent">
        <implements interface="z3c.caching.interfaces.IPurgeable" />

These helpers can signal to a framework like `plone.cachepurging`_ that the
object needs to be purged, but this is not enough to know how to construct
the ``PURGE`` request. The caching proxy also needs to be told which path or
paths to purge. This is the job of the ``IPurgePaths`` adapter interface::

    class IPurgePaths(Interface):
        """Return paths to send as PURGE requests for a given object.
        The purging hook will look up named adapters from the objects sent to
        the purge queue (usually by an IPurgeEvent being fired) to this interface.
        The name is not significant, but is used to allow multiple implementations
        whilst still permitting per-type overrides. The names should therefore
        normally be unique, prefixed with the dotted name of the package to which
        they belong.
        def getRelativePaths():
            """Return a list of paths that should be purged. The paths should be
            relative to the virtual hosting root, i.e. they should start with a
            These paths will be rewritten to incorporate virtual hosting if
        def getAbsolutePaths():
            """Return a list of paths that should be purged. The paths should be
            relative to the  domain root, i.e. they should start with a '/'.
            These paths will *not* be rewritten to incorporate virtual hosting.

The difference between the "relative" and "absolute" paths only comes into
effect if virtual hosting is used. In most cases, you want to implement
``getRelativePaths()`` to return a path that is relative to the current
virtual hosting root. In Zope 2, you can get this via the
``absolute_url_path()`` function on any traversable item. Alternatively,
you can look up an ``IAbsoluteURL`` adapter and discard the domain portion.

``getAbsolutePaths()`` is mainly useful for paths that are "special" to the
caching proxy. For example, you could configure Varnish to purge the entire
cache when sending a request to ``/_purge_all``, and then implement
``getAbsolutePaths()`` to return an iterable with that string in it.

Here is the default implementation from `plone.cachepurging`_, which purges
the default path of an object derived from Zope 2's ``OFS.Traversable``::

    class TraversablePurgePaths(object):
        """Default purge for OFS.Traversable-style objects
        def __init__(self, context):
            self.context = context
        def getRelativePaths(self):
            return [self.context.absolute_url_path()]
        def getAbsolutePaths(self):
            return []    

In ZCML, this is registered as::

    <adapter factory=".paths.TraversablePurgePaths" name="default" />

The Plone-specific `` implements further adapters (with 
other, unique names) for things like the default view method alias (``/view``)
and downloadable paths for Archetypes image and file fields.

.. _Plone:
.. _CacheFu:
.. _five.caching:
.. _plone.caching:
.. _plone.cachepurging:
.. _Squid:
.. _Varnish: