Write tests in C
C Makefile



libtap - Write tests in C


#include <tap.h>

int main () {
    int bronze = 1, silver = 2, gold = 3;
    ok(bronze < silver, "bronze is less than silver");
    ok(bronze > silver, "not quite");
    is("gold", "gold", "gold is gold");
    cmp_ok(silver, "<", gold, "%d <= %d", silver, gold);
    like("platinum", ".*inum", "platinum matches .*inum");

results in:

ok 1 - bronze is less than silver
not ok 2 - not quite
#   Failed test 'not quite'
#   at t/synopsis.c line 7.
ok 3 - gold is gold
ok 4 - 2 <= 3
ok 5 - platinum matches .*inum
# Looks like you failed 1 test of 5 run.


tap is an easy to read and easy to write way of creating tests for your software. This library creates functions that can be used to generate it for your C programs. It is implemented using macros that include file and line info automatically, and makes it so that the format message of each test is optional. It is mostly based on the Test::More Perl module.


On Unix systems:

$ make
$ make install

For more detailed installation instructions (eg, for Windows), see INSTALL.


  • plan(tests)
  • plan(NO_PLAN)
  • plan(SKIP_ALL);
  • plan(SKIP_ALL, fmt, ...)

    Use this to start a series of tests. When you know how many tests there will be, you can put a number as a number of tests you expect to run. If you do not know how many tests there will be, you can use plan(NO_PLAN) or not call this function. When you pass it a number of tests to run, a message similar to the following will appear in the output:


    If you pass it SKIP_ALL, the whole test will be skipped.

  • ok(test)

  • ok(test, fmt, ...)

    Specify a test. the test can be any statement returning a true or false value. You may optionally pass a format string describing the test.

    ok(r = reader_new("Of Mice and Men"), "create a new reader");
    ok(reader_go_to_page(r, 55), "can turn the page");
    ok(r->page == 55, "page turned to the right one");

    Should print out:

    ok 1 - create a new reader
    ok 2 - can turn the page
    ok 3 - page turned to the right one

    On failure, a diagnostic message will be printed out.

    not ok 3 - page turned to the right one
    #   Failed test 'page turned to the right one'
    #   at reader.c line 13.
  • is(got, expected)

  • is(got, expected, fmt, ...)
  • isnt(got, unexpected)
  • isnt(got, unexpected, fmt, ...)

    Tests that the string you got is what you expected. with isnt, it is the reverse.

    is("this", "that", "this is that");


    not ok 1 - this is that
    #   Failed test 'this is that'
    #   at is.c line 6.
    #          got: 'this'
    #     expected: 'that'
  • cmp_ok(a, op, b)

  • cmp_ok(a, op, b, fmt, ...)

    Compares two ints with any binary operator that doesn't require an lvalue. This is nice to use since it provides a better error message than an equivalent ok.

    cmp_ok(420, ">", 666);


    not ok 1
    #   Failed test at cmpok.c line 5.
    #     420
    #         >
    #     666
  • cmp_mem(got, expected, n)

  • cmp_mem(got, expected, n, fmt, ...)

    Tests that the first n bytes of the memory you got is what you expected. NULL pointers for got and expected are handled (if either is NULL, the test fails), but you need to ensure n is not too large.

    char *a = "foo";
    char *b = "bar";
    cmp_mem(a, b, 3)


    not ok 1
    #   Failed test at t/cmp_mem.c line 9.
    #     Difference starts at offset 0
    #          got: 0x66
    #     expected: 0x62
  • like(got, expected)

  • like(got, expected, fmt, ...)
  • unlike(got, unexpected)
  • unlike(got, unexpected, fmt, ...)

    Tests that the string you got matches the expected extended POSIX regex. unlike is the reverse. These macros are the equivalent of a skip on Windows.

    like("stranger", "^s.(r).*\\1$", "matches the regex");


    ok 1 - matches the regex
  • pass()

  • pass(fmt, ...)
  • fail()
  • fail(fmt, ...)

    Speciy that a test succeeded or failed. Use these when the statement is longer than you can fit into the argument given to an ok() test.

  • dies_ok(code)

  • dies_ok(code, fmt, ...)
  • lives_ok(code)
  • lives_ok(code, fmt, ...)

    Tests whether the given code causes your program to exit. The code gets passed to a macro that will test it in a forked process. If the code succeeds it will be executed in the parent process. You can test things like passing a function a null pointer and make sure it doesnt dereference it and crash.

    dies_ok({abort();}, "abort does close your program");
    dies_ok({int x = 0/0;}, "divide by zero crash");
    lives_ok({pow(3.0, 5.0);}, "nothing wrong with taking 3**5");

    On Windows, these macros are the equivalent of a skip.

  • done_testing()

    Summarizes the tests that occurred and exits the main function. If there was no plan, it will print out the number of tests as.


    It will also print a diagnostic message about how many failures there were.

    # Looks like you failed 2 tests of 3 run.

    If all planned tests were successful, it will return 0. If any test fails, it will return 1. If they all passed, but there were missing tests, it will return 2.

  • diag(fmt, ...)

    print out a message to the tap output on stdout. Each line is preceeded by a "# " so that you know its a diagnostic message.

    diag("This is\na diag\nto describe\nsomething.");


    # This is
    # a diag
    # to describe
    # something

    ok() and this function return an int so you can use it like:

    ok(0) || diag("doh!");
  • skip(test, n)

  • skip(test, n, fmt, ...)
  • end_skip

    Skip a series of n tests if test is true. You may give a reason why you are skipping them or not. The (possibly) skipped tests must occur between the skip and end_skip macros.

    skip(TRUE, 2);


    ok 1 # skip
    ok 2 # skip
  • todo()

  • todo(fmt, ...)
  • end_todo

    Specifies a series of tests that you expect to fail because they are not yet implemented.



    not ok 1 # TODO
    #   Failed (TODO) test at todo.c line 7
  • BAIL_OUT()

  • BAIL_OUT(fmt, ...)

    Immediately stops all testing.

    BAIL_OUT("Can't go no further");


    Bail out!  Can't go no further

    and exits with 255.