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A work-in-progress implementation of CSL and CSL-M in Rust. It is geared at:

  • replacing citeproc-js by providing WebAssembly bindings such that it could be embedded in Zotero or fulfil any other JavaScript-based use;
  • replacing much of pandoc-citeproc, by running as a Pandoc Filter;
  • making it easy to use citeproc from any programming language, and integrate into any use case; and
  • correctness and high performance.

Supported Rust versions

With a stable Rust compiler, 1.43 or later, you can:

  • Build citeproc as a library
  • Build a WebAssembly package (see below for details)

For development, you need a recent nightly compiler. This is required to run the test suite within the cargo test harness using datatest. Keep your nightly up to date, as there are frequent breaking changes in that area at the moment, and this repo will track close to the edge.

You should install Rust and keep it up to date with rustup.

Try it out

There is a demo of citeproc-rs in action. It includes a graph visualisation of cite ambiguity testing. See if you can figure out how it works.

To see how well citeproc-rs is doing on the tests, visit

WebAssembly usage

The WebAssembly shell lives in crates/wasm. It consists of a JavaScript API that wraps the citeproc crate, and a mechanism for asynchronous locale fetching. The API works mostly by serializing to JSON and back, but this is invisible. It includes TypeScript definitions, which are the main source of documentation. Open up the generated .d.ts file or view the doc-comments with your editor or IDE. A useful reference is the js-demo, which exercises most of its functionality and demonstrates correct usage of the batchedUpdates/UpdateSummary API.

Note especially that Driver cannot be garbage collected. You will need to .free() it manually, otherwise the whole engine and its cached data will be leaked. Like many things with WebAssembly MVP, this might improve. Same with the WASM multithreading proposal -- computing cites is synchronous and single-threaded now, but it may be desirable in future to make it async and multithreaded. We'll see.


  1. Install wasm-pack
  2. cd crates/wasm; wasm-pack build -h

Refer to the docs for on how to get the output you need, particularly --target.

Non-WebAssembly usage

For Rust users, this package will available at some point on The csl crate is already available, if all you wanted to do was parse/validate styles and locales. (Hint: use std::str::FromStr; Style::from_str(xml);.) For the rest, it needs a slightly more stable API, and maybe some of the crate-splitting rethought. (I don't want to claim crate names and then change my mind later. They are split for compile time reasons.)

It will likely be possible to support communicating via JSON messages over stdio: drop me a line over at if this interests you. There is currently no way to use citeproc-rs via C FFI. This is mostly because of the complex structured data involved, which requires significant conversion effort and may not be worth it. If this is something you really want, file an issue.

Running the CSL test suite

citeproc-rs comes with a full-featured test harness for the CSL test suite, based on the Rust testing infrastructure. This includes colourful diffs, and support for a new YAML-based test case format. However, given that at the moment not all of the tests pass, a more nuanced way of detecting failure and comparing results to find regressions between revisions was necessary. So now it can store and diff test runs. Pull requests that cause regressions (Ok => Failure) compared to master will fail.

# setup once
cargo pull-locales
cargo pull-test-suite

cargo test-suite --help

# the whole suite in parallel
cargo test-suite run

# the whole suite with deterministic test execution order
# this helps show related tests alongside one another in the terminal output
cargo test-suite run -- --test-threads 1

# for a particular test, paste the file name
cargo test-suite run -- name_ParsedDroppingParticleWithApostrophe.txt

# for a subset of tests with some commonality in the name (this runs 8 of them)
cargo test-suite run -- name_Initials

# store a test run for comparison
# this will also save a copy in 'branch_name' and 'commit_hash' if your working 
# directory is clean
cargo test-suite store [name] [-- filter_pattern]
cargo test-suite store disamb -- disamb # all of the disamb tests

# diff two named, commit-named or commit-hash test results
# outputs any regressions and fixed test cases
# exits with code 1 if any regressions
cargo test-suite diff master # compares to ..current

# only checks the intersection of the tests, especially if you're using a filter
cargo test-suite diff master..disamb
# test result: 0 regressions, 0 new passing tests, 0 new ignores, out of 107 intersecting tests

# saves in 'current'
cargo test-suite store
# copies 'current' to 'blessed'
cargo test-suite bless
# (make some changes)
# compares blessed..current
cargo test-suite store && cargo test-suite diff

# in a clean repo, go back in time to a commit and store the captured
# result by its commit SHA and an optional name, then checkout HEAD again
cargo test-suite checkout-store [name]