This library provides basic building blocks for asynchronous programming, and can be used as a translation layer between libraries which use similar but incompatible abstractions.
Manifold provides two core abstractions: deferreds, which represent a single asynchronous value, and streams, which represent an ordered sequence of asynchronous values.
A deferred in Manifold is similar to a Clojure promise:
> (require '[manifold.deferred :as d]) nil > (def d (d/deferred)) #'d > (d/success! d :foo) true > @d :foo
However, similar to Clojure's futures, deferreds in Manifold can also represent errors. Crucially, they also allow for callbacks to be registered, rather than simply blocking on dereferencing.
> (def d (d/deferred)) #'d > (d/error! d (Exception. "boom")) true > @d Exception: boom
> (def d (d/deferred)) #'d > (d/on-realized d (fn [x] (println "success!" x)) (fn [x] (println "error!" x))) << ... >> > (d/success! d :foo) success! :foo true
Callbacks are a useful building block, but they're a painful way to create asynchronous workflows. In practice, no one should ever need to use
on-realized. Manifold provides a number of operators for composing over deferred values, which can be read about here.
Manifold's streams provide mechanisms for asynchronous puts and takes, timeouts, and backpressure. They are compatible with Java's
BlockingQueues, Clojure's lazy sequences, and core.async's channels. Methods for converting to and from each are provided.
Manifold differentiates between sources, which emit messages, and sinks, which consume messages. We can interact with sources using
try-take!, which return deferred values representing the next message. We can interact with sinks using
try-put!, which return a deferred values which will yield
true if the put is successful, or
We can create a stream using
> (require '[manifold.stream :as s]) nil > (def s (s/stream)) #'s > (s/put! s 1) << ... >> > (s/take! s) << 1 >>
A stream is both a sink and a source; any message sent via
put! can be received via
take!. We can also create sinks and sources from other stream representations using
> (require '[clojure.core.async :as a]) nil > (def c (a/chan)) #'c > (def s (s/->source c)) #'s > (a/go (a/>! c 1)) #object[clojure.core.async.impl.channels.ManyToManyChannel 0x7... > @(s/take! s) 1
We can also turn a Manifold stream into a different representation by using
connect to join them together:
> (def s (s/stream)) #'s > (def c (a/chan)) #'c > (s/connect s c) nil > (s/put! s 1) << true >> > (a/<!! c) 1
Manifold can use any transducer, which are applied via
transform. It also provides stream-specific transforms, including
throttle. To learn more about streams, go here.
Java 8 extensions
Manifold includes support for a few classes introduced in Java 8:
Support for Java 8 is detected automatically at compile time; if you are
AOT compiling Manifold on Java 8 or newer, and will be running the compiled
jar with a Java 7 or older JRE, you will need to disable this feature, by
setting the JVM option
"manifold.disable-jvm8-primitives", either at the
command line with
or by adding
to your application's project.clj.
A Clojurescript implementation of Manifold can be found here: dm3/manifold-cljs.
Copyright © 2014-2018 Zach Tellman
Distributed under the MIT License.