A real-time ros_control implementation with Machinekit HAL and boilerplate
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hal_hw_interface Fix system instalation Jan 28, 2019
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ROS HAL interface

This package provides interfaces to Machinekit HAL from ROS. It is expected to realize these benefits:

  • Bring real-time control to ROS with Machinekit RTAPI
  • Run on inexpensive PC and ARM hardware
  • Enable setting up many robot hardware interfaces with configuration only, no programming
  • Leverage Machinekit's wide variety of real-time components:
    • Hardware drivers: EtherCAT, BeagleBone GPIO, Mesa Electronics AnythingI/O FPGA cards, PC parallel port
    • Motor control: quadrature encoders, step/direction, PWM generators, PID controllers
    • Arithmetic: limit position/velocity/acceleration, scale/offset, low-pass filter, derivative/integral, multiplexer
    • Logic: and/or/xor/not, look-up tables, debouncer, flip-flop
    • And many more, plus simple tools to write custom components in C

This package provides two main HAL components for interfacing with ROS, plus infrastructure to configure and run the system. The hal_hw_interface HAL RT component enables robot joint control by extending ros_control_boilerplate. The hal_io user component (non-real-time) enables simple robot I/O by connecting HAL input and output pins with std_msgs publishers and subscribers, respectively.

The hal_hw_interface real-time component

The hal_hw_interface HAL component is a ROS hardware_interface::RobotHW implementation for controlling robot joints in a real-time context.

The hardware interface is a subclass of Dave Coleman's ros_control_boilerplate hardware interface. The C++ HAL integration was done following examples by Bas de Bruijn and Mick Grant of the Machinekit project. The control loop runs in a HAL thread, and its design is inspired by the rtt_ros_control_example and related discussion. The hal_mgr ROS node, which starts up the RTAPI and HAL apparatus, is based on Alexander Roessler's python-hal-seed.


The hal_io HAL user (non-realtime) component publishes and subscribes to ROS std_msgs topics with values read from and written to robot I/O HAL pins. The HAL_BIT, HAL_FLOAT, HAL_S32 and HAL_U32 HAL pin value types correspond to Bool, Float64, Int32 and UInt32 messages from ROS std_msgs.


  • Machinekit
    • Required by all components
    • Install Machinekit from packages or source on a PC by following instructions on that site.
  • A real-time kernel, either RT_PREEMPT or Xenomai
    • Required by Machinekit for low-latency control
    • See the linux-image-rt-* packages available in Debian Stretch.
  • ros_control_boilerplate
    • Required by the hal_hw_interface
    • This may be installed in package form.
  • The rrbot_description package from gazebo_ros_demos
    • Required by ros_control_boilerplate to run the hal_rrbot_control demo
    • Follow the notes in the ros_control_boilerplate/README.md to install this.

Run the demos

The hal_rrbot_control package contains two demos: one for hal_hw_interface and one for hal_io.

hal_hw_interface demo

This demo runs the ros_control_boilerplate "RRBot" two joint revolute-revolute robot demo with HAL. It is meant to show how simple it can be to build a ros_control hardware interface with HAL, and to serve as an example for creating your own.

Run the simulated hardware interface:

roslaunch hal_rrbot_control hal_rrbot_simulation.launch
# Debugging: append `hal_debug_output:=1 hal_debug_level:=5`

Run halscope to visualize HAL joint commands and feedback; in the GUI, set the "Run Mode" to "Roll" for continuous updating:

halscope -i hal_rrbot_control/config/hal_hw_interface.halscope

The rviz and simulated trajectories are launched identically to the rrbot_control package:

roslaunch hal_rrbot_control rrbot_visualize.launch
roslaunch hal_rrbot_control rrbot_test_trajectory.launch

hal_io demo

The hal_io_demo.launch file loads the hal_io.yaml configuration. For each of the four supported data types, it creates one HAL input pin with ROS publisher connected to one ROS subscriber with HAL output pin, thus creating a HAL to ROS to HAL feedback loop. The hal_io.hal file then generates a sine wave, feeding it to the HAL input pins (converting as appropriate). A halscope will show the output pins tracking the input pins.

This demo is a contrived example, but it shows working connections from HAL to ROS and back, and gives an example of how to configure the HAL pins and ROS publishers and subscribers. A real application would connect its own publishers and subscribers to those from hal_io.

Run the I/O demo:

roslaunch hal_rrbot_control hal_io_demo.launch
# Debugging: append `hal_debug_output:=1 hal_debug_level:=5`

Run halscope to visualize the HAL pins; in the GUI, set the "Run Mode" to "Roll" for continuous updating:

halscope -i hal_rrbot_control/config/hal_io.halscope

Run rqt_plot to visualize the ROS messages:

rqt_plot /rrbot/hal_io/bool_out:float_out:int_out:uint_out


To configure the hal_hw_interface and hal_io components, use the sample configuration in the hal_rrbot_control package as a starting point.

hal_mgr configuration

The hal_mgr python script is launched as a ROS node, and performs simple management of the HAL life cycle:

  • At startup,
    • Start the RTAPI real time services
    • Load a HAL configuration from a list of HAL files
  • While running, spin until receiving a shutdown signal from ROS
  • On shutdown, stop HAL and RTAPI and exit

The HAL configuration is specified as a list of HAL files to load from the halfiles directory in the hal_mgr/hal_files ROS parameter. The files may be either legacy .hal files or python scripts.

See the config/hal_hw_interface.yaml and config/hal_io.yaml files in hal_rrbot_control for typical configuration examples.

hal_hw_interface configuration

A hal_hw_interface configuration builds on an existing ros_control_boilerplate configuration. The ros_control_boilerplate configuration file, rrbot_controllers.yaml, defines joints and controllers; the generic_hw_control_loop section is unneeded, since the control loop runs in a HAL thread.

The config/hal_hw_interface.yaml ROS parameter file loads the halfiles/hal_hardware_interface.hal file. That file defines a new HAL thread, loads the hal_hw_interface component, and adds it to the thread. It then sets up limit3 components for each joint to limit position, velocity and acceleration, and connects them to the hal_hw_interface command and feedback signals.

Because the hal_hw_interface component is installed outside the standard HAL component directory, its full path must be provided using the $COMP_DIR environment variable: loadrt $(COMP_DIR)/hal_hw_interface.

When the hal_hw_interface component loads, it creates six HAL pins for each joint: three command output pins and three feedback input pins for each of position, velocity and effort. On the ROS side, it sets up the hardware interface and controller manager. The HAL file adds its ros_control update() function to a real-time HAL thread, and once the thread is started, the function runs in a low-latency loop at the frequency configured for the thread.

hal_io configuration

The hal_io user (non-real-time) component loads its configuration from the ROS parameter server. See the example config/hal_io.yaml configuration file. It supports the four HAL data types: FLOAT, S32, U32 and BIT, connecting them to ROS std_msgs Float64, Int32, UInt32 and Bool messages, respectively. The configuration has three main parameters:

  • hal_io/update_rate: The main loop publisher update frequency in Hz (float)
  • hal_io/input: A dictionary of pin-name keys to HAL input pin type values; e.g. { "door_open" : "BIT" } creates a HAL input pin hal_io.door_open, and publishes Bool messages to the topic hal_io/door_open at the update_rate frequency
  • hal_io/output: A dictionary of pin-name keys to lists of (type, topic) values; e.g. { "request_tool_num" : [ "U32", "robot_io/request_tool_num"] } creates a HAL output pin hal_io.request_tool_num and sets its value from UInt32 messages subscribed to from the topic robot_io/request_tool_num


  • Expose joint limits through pins