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Shakkei (借景 C:jie jing, J:shakkei) was originally codified in the oldest extant Japanese garden manual, the Sakuteiki (作庭記, Sakuteiki “Records of Garden Making”). This text, which is attributed to Tachibana Toshitsuna (橘俊綱, 1028-1094 CE), a son of the Byodoin's designer Fujiwara no Yorimichi (藤原頼通, 990-1074 CE), records the Heian period’s attention to a concept called “mono no aware” (物の哀れ) “the pathos of things”.