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NoSQL Unit is a JUnit extension that helps you write NoSQL unit tests.

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README.md

% NoSQLUnit Reference Manual % %

Documentation

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What's New?

Simultaneous engines

Sometimes applications will contain more than one NoSQL engine, for example some parts of your model will be expressed better as a graph ( Neo4J for example), but other parts will be more natural in a column way (for example using Cassandra ). NoSQLUnit supports this kind of scenarios by providing in integration tests a way to not load all datasets into one system, but choosing which datasets are stored in each backend.

For declaring more than one engine, you must give a name to each database Rule using connectionIdentifier() method in configuration instance.

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                                        .databaseName("test").connectionIdentifier("one").build() ,this);

And also you need to provide an identified dataset for each engine, by using withSelectiveLocations attribute of @UsingDataSet annotation. You must set up the pair "named connection" / datasets.

@UsingDataSet(withSelectiveLocations =                                              
                { @Selective(identifier = "one", locations = "test3") }, 
            loadStrategy = LoadStrategyEnum.REFRESH)

In example we are refreshing database declared on previous example with data located at test3 file.

Also works in expectations annotation:

@ShouldMatchDataSet(withSelectiveMatcher = 
                { @SelectiveMatcher(identifier = "one", location = "test3") 
                })

For more information see chapter about advanced features.

Support for JSR-330

NoSQLUnit supports two annotations of JSR-330 aka Dependency Injection for Java. Concretely @Inject and @Named annotations.

During test execution you may need to access underlying class used to load and assert data to execute extra operations to backend. NoSQLUnit will inspect @Inject annotations of test fields, and try to set own driver to attribute. For example in case of MongoDb, com.mongodb.Mongo instance will be injected.

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                        .databaseName("test").build() ,this);

@Inject
private Mongo mongo;

Warning

Note that in example we are setting this as second parameter to the Rule.

But if you are using more than one engine at same time (see chapter) you need a way to distinguish each connection. For fixing this problem, you must use @Named annotation by putting the identifier given in configuration instance. For example:

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test").connectionIdentifier("one").build() ,this);

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule2 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test2").connectionIdentifier("two").build() ,this);

@Named("one")
@Inject
private Mongo mongo1;

@Named("two")
@Inject
private Mongo mongo2;

For more information see advanced features chapter.

NoSQLUnit Core

Overview

Unit testing is a method by which the smallest testable part of an application is validated. Unit tests must follow the FIRST Rules; these are Fast, Isolated, Repeatable, Self-Validated and Timely.

It is strange to think about a JEE application without persistence layer (typical Relational databases or new NoSQL databases) so should be interesting to write unit tests of persistence layer too. When we are writing unit tests of persistence layer we should focus on to not break two main concepts of FIRST rules, the fast and the isolated ones.

Our tests will be fast if they don't access network nor filesystem, and in case of persistence systems network and filesystem are the most used resources. In case of RDBMS ( SQL ), many Java in-memory databases exist like Apache Derby , H2 or HSQLDB . These databases, as their name suggests are embedded into your program and data are stored in memory, so your tests are still fast. The problem is with NoSQL systems, because of their heterogeneity. Some systems work using Document approach (like MongoDb ), other ones Column (like Hbase ), or Graph (like Neo4J ). For this reason the in-memory mode should be provided by the vendor, there is no a generic solution.

Our tests must be isolated from themselves. It is not acceptable that one test method modifies the result of another test method. In case of persistence tests this scenario occurs when previous test method insert an entry to database and next test method execution finds the change. So before execution of each test, database should be found in a known state. Note that if your test found database in a known state, test will be repeatable, if test assertion depends on previous test execution, each execution will be unique. For homogeneous systems like RDBMS , DBUnit exists to maintain database in a known state before each execution. But there is no like DBUnit framework for heterogeneous NoSQL systems.

NoSQLUnit resolves this problem by providing a JUnit extension which helps us to manage lifecycle of NoSQL systems and also take care of maintaining databases into known state.

Requirements

To run NoSQLUnit , JUnit 4.10 or later must be provided. This is because of NoSQLUnit is using Rules , and they have changed from previous versions to 4.10.

Although it should work with JDK 5 , jars are compiled using JDK 6 .

NoSQLUnit

NoSQLUnit is a JUnit extension to make writing unit and integration tests of systems that use NoSQL backend easier and is composed by two sets of Rules and a group of annotations.

First set of Rules are those responsible of managing database lifecycle; there are two for each supported backend.

  • The first one (in case it is possible) it is the in-memory mode. This mode takes care of starting and stopping database system in " in-memory " mode. This mode will be typically used during unit testing execution.

  • The second one is the managed mode. This mode is in charge of starting NoSQL server but as remote process (in local machine) and stopping it. This will typically used during integration testing execution.

Second set of Rules are those responsible of maintaining database into known state. Each supported backend will have its own, and can be understood as a connection to defined database which will be used to execute the required operations for maintaining the stability of the system.

Note that because NoSQL databases are heterogeneous, each system will require its own implementation.

And finally two annotations are provided, @UsingDataSet and @ShouldMatchDataSet , (thank you so much Arquillian people for the name).

Seeding Database

@UsingDataSet is used to seed database with defined data set. In brief data sets are files that contain all data to be inserted to configured database. In order to seed your database, use @UsingDataSet annotation, you can define it either on the test itself or on the class level. If there is definition on both, test level annotation takes precedence. This annotation has two attributes locations and loadStrategy .

With locations attribute you can specify classpath datasets location. Locations are relative to test class location. Note that more than one dataset can be specified.

Also withSelectiveLocations attribute can be used to specify datasets location. See Advanced Usage chapter for more information.

If files are not specified explicitly, next strategy is applied:

  • First searches for a file on classpath in same package of test class with next file name, [test class name]#[test method name].[format] (only if annotation is present at test method).

  • If first rule is not met or annotation is defined at class scope, next file is searched on classpath in same package of test class, [test class name].[default format] .

Warning

datasets must reside into classpath and format depends on NoSQL vendor.

Second attribute provides strategies for inserting data. Implemented strategies are:


INSERT Insert defined datasets before executing any test method. DELETE_ALL Deletes all elements of database before executing any test method. CLEAN_INSERT This is the most used strategy. It deletes all elements of database and then insert defined datasets before executing any test method. REFRESH Insert all data defined in datasets that are not present on database.


: Load Strategies

An example of usage:

@UsingDataSet(locations="my_data_set.json", loadStrategy=LoadStrategyEnum.REFRESH)

Verifying Database

Sometimes it might imply a huge amount of work asserting database state directly from testing code. By using @ShouldMatchDataSet on test method, NoSQLUnit will check if database contains expected entries after test execution. As with @ShouldMatchDataSet annotation you can define classpath file location, or using withSelectiveMatche, see Advanced Usage chapter for more information. If it is not dataset supplied next convention is used:

  • First searches for a file on classpath in same package of test class with next file name, [test class name]#[test method name]-expected.[format] (only if annotation is present at test method).

  • If first rule is not met or annotation is defined at class scope, file is searched on classpath in same package of test class, [test class name]-expected.[default format] .

Warning

datasets must reside into classpath and format depends on NoSQL vendor.

An example of usage:

@ShouldMatchDataSet(location="my_expected_data_set.json")

MongoDb Engine

MongoDb

MongoDb is a NoSQL database that stores structured data as JSON-like documents with dynamic schemas.

NoSQLUnit supports MongoDb by using next classes:


In Memory com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.InMemoryMongoDb Managed com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.ManagedMongoDb


: Lifecycle Management Rules


NoSQLUnit Management com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.MongoDbRule


: Manager Rule

Maven Setup

To use NoSQLUnit with MongoDb you only need to add next dependency:

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.lordofthejars</groupId>
    <artifactId>nosqlunit-mongodb</artifactId>
    <version>${version.nosqlunit}</version>
</dependency>

Note that if you are plannig to use in-memory approach an extra dependency is required. In-memory mode is implemented using jmockmongo . JMockmongo is a new project that help with unit testing Java-based MongoDb Applications by starting an in-process Netty server that speaks the MongoDb protocol and maintains databases and collections in JVM memory. It is not a true embedded mode becuase it will starts a server, but in fact for now it is the best way to write MongoDb unit tests. As his author says it is an incomplete tool and will be improved every time a new feature is required.

Warning

During development of this documentation, current jmockmongo version was 0.0.2-SNAPSHOT. Author is imporoving version often so before using one specific version, take a look at its website .

To install add next repository and dependency :

<repositories>
    <repository>
        <id>thiloplanz-snapshot</id>
        <url>http://repository-thiloplanz.forge.cloudbees.com/snapshot/</url>
    </repository>
</repositories>
<dependency>
    <groupId>jmockmongo</groupId>
    <artifactId>jmockmongo</artifactId>
    <version>${mongomock.version}</version>
</dependency>

Dataset Format

Default dataset file format in MongoDb module is json .

Datasets must have next format :

{
    "name_collection1": [
    {
        "attribute_1":"value1",
        "attribute_2":"value2"
    },
    {
        "attribute_3":2,
        "attribute_4":"value4"
    }
    ],
    "name_collection2": [
        ...
    ],
    ....
}

Notice that if attributes value are integers, double quotes are not required.

Getting Started

Lifecycle Management Strategy

First step is defining which lifecycle management strategy is required for your tests. Depending on kind of test you are implementing (unit test, integration test, deployment test, ...) you will require an in-memory approach, managed approach or remote approach.

To configure in-memory approach you should only instantiate next rule :

@ClassRule
InMemoryMongoDb inMemoryMongoDb = new InMemoryMongoDb();

To configure the managed way, you should use ManagedMongoDb rule and may require some configuration parameters.

import static com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.ManagedMongoDb.MongoServerRuleBuilder.newManagedMongoDbRule;

@ClassRule
public static ManagedMongoDb managedMongoDb = newManagedMongoDbRule().build();

By default managed MongoDb rule uses next default values:

  • MongoDb installation directory is retrieved from MONGO_HOME system environment variable.

  • Target path, that is the directory where MongoDb server is started, is target/mongo-temp .

  • Database path is at {target path} /mongo-dbpath .

  • Mongodb is started with fork option.

  • Because after execution of tests all generated data is removed, in {target path} /logpath will remain log file generated by the server.

  • In Windows systems executable should be found as bin/mongod.exe meanwhile in MAC OS and *nix should be found as bin/mongod .

ManagedMongoDb can be created from scratch, but for making life easier, a DSL is provided using MongoServerRuleBuilder class. For example :

import static com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.ManagedMongoDb.MongoServerRuleBuilder.newManagedMongoDbRule;

@ClassRule
public static ManagedMongoDb managedMongoDb =
newManagedMongoDbRule().mongodPath("/opt/mongo").appendSingleCommandLineArguments("-vvv").build();

In example we are overriding MONGO_HOME variable (in case has been set) and set mongo home at /opt/mongo . Moreover we are appending a single argument to MongoDb executable, in this case setting log level to number 3 (-vvv). Also you can append property=value arguments using appendCommandLineArguments(String argumentName, String argumentValue) method.

Warning

when you are specifying command line arguments, remember to add slash (-) and double slash (--) where is necessary.

To stop MongoDb instance, NoSQLUnit sends a shutdown command to server using Java Mongo AP I. When this command is sent, the server is stopped and because connection is lost, Java Mongo API logs automatically an exception (read here information about the problem and how to "resolve" it). Do not confuse with a testing failure. You will see something like:

java.io.EOFException
    at org.bson.io.Bits.readFully(Bits.java:37)
    at org.bson.io.Bits.readFully(Bits.java:28)
    at com.mongodb.Response.<init>;(Response.java:39)
    at com.mongodb.DBPort.go(DBPort.java:128)
    at com.mongodb.DBPort.call(DBPort.java:79)
    at com.mongodb.DBTCPConnector.call(DBTCPConnector.java:218)
    at com.mongodb.DBApiLayer$MyCollection.__find(DBApiLayer.java:305)
    at com.mongodb.DB.command(DB.java:160)
    at com.mongodb.DB.command(DB.java:183)
    at com.mongodb.DB.command(DB.java:144)
    at
    com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.MongoDbLowLevelOps.shutdown(MongoDbLowLevelOps.java:44)
    at
    com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.ManagedMongoDb.after(ManagedMongoDb.java:157)
    at
    org.junit.rules.ExternalResource$1.evaluate(ExternalResource.java:48)
    at org.junit.rules.RunRules.evaluate(RunRules.java:18)
    at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:300)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.junit4.JUnit4Provider.execute(JUnit4Provider.java:236)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.junit4.JUnit4Provider.executeTestSet(JUnit4Provider.java:134)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.junit4.JUnit4Provider.invoke(JUnit4Provider.java:113)
    at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
    at
    sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
    at
    sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
    at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:616)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.util.ReflectionUtils.invokeMethodWithArray(ReflectionUtils.java:189)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ProviderFactory$ProviderProxy.invoke(ProviderFactory.java:165)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ProviderFactory.invokeProvider(ProviderFactory.java:85)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ForkedBooter.runSuitesInProcess(ForkedBooter.java:103)
    at
    org.apache.maven.surefire.booter.ForkedBooter.main(ForkedBooter.java:74)

Configuring remote approach does not require any special rule because you (or System like Maven ) is the responsible of starting and stopping the server. This mode is used in deployment tests where you are testing your application on real environment.

Configuring MongoDb Connection

Next step is configuring Mongodb rule in charge of maintaining MongoDb database into known state by inserting and deleting defined datasets. You must register MongoDbRule JUnit rule class, which requires a configuration parameter with information like host, port or database name.

To make developer's life easier and code more readable, a fluent interface can be used to create these configuration objects. Two different kind of configuration builders exist.

The first one is for configuring a connection to in-memory jmockmongo server. Default connection values are:


Host 0.0.0.0 Port 2307


: Default In-Memory Configuration Values

Notice that these values are the default ones of jmockmongo project, so if you are thinking to use jmockmongo , no modifications are required.

import static com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.InMemoryMongoDbConfigurationBuilder.inMemoryMongoDb;

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule = new MongoDbRule(inMemoryMongoDb().databaseName("test").build());

The second one is for configuring a connection to remote MongoDb server. Default values are:


Host localhost Port 27017 Authentication No authentication parameters.


: Default Managed Configuration Values

import static com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.MongoDbConfigurationBuilder.mongoDb;

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb().databaseName("test").build());
import static com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.mongodb.MongoDbConfigurationBuilder.mongoDb;

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb().databaseName("test").host("my_remote_host").build());

Complete Example

Consider a library application, which apart from multiple operations, it allow us to add new books to system. Our model is as simple as:

public class Book {

    private String title;

    private int numberOfPages;

    public Book(String title, int numberOfPages) {
        super();
        this.title = title;
        this.numberOfPages = numberOfPages;
    }

    public void setTitle(String title) {
        this.title = title;
    }

    public void setNumberOfPages(int numberOfPages) {
        this.numberOfPages = numberOfPages;
    }


    public String getTitle() {
        return title;
    }

    public int getNumberOfPages() {
        return numberOfPages;
    }
}

Next business class is the responsible of managing access to MongoDb server:

public class BookManager {

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(BookManager.class);

    private static final MongoDbBookConverter MONGO_DB_BOOK_CONVERTER = new MongoDbBookConverter();
    private static final DbObjectBookConverter DB_OBJECT_BOOK_CONVERTER = new DbObjectBookConverter();


    private DBCollection booksCollection;

    public BookManager(DBCollection booksCollection) {
        this.booksCollection = booksCollection;
    }

    public void create(Book book) {
        DBObject dbObject = MONGO_DB_BOOK_CONVERTER.convert(book);
        booksCollection.insert(dbObject);
    }
}

And now it is time for testing. In next test we are going to validate that a book is inserted correctly into database.

package com.lordofthejars.nosqlunit.demo.mongodb;

public class WhenANewBookIsCreated {

    @ClassRule
    public static ManagedMongoDb managedMongoDb = newManagedMongoDbRule().mongodPath("/opt/mongo").build();

    @Rule
    public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb().databaseName("test").build());

    @Test
    @UsingDataSet(locations="initialData.json", loadStrategy=LoadStrategyEnum.CLEAN_INSERT)
    @ShouldMatchDataSet(location="expectedData.json")
    public void book_should_be_inserted_into_repository() {

        BookManager bookManager = new BookManager(MongoDbUtil.getCollection(Book.class.getSimpleName()));

        Book book = new Book("The Lord Of The Rings", 1299);
        bookManager.create(book);
    }

}

In previous test we have defined that MongoDb will be managed by test by starting an instance of server located at /opt/mongo . Moreover we are setting an initial dataset in file initialData.json located at classpath com/lordofthejars/nosqlunit/demo/mongodb/initialData.json and expected dataset called expectedData.json .

{
    "Book":
    [
        {"title":"The Hobbit","numberOfPages":293}
    ]
}
{
    "Book":
    [
        {"title":"The Hobbit","numberOfPages":293},
        {"title":"The Lord Of The Rings","numberOfPages":1299}
    ]
}

You can watch full example at github .

Advanced Usage

Simultaneous engines

Sometimes applications will contain more than one NoSQL engine, for example some parts of your model will be expressed better as a graph ( Neo4J for example), but other parts will be more natural in a column way (for example using Cassandra ). NoSQLUnit supports this kind of scenarios by providing in integration tests a way to not load all datasets into one system, but choosing which datasets are stored in each backend.

For declaring more than one engine, you must give a name to each database Rule using connectionIdentifier() method in configuration instance.

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                                        .databaseName("test").connectionIdentifier("one").build() ,this);

And also you need to provide an identified dataset for each engine, by using withSelectiveLocations attribute of @UsingDataSet annotation. You must set up the pair "named connection" / datasets.

@UsingDataSet(withSelectiveLocations =                                              
                { @Selective(identifier = "one", locations = "test3") }, 
            loadStrategy = LoadStrategyEnum.REFRESH)

In example we are refreshing database declared on previous example with data located at test3 file.

Also works in expectations annotation:

@ShouldMatchDataSet(withSelectiveMatcher = 
                { @SelectiveMatcher(identifier = "one", location = "test3") 
                })

When you use more than one engine at a time you should take under consideration next rules:

  • If location attribute is set, it will use it and will ignore withSelectiveMatcher attribute data. Location data is populated through all registered systems.
  • If location is not set, then system tries to insert data defined in withSelectiveMatcher attribute to each backend.
  • If withSelectiveMatcher attribute is not set, then default strategy (explained in section ) is taken. Note that default strategy will replicate all datasets to defined engines.

You can also use the same approach for inserting data into same engine but in different databases. If you have one MongoDb instance with two databases, you can also write tests for both databases at one time. For example:

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test").connectionIdentifier("one").build() ,this);

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule2 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test2").connectionIdentifier("two").build() ,this);

@Test
@UsingDataSet(withSelectiveLocations = {
        @Selective(identifier = "one", locations = "json.test"),
        @Selective(identifier = "two", locations = "json3.test") }, 
    loadStrategy = LoadStrategyEnum.CLEAN_INSERT)
public void my_test() {...}

Support for JSR-330

NoSQLUnit supports two annotations of JSR-330 aka Dependency Injection for Java. Concretely @Inject and @Named annotations.

During test execution you may need to access underlying class used to load and assert data to execute extra operations to backend. NoSQLUnit will inspect @Inject annotations of test fields, and try to set own driver to attribute. For example in case of MongoDb, com.mongodb.Mongo instance will be injected.

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                        .databaseName("test").build() ,this);

@Inject
private Mongo mongo;

Warning

Note that in example we are setting this as second parameter to the Rule.

But if you are using more than one engine at same time (see chapter) you need a way to distinguish each connection. For fixing this problem, you must use @Named annotation by putting the identifier given in configuration instance. For example:

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule1 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test").connectionIdentifier("one").build() ,this);

@Rule
public MongoDbRule remoteMongoDbRule2 = new MongoDbRule(mongoDb()
                    .databaseName("test2").connectionIdentifier("two").build() ,this);

@Named("one")
@Inject
private Mongo mongo1;

@Named("two")
@Inject
private Mongo mongo2;

Stay In Touch

Future releases

Version 0.4.0 will have support for Neo4J and Cassandra.

Next versions will contain support for HBase and CouchDb .

Stay in Touch


Email: asotobu at gmail.com Blog: Lord Of The Jars Twitter: @alexsotob Github: NoSQLUnit Github


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