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Managing test CA certificates for samples and tutorials

WARNING

Certificates created by these scripts MUST NOT be used for production. They contain hard-coded passwords ("1234"), expire after 30 days, and most importantly are provided for demonstration purposes to help you quickly understand CA Certificates. When productizing against CA Certificates, you'll need to use your own security best practices for certification creation and lifetime management.

Introduction

This document helps create certificates for use in pre-testing IoT SDK's against the IoT Hub. In particular, the tools in this directory can be used to either setup CA Certificates (along with proof of possession) or Edge device certificates. This document assumes you have basic familiarity with the scenario you are setting up for as well as some knowledge of PowerShell or Bash.

This directory contains a PowerShell (PS1) and Bash script to help create test certificates for Azure IoT Hub's CA Certificate / proof-of-possession and/or Edge certificates.

The PS1 and Bash scripts are functionally equivalent; they are both provided depending on your preference for Windows or Linux.

A more detailed document showing UI screen shots for CA Certificates and proof of possession flow is available from the official documentation.

A more detailed document explaining Edge and showing its use of certificates generated here is available from the Edge gateway creation documentation.

USE

Step 1 - Initial Setup

You'll need to do some initial setup prior to running these scripts.

PowerShell

  • Get OpenSSL for Windows.
  • Start PowerShell as an Administrator.
  • cd to the directory you want to run in. All files will be created as children of this directory.
  • Run Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted. You'll need this for PowerShell to allow you to run the scripts.
  • Run . .\ca-certs.ps1 . This is called dot-sourcing and brings the functions of the script into PowerShell's global namespace.
  • Run Test-CACertsPrerequisites. PowerShell uses the Windows Certificate Store to manage certificates. This makes sure that there won't be name collisions later with existing certificates and that OpenSSL is setup correctly.

Bash

  • Start Bash.
  • cd to the directory you want to run in. All files will be created as children of this directory.
  • cp *.cnf and cp *.sh from the directory this .MD file is located into your working directory.
  • chmod 700 certGen.sh

Step 2 - Create the certificate chain

First you need to create a CA and an intermediate certificate signer that chains back to the CA.

PowerShell

  • Run New-CACertsCertChain [ecc|rsa]. Note this updates your Windows Certificate store with these certs.
    • You must use rsa if you're creating certificates for Edge.
    • ecc is recommended for CA certificates, but not required.

Bash

  • Run ./certGen.sh create_root_and_intermediate

Next, go to Azure IoT Hub and navigate to Certificates. Add a new certificate, providing the root CA file when prompted. (.\RootCA.pem in PowerShell and ./certs/azure-iot-test-only.root.ca.cert.pem in Bash.)

Step 3 - Proof of Possession

Optional - Only perform this step if you're setting up CA Certificates and proof of possession. For simple device certificates, such as Edge certificates, skip to the next step.

Now that you've registered your root CA with Azure IoT Hub, you'll need to prove that you actually own it.

Select the new certificate that you've created and navigate to and select "Generate Verification Code". This will give you a verification string you will need to place as the subject name of a certificate that you need to sign. For our example, assume IoT Hub verification code was "106A5SD242AF512B3498BD6098C4941E66R34H268DDB3288", the certificate subject name should be that code. See below example PowerShell and Bash scripts

PowerShell

  • Run New-CACertsVerificationCert "106A5SD242AF512B3498BD6098C4941E66R34H268DDB3288"

Bash

  • Run ./certGen.sh create_verification_certificate 106A5SD242AF512B3498BD6098C4941E66R34H268DDB3288

In both cases, the scripts will output the name of the file containing "CN=106A5SD242AF512B3498BD6098C4941E66R34H268DDB3288" to the console. Upload this file to IoT Hub (in the same UX that had the "Generate Verification Code") and select "Verify".

Step 4 - Create a new device

Finally, let's create an application and corresponding device on IoT Hub that shows how CA Certificates are used.

On Azure IoT Hub, navigate to the "Device Explorer". Add a new device (e.g. mydevice), and for its authentication type chose "X.509 CA Signed". Devices can authenticate to IoT Hub using a certificate that is signed by the Root CA from Step 2.

Note that if you're using this certificate as a DPS registration ID, the ID must be lower case or the server will reject it.

PowerShell

IoT Leaf Device

  • Run New-CACertsDevice mydevice to create the new device certificate.

You will need to enter a password for the certificate twice. This will create files mydevice* that contain the public key, private key, and PFX of this certificate.

  • To get a sense of how to use these certificates, Write-CACertsCertificatesToEnvironment mydevice myIotHubName, replacing mydevice and myIotHub name with your values. This will create the environment variables $ENV:IOTHUB_CA_* that can give a sense of how they could be consumed by an application.

IoT Edge Device

  • Run New-CACertsEdgeDevice mydevice to create the new device certificate for Edge.

This will create files mydevice* that contain the public key, private key, and PFX of this certificate.

  • Write-CACertsCertificatesForEdgeDevice mydevice. This will create a .\certs directory that contains public keys of the certificates and .\private which has the device's private key. These certificates can be consumed by Edge during its initialization.

Bash

IoT Leaf Device

  • Run ./certGen.sh create_device_certificate mydevice to create the new device certificate.
    This will create the files ./certs/new-device.* that contain the public key and PFX and ./private/new-device.key.pem that contains the device's private key.

  • cd ./certs && cat new-device.cert.pem azure-iot-test-only.intermediate.cert.pem azure-iot-test-only.root.ca.cert.pem > new-device-full-chain.cert.pem to get the public key.

IoT Edge Device

  • Run ./certGen.sh create_edge_device_certificate myEdgeDevice to create the new IoT Edge device certificate.
    This will create the files ./certs/new-edge-device.* that contain the public key and PFX and ./private/new-edge-device.key.pem that contains the Edge device's private key.
  • cd ./certs && cat new-edge-device.cert.pem azure-iot-test-only.intermediate.cert.pem azure-iot-test-only.root.ca.cert.pem > new-edge-device-full-chain.cert.pem to get the public key.

Step 5 - Cleanup

PowerShell*

From start menu, open manage computer certificates and navigate Certificates -Local Compturer-->personal. Remove certificates issued by "Azure IoT CA TestOnly*". Similarly remove them from "Trusted Root Certification Authority->Certificates" and "Intermediate Certificate Authorities->Certificates".

Bash

Bash outputs certificates to the current working directory, so there is no analogous system cleanup needed.

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