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BIP39 Import

  • there must be 12, 16 or 24 words in your mnemonic
  • we have only the English word list
  • we do not support BIP39 passwords during import

XPRV Import

  • we can import a BIP32 HD-wallet root private key in XPRV format
  • it's assumed to be top-level, and we don't store the parent fingerprint or depth value
  • SLIP-132 format HD-wallet keys are also supported (xprv/yprv/zprv), but we strip the implied address format

PIN Codes

  • 2-2 through 6-6 in size, numeric digits only
  • pin code 999999-999999 is reserved (means 'clear pin')

Backup Files

  • we don't know what day it is, so meta data on files will not have correct date/time
  • encrypted files produced cannot be changed, and we don't support other tools making them

Micro SD

  • cards up to 32G are supported
  • we do not guarantee to support all cards ever made, or yet to be made
  • we recommend 8G cards or smaller, since our storage needs are very modest

Signing / Wallet Types

  • with Electrum, we support classic payment addresses (p2pkh), Bech32 Segwit and P2SH/Segwit
    • however, each wallet must be of a single address type; cannot be mixed (their limitation)
    • the same Coldcard could be used in each of the three modes (we don't care about address format)
  • with Bitcoin Core (version 0.17?), we can do PSBT transactions, which support everything
  • we don't support coinbase transactions, so don't mine directly into a Coldcard wallet

Max Transaction Size

  • we support transactions up to 384k-bytes in size when serialized into PSBT format
  • bitcoin limits transactions to 100k, but there could be large input transactions inside the PSBT. Reduce this by using segwit signatures and provide only the individual UTXO ("out points").
  • we can handle transactions with up to 20 inputs to be signed at one time.

P2SH / Multisig

  • each Coldcard can only be a single "leg" of the multisig
  • we do not support PSBT combining of transactions involving P2SH signatures (but you can do your own combine step off-device) [This might be handled in future versions, but low priority for now.]
  • Electrum plugin does not support multisig at this time
  • IMPORTANT: no support for multisig signing yet, but we will in a future version.


  • only SIGHASH_ALL is supported at this time
  • in time, we will add support for others, especially to support Coinjoin usage

U2F Protocol / Web Access to USB / WebUSB

  • we do not support U2F protocol, WebUSB or any other means for random websites to talk to us
  • only native desktop/mobile apps, or helpers for those will be able to talk USB to Coldcard

Policy Stuff

  • Coldcard will reject any txn that pays a fee of more than 10% of its total value to miners. (Might become a setting someday.)

Developer / Source Code

  • source code can probably only be compiled and developed on Mac OS and Linux
  • we have very limited time to support other devs getting their setups working

Change Outputs

  • we will hide transaction outputs if they are "change" back into same wallet, however:
  • PSBT must specify BIP32 path in corresponding output section for us to treat as change
  • for p2sh-wrapped segwit outputs, redeem script must be provided when needed
  • any incorrect values here are assumed to be fraud attempts, and are highlighted to user
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