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README.md

Snap tutorial

Note: This tutorial is still heavy work in progress as the writing has just started which means parts and even the table of contents can still change a lot, but this will reduce more and more over the time. Everybody is anyway invited to contribute with ideas or improvements that can be included into it's development.

What is this?

A tutorial to learn how to write high level web applications with the Haskell web framework Snap.

The tutorial will start from the very beginning, assuming that the reader has never heard of the Snap framework before, and demonstrate by simple examples how to use Snap for writing web applications. Therefore the tutorial is divided into multiple parts (chapters). Each chapter tries to contain just one new feature to learn, to keep single chapters as simple as possible and also to leave them independent from another. Nothing is worse than if you already know some basics and you want to learn a new feature xy from chapter 5 but then you find out it continues with the example demonstrated in chapter 2 (hello Real World Haskell). In this tutorial the applications which are created in each chapter are not depending each other.

Why do we need this?

The nice thing of the Snap framework is, that it already comes with a lot of good documentation. First of all you can find very comprehensive articles on the framework's homepage itself, like the quick start, the Snap API, the Heist tutorial or the Snaplets tutorial.

Secondly the Snap API on Hackage is very well documented, sometimes even readable like a tutorial.

Thirdly the open source code of the framework itself can be found on Github does not only contain good documentation in the code itself but also contains some more tutorials and tests that are a good source to learn from.

Furthermore there exist quite a few slides and other material from presentations which give a quick or also quite detailed introduction into the framework, like the one of gcollins@CUFP2011, one about How to create a StarCraft 2 blog with Snap or one from the Hal7.

And last but not least, there exist plenty of blog entries of the developers of the framework, like mightybyte, jaspervdj, norm2782 and probably some others which may have been forgotten here.

So if we already have so many sources of good documentation why should we need another tutorial? Hum, maybe we wouldn't even need one. But when I started to learn Snap, which was nearly one year ago from now, I had problems to understand the framework and - especially - how it works. Despite all good sources of documentation it was not always easy to find them. I was asking badly for examples, examples, examples. Show me how this works... show me how that works. And it was quite cumbersome to look for specific examples and explanation for every hurdle I ran into. It would have been easier if there were somebody who takes my hand and leads me through the world of we development with Snap. One source that contains most of the knowledge that is necessary when you want to develop your web applications with Snap. This is exactly what this tutorial here is trying to provide.

Why Snap?

Haskell web development really started off around 2 years ago from now I would suppose. As Haskell is the worlds most powerful programming language, it's problem is to find applications where Haskell is really good for and where all it's purity, laziness and high level really shines. Web development seem to be a field where a lot of advantages of Haskell can be applied.

Now, it is no secret that there exists not one, but three (plus many many others) Haskell web frameworks that are currently developed and well supported: The two others out there are Yesod, a very well developed web framework of mainly Michael Snoyman, Greg Weber and others and Happstack, a cool framework which developed from the older HappS framework. Yesod, Happstack and Snap have all advantages and disadvantages if compared to each other. There already exist multiple discussions of which one might be better than the other, but the bottom line is that you can choose for yourself which one fit's best to your own preferences. It is important to mention that each of the frameworks can be seen as a collection of libraries that could even be used independently from each other, which means you are not restricted to use Yesod or Happstack or Snap but you can use libraries of all of the together if you like.

Choosing Snap among the others might be just a matter of taste or religion, but one could argue that Snap has the 'cleanest' design of all of them. The API is simple and comprehensive at the same time and after all it is 'pure Haskell' even when put into a stack of monads, Snap does not need to have it's own DSL to write easy readable web applications. That's why I've chosen Snap at least, after trying each of them.

What do I need to bring?

This tutorial is supposed to be an introductory documentation into the framework for beginners of Snap. No reading about this framework is required in advance, but some parts, like the installation etc. will be referred to already existing documentation as I don't want to repeat what others already wrote.

Nevertheless some knowledge has to be premised. I assume you have already fundamental knowledge in web development. Ideally you have already developed in PHP or Ruby or even frameworks of 'real' programming languages like Java (JEE) or C++ (ASP.NET) etc., so you are familiar with concepts of distributed programs (stateless, client server, SOA) but at least you should know the basics of web development: HTML and CSS as this will be used throughout as 'front end' markup language without further explanation. In case you are not, there exists plenty of good learning resources. W3schools might be a good place to start with. JavaScript can of course be integrated as front end language for Snap applications (while Haskell is the back end language) to spice things up, but is not necessary.

The second thing that is more or less necessary to develop Snap web applications is fundamental of Haskell. Basics (Haskell type system, higher order functions, modules etc. etc.) are a must but ideally you have already reached the intermediate level, means you know how to use type classes, applicative functors, monads, monad transformers etc. we will need all that stuff later on. Of course it is even possible to learn those things via learning Snap, but if you are not familiar with concepts and effects of the State monad, things can become funny sometimes. I personally noticed quickly that a 'rough' understanding of monads is not enough and found myself crawling through tutorials and articles about them while initially wanted to learn something about Snap. If you run in the same problems, one of the best collection of learning resources about Haskell on the net is currently the (closed?) StackOverflow resource, but also the WikiBook about Haskell is very well written. If you still have problem with Haskell's type class system (Functors, Applicative Functors, Monads, Monoids, Arrows, etc.) I can highly recommend the Typclassopedia article.

Let's begin!

Okay, but now let's finally start with the actual content. I think we all learn most effectively by doing and playing. :)

As mentioned at the beginning the tutorial will be structured in separate chapters, which can be read consecutively. But as they are not depending each other it is also possible to jump between them or just to pick the one that looks most interesting to you. The tutorial is structured as follows:

  1. First steps with Snap - how a Snap application can be created

  2. Basic infrastructure - how a simple Snap application looks like

  3. Routing and static serving - how Snap serves (static) web pages

  4. Heist - use the full power of dynamic templating

  5. Snaplets - modularize your application

  6. Bootstrap - use external CSS / JS libraries in you app

  7. Digestive Functors - create forms a la category theory

  8. Authentication - use session and authentication functionality

  9. Extended infrastructure - how to MVC you application

  10. Persistence - some examples that show the usage of databases

That should be it and might be extended / modified over the time to achieve best learning results to new readers.

Last but not least feel free to contribute to this tutorial. Complain about missing parts or such that are not easy to understand. Just modify the code here yourself or send a mail to me or the Snap mailing list or complain in the snap IRC channel on the freenode server.

Have fun!


Next chapter: First steps with Snap