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If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
designed to be readable as is.
=head1 NAME
README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems
=head1 DESCRIPTION
This document describes various features of IBM's UNIX operating
system AIX that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl)
is compiled and/or runs.
=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
For information on compilers on older versions of AIX, see L<Compiling
Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3>.
When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
an ANSI compliant C compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
gcc for AIX are widely available. A version of gcc is also included in
the AIX Toolbox which is shipped with AIX.
=head2 Supported Compilers
Currently all versions of IBM's "xlc", "xlc_r", "cc", "cc_r" or
"vac" ANSI/C compiler will work for building Perl if that compiler
works on your system.
If you plan to link Perl to any module that requires thread-support,
like DBD::Oracle, it is better to use the _r version of the compiler.
This will not build a threaded Perl, but a thread-enabled Perl. See
also L<Threaded Perl> later on.
As of writing (2010-09) only the I<IBM XL C for AIX> or I<IBM XL C/C++
for AIX> compiler is supported by IBM on AIX 5L/6.1/7.1.
The following compiler versions are currently supported by IBM:
IBM XL C and IBM XL C/C++ V8, V9, V10, V11
The XL C for AIX is integrated in the XL C/C++ for AIX compiler and
therefore also supported.
If you choose XL C/C++ V9 you need APAR IZ35785 installed
otherwise the integrated SDBM_File do not compile correctly due
to an optimization bug. You can circumvent this problem by
adding -qipa to the optimization flags (-Doptimize='-O -qipa').
The PTF for APAR IZ35785 which solves this problem is available
from IBM (April 2009 PTF for XL C/C++ Enterprise Edition for AIX, V9.0).
If you choose XL C/C++ V11 you need the April 2010 PTF (or newer)
installed otherwise you will not get a working Perl version.
Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
The former is recommended, as not only it can compile Perl with no
difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later
that require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the
development team.
=head2 Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
If the AIX Toolbox version of lib gdbm < 1.8.3-5 is installed on your
system then Perl will not work. This library contains the header files
/opt/freeware/include/gdbm/dbm.h|ndbm.h which conflict with the AIX
system versions. The lib gdbm will be automatically removed from the
wanted libraries if the presence of one of these two header files is
detected. If you want to build Perl with GDBM support then please install
at least gdbm-devel-1.8.3-5 (or higher).
=head2 Perl 5 was successfully compiled and tested on:
Perl | AIX Level | Compiler Level | w th | w/o th
-------+---------------------+-------------------------+------+-------
5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 32 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.1 TL9 64 bit | XL C/C++ V7 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 32 bit | gcc 3.2.2 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.2 TL10 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V8 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 32 bit | gcc 4.2.4 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.3 TL8 SP8 64 bit | XL C/C++ V9 + IZ35785 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |5.3 TL10 SP3 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Apr 2010 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 32 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
5.12.2 |6.1 TL1 SP7 64 bit | XL C/C++ V10 | OK | OK
5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 32 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
5.13 |7.1 TL0 SP1 64 bit | XL C/C++ V11 + Jul 2010 | OK | OK
w th = with thread support
w/o th = without thread support
OK = tested
Successfully tested means that all "make test" runs finish with a
result of 100% OK. All tests were conducted with -Duseshrplib set.
All tests were conducted on the oldest supported AIX technology level
with the latest support package applied. If the tested AIX version is
out of support (AIX 4.3.3, 5.1, 5.2) then the last available support
level was used.
=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
Starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.x / 5.10.x / 5.12.x)
and AIX 4.3 or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface
in the so called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface
that was used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases
4.2 and earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with
compiled modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make
Perl more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of
C++ code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions,
which was not possible using the emulated interface.
It is highly recommended to use the new interface.
=head2 Using Large Files with Perl
Should yield no problems.
=head2 Threaded Perl
Should yield no problems with AIX 5.1 / 5.2 / 5.3 / 6.1 / 7.1.
IBM uses the AIX system Perl (V5.6.0 on AIX 5.1 and V5.8.2 on
AIX 5.2 / 5.3 and 6.1; V5.8.8 on AIX 5.3 TL11 and AIX 6.1 TL4; V5.10.1
on AIX 7.1) for some AIX system scripts. If you switch the links in
/usr/bin from the AIX system Perl (/usr/opt/perl5) to the newly build
Perl then you get the same features as with the IBM AIX system Perl if
the threaded options are used.
The threaded Perl build works also on AIX 5.1 but the IBM Perl
build (Perl v5.6.0) is not threaded on AIX 5.1.
Perl 5.12 an newer is not compatible with the IBM fileset perl.libext.
=head2 64-bit Perl
If your AIX system is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
configurations to work. If you want to use 64-bit Perl on AIX 6.1
you need an APAR for a libc.a bug which affects (n)dbm_XXX functions.
The APAR number for this problem is IZ39077.
If you need more memory (larger data segment) for your Perl programs you
can set:
/etc/security/limits
default: (or your user)
data = -1 (default is 262144 * 512 byte)
With the default setting the size is limited to 128MB.
The -1 removes this limit. If the "make test" fails please change
your /etc/security/limits as stated above.
=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/32-bit)
With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
passes all make tests in threaded 32-bit mode, which is the default
configuration for the Perl builds that AIX ships with.
rm config.sh
./Configure \
-d \
-Dcc=cc_r \
-Duseshrplib \
-Dusethreads \
-Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
IBM AIX system Perl installation.
=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (32-bit)
With the following options you get a Perl version which passes
all make tests in 32-bit mode.
rm config.sh
./Configure \
-d \
-Dcc=cc_r \
-Duseshrplib \
-Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_32
The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
IBM AIX system Perl installation.
=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (threaded/64-bit)
With the following options you get a threaded Perl version which
passes all make tests in 64-bit mode.
export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
rm config.sh
./Configure \
-d \
-Dcc=cc_r \
-Duseshrplib \
-Dusethreads \
-Duse64bitall \
-Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
=head2 Recommended Options AIX 5.1/5.2/5.3/6.1 and 7.1 (64-bit)
With the following options you get a Perl version which passes all
make tests in 64-bit mode.
export OBJECT_MODE=64 / setenv OBJECT_MODE 64 (depending on your shell)
rm config.sh
./Configure \
-d \
-Dcc=cc_r \
-Duseshrplib \
-Duse64bitall \
-Dprefix=/usr/opt/perl5_64
The -Dprefix option will install Perl in a directory parallel to the
IBM AIX system Perl installation.
If you choose gcc to compile 64-bit Perl then you need to add the
following option:
-Dcc='gcc -maix64'
=head2 Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
Due to the fact that AIX 4.3.3 reached end-of-service in December 31,
2003 this information is provided as is. The Perl versions prior to
Perl 5.8.9 could be compiled on AIX up to 4.3.3 with the following
settings (your mileage may vary):
When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler. AIX does not ship
an ANSI compliant C-compiler with AIX by default, but binary builds of
gcc for AIX are widely available.
At the moment of writing, AIX supports two different native C compilers,
for which you have to pay: B<xlC> and B<vac>. If you decide to use either
of these two (which is quite a lot easier than using gcc), be sure to
upgrade to the latest available patch level. Currently:
xlC.C 3.1.4.10 or 3.6.6.0 or 4.0.2.2 or 5.0.2.9 or 6.0.0.3
vac.C 4.4.0.3 or 5.0.2.6 or 6.0.0.1
note that xlC has the OS version in the name as of version 4.0.2.0, so
you will find xlC.C for AIX-5.0 as package
xlC.aix50.rte 5.0.2.0 or 6.0.0.3
subversions are not the same "latest" on all OS versions. For example,
the latest xlC-5 on aix41 is 5.0.2.9, while on aix43, it is 5.0.2.7.
Perl can be compiled with either IBM's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.
The former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
require the use of IBM compiler-specific command-line flags.
The IBM's compiler patch levels 5.0.0.0 and 5.0.1.0 have compiler
optimization bugs that affect compiling perl.c and regcomp.c,
respectively. If Perl's configuration detects those compiler patch
levels, optimization is turned off for the said source code files.
Upgrading to at least 5.0.2.0 is recommended.
If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
details. Please report any hoops you had to jump through to the development
team.
=head2 OS level
Before installing the patches to the IBM C-compiler you need to know the
level of patching for the Operating System. IBM's command 'oslevel' will
show the base, but is not always complete (in this example oslevel shows
4.3.NULL, whereas the system might run most of 4.3.THREE):
# oslevel
4.3.0.0
# lslpp -l | grep 'bos.rte '
bos.rte 4.3.3.75 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
bos.rte 4.3.2.0 COMMITTED Base Operating System Runtime
#
The same might happen to AIX 5.1 or other OS levels. As a side note, Perl
cannot be built without bos.adt.syscalls and bos.adt.libm installed
# lslpp -l | egrep "syscalls|libm"
bos.adt.libm 5.1.0.25 COMMITTED Base Application Development
bos.adt.syscalls 5.1.0.36 COMMITTED System Calls Application
#
=head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX E<lt> 5L
AIX supports dynamically loadable objects as well as shared libraries.
Shared libraries by convention end with the suffix .a, which is a bit
misleading, as an archive can contain static as well as dynamic members.
For Perl dynamically loaded objects we use the .so suffix also used on
many other platforms.
Note that starting from Perl 5.7.2 (and consequently 5.8.0) and AIX 4.3
or newer Perl uses the AIX native dynamic loading interface in the so
called runtime linking mode instead of the emulated interface that was
used in Perl releases 5.6.1 and earlier or, for AIX releases 4.2 and
earlier. This change does break backward compatibility with compiled
modules from earlier Perl releases. The change was made to make Perl
more compliant with other applications like Apache/mod_perl which are
using the AIX native interface. This change also enables the use of C++
code with static constructors and destructors in Perl extensions, which
was not possible using the emulated interface.
=head2 The IBM ANSI C Compiler
All defaults for Configure can be used.
If you've chosen to use vac 4, be sure to run 4.4.0.3. Older versions
will turn up nasty later on. For vac 5 be sure to run at least 5.0.1.0,
but vac 5.0.2.6 or up is highly recommended. Note that since IBM has
removed vac 5.0.2.1 through 5.0.2.5 from the software depot, these
versions should be considered obsolete.
Here's a brief lead of how to upgrade the compiler to the latest
level. Of course this is subject to changes. You can only upgrade
versions from ftp-available updates if the first three digit groups
are the same (in where you can skip intermediate unlike the patches
in the developer snapshots of Perl), or to one version up where the
"base" is available. In other words, the AIX compiler patches are
cumulative.
vac.C.4.4.0.1 => vac.C.4.4.0.3 is OK (vac.C.4.4.0.2 not needed)
xlC.C.3.1.3.3 => xlC.C.3.1.4.10 is NOT OK (xlC.C.3.1.4.0 is not available)
# ftp ftp.software.ibm.com
Connected to service.boulder.ibm.com.
: welcome message ...
Name (ftp.software.ibm.com:merijn): anonymous
331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
Password:
... accepted login stuff
ftp> cd /aix/fixes/v4/
ftp> dir other other.ll
output to local-file: other.ll? y
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> dir xlc xlc.ll
output to local-file: xlc.ll? y
200 PORT command successful.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> bye
... goodbye messages
# ls -l *.ll
-rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 1169432 Nov 2 17:29 other.ll
-rw-rw-rw- 1 merijn system 29170 Nov 2 17:29 xlc.ll
On AIX 4.2 using xlC, we continue:
# lslpp -l | fgrep 'xlC.C '
xlC.C 3.1.4.9 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
xlC.C 3.1.4.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
# grep 'xlC.C.3.1.4.*.bff' xlc.ll
-rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6286336 Jul 22 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.1.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6173696 Aug 24 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
-rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6319104 Aug 14 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.2.bff
-rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6316032 Oct 21 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.3.bff
-rw-r--r-- 1 45776101 1 6315008 Dec 20 1996 xlC.C.3.1.4.4.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6178816 Mar 28 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.5.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6188032 May 22 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.6.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6191104 Sep 5 1997 xlC.C.3.1.4.7.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6185984 Jan 13 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.8.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 6169600 May 27 1998 xlC.C.3.1.4.9.bff
# wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/xlc/xlC.C.3.1.4.10.bff
#
On AIX 4.3 using vac, we continue:
# lslpp -l | grep 'vac.C '
vac.C 5.0.2.2 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
vac.C 5.0.2.0 COMMITTED C for AIX Compiler
# grep 'vac.C.5.0.2.*.bff' other.ll
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 13592576 Apr 16 2001 vac.C.5.0.2.0.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14133248 Apr 9 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.3.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14173184 May 20 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.4.bff
-rw-rw-r-- 1 45776101 1 14192640 Nov 22 2002 vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
# wget ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/aix/fixes/v4/other/vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff
#
Likewise on all other OS levels. Then execute the following command, and
fill in its choices
# smit install_update
-> Install and Update from LATEST Available Software
* INPUT device / directory for software [ vac.C.5.0.2.6.bff ]
[ OK ]
[ OK ]
Follow the messages ... and you're done.
If you like a more web-like approach, a good start point can be
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/downloadaz.jsp and click
"C for AIX", and follow the instructions.
=head2 The usenm option
If linking miniperl
cc -o miniperl ... miniperlmain.o opmini.o perl.o ... -lm -lc ...
causes error like this
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .aintl
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .copysignl
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .syscall
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .eaccess
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresuid
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setresgid
ld: 0711-317 ERROR: Undefined symbol: .setproctitle
ld: 0711-345 Use the -bloadmap or -bnoquiet option to obtain more information.
you could retry with
make realclean
rm config.sh
./Configure -Dusenm ...
which makes Configure to use the C<nm> tool when scanning for library
symbols, which usually is not done in AIX.
Related to this, you probably should not use the C<-r> option of
Configure in AIX, because that affects of how the C<nm> tool is used.
=head2 Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
Using gcc-3.x (tested with 3.0.4, 3.1, and 3.2) now works out of the box,
as do recent gcc-2.9 builds available directly from IBM as part of their
Linux compatibility packages, available here:
http://www.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/aixos/linux/
=head2 Using Large Files with Perl E<lt> 5L
Should yield no problems.
=head2 Threaded Perl E<lt> 5L
Threads seem to work OK, though at the moment not all tests pass when
threads are used in combination with 64-bit configurations.
You may get a warning when doing a threaded build:
"pp_sys.c", line 4640.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment
between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.
The exact line number may vary, but if the warning (W) comes from a line
line this
hent = PerlSock_gethostbyaddr(addr, (Netdb_hlen_t) addrlen, addrtype);
in the "pp_ghostent" function, you may ignore it safely. The warning
is caused by the reentrant variant of gethostbyaddr() having a slightly
different prototype than its non-reentrant variant, but the difference
is not really significant here.
=head2 64-bit Perl E<lt> 5L
If your AIX is installed with 64-bit support, you can expect 64-bit
configurations to work. In combination with threads some tests might
still fail.
=head2 AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
In AIX 4.2 Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics
may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized.
In newer AIX releases this has been solved by linking Perl with
the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library
has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time
(such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and
therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against the libC_r.
=head1 AUTHORS
Rainer Tammer <tammer@tammer.net>
=cut
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