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Deploy ManageIQ on OpenShift

Join the chat at https://gitter.im/ManageIQ/manageiq-pods This guide will demo deploying ManageIQ in OpenShift as its example use-case but this method could actually be used in a different container cluster environment

Purpose

This example gives a base template to deploy a multi-pod ManageIQ appliance with the DB stored in a persistent volume on OpenShift. It provides a step-by-step setup including cluster administrative tasks as well as basic user information and commands. The ultimate goal of the project is to be able to decompose the ManageIQ appliance into several containers running on a pod or a series of pods.

Prerequisites:

  • OpenShift Origin 1.5 or higher
  • NFS or other compatible volume provider
  • A cluster-admin user

Cluster Sizing

In order to avoid random deployment failures due to resource starvation, we recommend a minimum cluster size for a test environment.

  • 1 x Master node with at least 8 VCPUs and 12GB of RAM
  • 2 x Nodes with at least 4 VCPUs and 8GB of RAM
  • 20GB of storage for MIQ PV use

Other sizing considerations:

  • Recommendations assume MIQ will be the only application running on this cluster.
  • Alternatively, you can provision an infrastructure node to run registry/metrics/router/logging pods.
  • Each MIQ application pod will consume at least 3GB of RAM on initial deployment (blank deployment without providers).
  • RAM consumption will ramp up higher depending on appliance use, once providers are added expect higher resource consumption.

Installing

$ git clone https://github.com/ManageIQ/manageiq-pods.git

Pre-deployment preparation tasks

As basic user

Login to OpenShift and create a project

Note: This section assumes you have a basic user.

$ oc login -u <user> -p <password>

Next, create the project as follows:

$ oc new-project <project_name> \
--description="<description>" \
--display-name="<display_name>"

At a minimum, only <project_name> is required.

Add the miq-anyuid and miq-orchestrator service accounts to the anyuid security context

Note: The current MIQ image requires the root user.

These service accounts for your namespace (project) must be added to the anyuid SCC before pods using the service accounts can run as root.

As admin

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-anyuid
$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-orchestrator

Verify that the service accounts are now included in the anyuid scc

$ oc describe scc anyuid | grep Users
Users:					system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-anyuid,system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-orchestrator

Add the miq-privileged service account to the privileged security context

Note: The current Embedded Ansible image requires a privileged pod.

The miq-privileged service account for your namespace must be aded to the privileged SCC so that the embedded-ansible pod can function correctly.

As admin

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user privileged system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-privileged

Verify that the miq-privileged service account is now included in the privileged scc

$ oc describe scc privileged | grep Users
Users:					system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-privileged

Set up the miq-httpd service account

If running without OCI systemd hooks (Minishift)

Note: Minishift clusters are not equipped with OCI systemd hooks which are used to assist with containerized systemd deployments.

An extra SCC is used on Minishift to compensate for the lack of oci-systemd-hooks. Please SKIP this step if your cluster is equipped with oci-systemd-hooks.

As admin

Create the miq-sysadmin SCC:

$ oc create -f templates/miq-scc-sysadmin.yaml

The miq-httpd service account must be added to the miq-sysadmin SCC before the front-end httpd pod can run.

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user miq-sysadmin system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-httpd

Verify that the miq-httpd service account is now included in the miq-sysadmin scc

$ oc describe scc miq-sysadmin | grep Users
Users:              system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-httpd

If running with OCI systemd hooks

As admin

Add the miq-httpd service account to the anyuid SCC

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-httpd

Verify that the miq-httpd service account is now included in the anyuid scc

$ oc describe scc anyuid | grep Users
Users:              system:serviceaccount:<your-namespace>:miq-httpd

Make persistent volumes to host the MIQ database and application data

A basic (single server/replica) deployment needs up to 2 persistent volumes (PVs) to store MIQ data:

  • Server (Server specific appliance data)
  • Database (PostgreSQL, required if running database podified)

NFS PV templates are provided, please skip this step you have already configured persistent storage.

For NFS backed volumes, please ensure your NFS server firewall is configured to allow traffic on port 2049 (TCP) from the OpenShift cluster.

Note: Recommended permissions for the PV volumes are 777, root uid/gid owned.

As admin:

Creating the required PVs may be a one or two step process. You may create the initial templates now, and then process them and create the PVs later, or you may do all of the processing and PV creation in one pass

There are three parameters required to process the templates. Only NFS_HOST is required, PV_SIZE and BASE_PATH have sane defaults already

  • PV_SIZE - Defaults to the recommended PV size for the App/DB template (5Gi/15Gi respectively)
  • BASE_PATH - Defaults to /exports
  • NFS_HOST - No Default - Hostname or IP address of the NFS server

Note Repeat this process for templates/miq-pv-db-example.yaml as well if you are running your PostgreSQL database podified. The name of the database pv template is manageiq-db-pv.

Method 1 - Create Template, Process and Create Later

This method first creates the template object in OpenShift and then demonstrates how to process the template and fill in the required parameters at a later time.

$ oc create -f templates/miq-pv-server-example.yaml
# ... do stuff ...
$ oc process manageiq-app-pv -p NFS_HOST=nfs.example.com | oc create -f -

Method 2 - Process Template and Create PV in one pass

# oc process templates/miq-pv-server-example.yaml -p NFS_HOST=nfs.example.com | oc create -f -

Verify PV creation

$ oc get pv
NAME      CAPACITY   ACCESSMODES   RECLAIMPOLICY   STATUS      CLAIM     STORAGECLASS   REASON    AGE
miq-app   5Gi        RWO           Retain          Available                                      7s
miq-db    15Gi       RWO           Retain          Available                                      1s

It is strongly suggested that you validate NFS share connectivity from an OpenShift node prior to attempting a deployment.

Deploy MIQ

Create the MIQ template for deployment and verify it is now available in your project

If you wish to add a SSL certificate now, you can edit the application template and provide that now. Check the Edge Termination section of Secured Routes for more information on that. This can be easily changed later in the Openshift UI by navigating to Your Project -> Applications -> Routes -> httpd -> Actions -> Edit.

As basic user

$ oc create -f templates/miq-template.yaml
template "manageiq" created
$ oc get templates
NAME       DESCRIPTION                                  PARAMETERS     OBJECTS
manageiq   ManageIQ appliance with persistent storage   55 (1 blank)   24

The supplied template provides customizable deployment parameters, use oc process to see available parameters and descriptions

$ oc process --parameters -n <your-project> manageiq

Deploy MIQ from template using default settings

$ oc new-app --template=manageiq

Deploy MIQ from template using customized settings

$ oc new-app --template=manageiq -p DATABASE_VOLUME_CAPACITY=2Gi,POSTGRESQL_MEM_LIMIT=4Gi

Deploy MIQ using an external database

Before you attempt an external DB deployment please ensure the following conditions are satisfied :

  • Your OpenShift cluster can access the external PostgreSQL server
  • The external PostgreSQL server must run at a minimum version 9.4 (9.5 if replication is desired), see SCL PG instructions for CentOS/RHEL based hosts
  • MIQ user, password and role have been created on the external PostgreSQL server
  • The intended MIQ database is created and ownership has been assigned to the MIQ user

Import the MIQ external db template

$ oc create -f templates/miq-template-ext-db.yaml

Launch deployment, database server IP is required, rest of settings must match your remote PG server side.

$ oc new-app --template=manageiq-ext-db -p DATABASE_IP=<server_ip> -p DATABASE_USER=<user> -p DATABASE_PASSWORD=<password> -p DATABASE_NAME=<database_name>

Verifying the setup was successful

Note: The first deployment could take several minutes as OpenShift is downloading the necessary images.

Confirm the deployed MIQ pods are bound to the correct SCC

Describe all pods and search for Security Policy

$ oc describe pods | grep -B2 "Security Policy"
Name:			httpd-1-5pnrz
Security Policy:	anyuid
--
Name:			manageiq-0
Security Policy:	anyuid
--
Name:			memcached-1-l3030
Security Policy:	restricted
--
Name:			postgresql-1-mz623
Security Policy:	restricted

Verify the persistent volumes are attached to postgresql and miq-app pods

$ oc volume pods --all
pods/manageiq-0
  pvc/manageiq-server-manageiq-0 (allocated 2GiB) as manageiq-server
    mounted at /persistent
  secret/default-token-nw0qi as default-token-nw0qi
    mounted at /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount
pods/postgresql-1-dufgp
  pvc/manageiq-postgresql (allocated 2GiB) as miq-pgdb-volume
    mounted at /var/lib/pgsql/data
  secret/default-token-nw0qi as default-token-nw0qi
    mounted at /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount

Check readiness of the MIQ pods

Note: Please allow ~5 minutes once pods are in Running state for MIQ to start responding on HTTPS

The READY column denotes the number of replicas and their readiness state

$ oc get pods
NAME                 READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
httpd-1-5pnrz        1/1       Running   0          1h
manageiq-0           1/1       Running   0          1h
memcached-1-l3030    1/1       Running   0          1h
postgresql-1-mz623   1/1       Running   0          1h

Scale MIQ

We use StatefulSets to allow scaling of MIQ appliances, before you attempt scaling please ensure you have enough PVs available to scale. Each new replica will consume a PV.

Example scaling to 2 replicas/servers

$ oc scale statefulset manageiq --replicas=2
statefulset "manageiq" scaled
$ oc get pods
NAME                 READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
manageiq-0           1/1       Running   0          34m
manageiq-1           1/1       Running   0          5m
memcached-1-mzeer    1/1       Running   0          1h
postgresql-1-dufgp   1/1       Running   0          1h

The newly created replicas will join the existing MIQ region. For a StatefulSet with N replicas, when Pods are being deployed, they are created sequentially, in order from {0..N-1}.

Note: As of Origin 1.5 StatefulSets are a beta feature, be aware functionality might be limited.

POD access and routes

Get a shell on the MIQ pod

$ oc rsh <pod_name> bash -l

Obtain host information from route

A route should have been deployed via template for HTTPS access on the MIQ pod

$oc get routes
NAME      HOST/PORT                              PATH      SERVICES   PORT      TERMINATION     WILDCARD
httpd     miq-dev.apps.example.com                         httpd      http      edge/Redirect   None

Examine output and point your web browser to the reported URL/HOST.

Logging In

Per the ManageIQ project basic configuration documentation, you can now login to the MIQ web interface using the default name/password: admin/smartvm.

Backup and restore of the MIQ database

Backup and restore of the MIQ database can be achieved via openshift jobs. Keep in mind an extra PV will be required with enough capacity to store as many backup copies as needed.

A sample backup PV is supplied on templates, adjust the default settings to your site requirements before attempting to import.

Create the backup PV

** As admin user**

$ oc create -f miq-pv-backup-example.yaml

Create the backup PVC

As basic user

$ oc create -f miq-backup-pvc.yaml

Verify the backup PVC was created correctly

The backup and restore job samples expect PVCs to be named "manageiq-backup" and "manageiq-postgresql" to setup volumes correctly.

$ oc get pvc
NAME                         STATUS    VOLUME    CAPACITY   ACCESSMODES   AGE
manageiq-backup              Bound     pv05      15Gi       RWO           1d
manageiq-postgresql          Bound     pv12      15Gi       RWO           1d
manageiq-server-manageiq-0   Bound     pv01      5Gi        RWO           1d

Backup API objects at the project level

$ oc get secret -o yaml --export=true > secrets.yaml
$ oc get pvc -o yaml --export=true > pvc.yaml

The MIQ secrets object contains important data regarding your deployment such as database encryption keys and other credentials, backup and save objects in a safe location.

Launch a database backup

Backups can be initiated with the database online, the job will attempt to run immediately after creation.

$ oc create -f miq-backup-job.yaml

The backup job will connect to the MIQ database pod and perform a full binary backup of the entire database cluster, it is based on pg_basebackup.

Check the job status and logs

$ oc get pods
NAME                     READY     STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
manageiq-backup-rrkw5    0/1       Completed   0          1h

$ oc logs manageiq-backup-rrkw5
== Starting MIQ DB backup ==
Current time is : Thu Jul 27 02:30:44 UTC 2017
transaction log start point: 0/2C000028 on timeline 1
86554/86554 kB (100%), 1/1 tablespace
transaction log end point: 0/2C01FBF8
pg_basebackup: base backup completed
Sucessfully finished backup : Thu Jul 27 02:30:57 UTC 2017
Backup stored at : /backups/miq_backup_20170727T023044

Restoring a database backup

The database restoration must be done OFFLINE, scale down prior attempting this procedure otherwise corruption can occur.

$ oc scale statefulset manageiq --replicas=0
$ oc scale dc/httpd --replicas=0
$ oc scale dc/postgresql --replicas=0

Notes about restore procedure:

  • The sample restore job will bind to the backup and production PG volumes via "manageiq-backup" and "manageiq-postgresql" PVCs by default
  • If existing data is found on the production PG volume, the restore job will NOT delete this data, it will rename it and place it on the same volume
  • The latest successful DB backup will be restored by default, this can be adjusted via the BACKUP_VERSION environment variable on restore object template

Launch a database restore

$ oc create -f miq-restore-job.yaml

Check the restore job status and logs

$ oc get pods
NAME                     READY     STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
manageiq-backup-rrkw5    0/1       Completed   0          10h
manageiq-restore-7hgzc   0/1       Completed   0          8h
$ oc logs manageiq-restore-7hgzc
== Checking postgresql status ==
postgresql:5432 - no response
== Checking for existing PG data ==
Existing data found at : /restore/userdata
Existing data moved to : /restore/userdata_20170727T052008
== Starting MIQ DB restore ==
Current time is : Thu Jul 27 05:20:11 UTC 2017
tar: Read checkpoint 500
tar: Read checkpoint 1000
tar: Read checkpoint 1500
tar: Read checkpoint 2000
...
Sucessfully finished DB restore : Thu Jul 27 05:20:33 UTC 2017

Re-scale postgresql DC and verify proper operation

$ oc scale dc/postgresql --replicas=1

Check the PG pod logs and readiness status, if successful, proceed to re-scale rest of deployment

$ oc scale statefulset manageiq --replicas=1
$ oc scale dc/httpd --replicas=1

Troubleshooting

Under normal circumstances the entire first time deployment process should take around ~10 minutes, indication of issues can be seen by examination of the deployment events and pod logs.

Re-trying a failed deployment

As basic user

$ oc get pods
NAME                 READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
manageiq-1-deploy    0/1       Error     0          25m
memcached-1-yasfq    1/1       Running   0          24m
postgresql-1-wfv59   1/1       Running   0          24m

$ oc deploy manageiq --retry
Retried #1
Use 'oc logs -f dc/manageiq' to track its progress.

Allow a few seconds for the failed pod to get re-scheduled, then begin checking events and logs

$ oc describe pods <pod-name>
...
Events:
  FirstSeen	LastSeen	Count	From							SubobjectPath			Type		Reason		Message
  ---------	--------	-----	----							-------------			--------	------		-------
15m		15m		1	{kubelet ocp-eval-node-2.e2e.bos.redhat.com}	spec.containers{manageiq}	Warning		Unhealthy	Readiness probe failed: Get http://10.1.1.5:80/: dial tcp 10.1.1.5:80: getsockopt: connection refused

Liveness and Readiness probe failures indicate the pod is taking longer than expected to come alive/online, check pod logs.

Note: The miq-app container is systemd based, use oc rsh instead of oc logs to obtain journal dumps

$ oc rsh <pod-name> journalctl -x

It might also be useful to transfer all logs from the miq-app pod to a directory on the host for further examination, we can use oc rsync for this task.

$ oc rsync <pod-name>:/persistent/container-deploy/log /tmp/fail-logs/
receiving incremental file list
log/
log/appliance_initialize_1477272109.log
log/restore_pv_data_1477272010.log
log/sync_pv_data_1477272010.log

sent 72 bytes  received 1881 bytes  1302.00 bytes/sec
total size is 1585  speedup is 0.81

Building Images on OpenShift

It is possible to build the images from this repository (or any of other) using OpenShift:

$ oc -n <your-namespace> new-build --context-dir=images/miq-app https://github.com/ManageIQ/manageiq-pods#master

In addition it is also suggested to tweak the following dockerStrategy parameters to ensure fresh builds every time:

$ oc edit bc -n <your-namespace> manageiq-pods
strategy:
  dockerStrategy:
    forcePull: true
    noCache: true

To execute new builds after the first (automatically started) you can execute:

$ oc start-build -n <your-namespace> manageiq-pods

To take advantage of the newly built image you should configure the following template parameters:

$ oc new-app --template=manageiq \
  -n <your-namespace> \
  -p APPLICATION_IMG_NAME=<your-container-registry>:5000/<your-namespace>/manageiq-pods \
  -p APPLICATION_IMG_TAG=latest \
  ...

Configuring External Authentication

Configuring the httpd pod for external authentication is done by updating the httpd-auth-configs configuration map to include all necessary config files and certificates. Upon startup, the httpd pod overlays its files with the ones specified in the auth-configuration.conf file in the configuration map. This is done by the initialize-httpd-auth service that runs before httpd.

The config map includes the following:

  • The authentication type auth-type, default is internal

    This parameter drives which configuration files httpd will load upon start-up. Supported values are:

    Value External-Authentication Configuration
    internal Application Based Authentication (default) - Database, Ldap/Ldaps, Amazon
    external IPA, IPA 2-factor authentication, IPA/AD Trust, Ldap (OpenLdap, RHDS, Active Directory, etc.)
    active-directory Active Directory domain realm join
    saml SAML based authentication (Keycloak, ADFS, etc.)
    oidc OpenID-Connect based authentication (Keycloak, ADFS, etc.)
  • The kerberos realms to join auth-kerberos-realms, default is undefined

    When configuring external authentication against IPA, Active Directory or Ldap, this parameter defines the kerberos realm httpd is configured against, i.e. example.com

    When specifying multiple Kerberos realms, they need to be space separated.

  • The external authentication configuration file auth-configuration.conf which declares the list of files to overlay upon startup if auth-type is other than internal.

    Syntax for the file is as follows:

     # for comments
     file = basename1 target_path1 permission1
     file = basename2 target_path2 permission2
    

For the files to overlay on the httpd pod, one file directive is needed per file.

  • the basename is the name of the source file in the configuration map.
  • target_path is the path of the file on the pod to overwrite, i.e. /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
  • permission is optional, by default files are copied using the pod's default umask, owner and group, so files are created as mode 644 owner root, group root.

optional permission can be specified as follows:

  • mode
  • mode:owner
  • mode:owner:group

Reflecting the mode and ownership to set the copied files to.

Examples:

  • 755
  • 640:root
  • 644:root:apache

Binary files can be specified in the configuration map in their base64 encoded format with a basename having a .base64 extension. Such files are then converted back to binary as they are copied to their target path.

When an /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file is included in the configuration map, the httpd pod automatically enables the sssd service upon startup.

Sample external authentication configuration for SAML:

Excluding the content of the files, a SAML auth-config map data section may look like:

apiVersion: v1
data:
  auth-type: saml
  auth-kerberos-realms: example.com
  auth-configuration.conf: |
    #
    # Configuration for SAML authentication
    #
    file = manageiq-remote-user.conf        /etc/httpd/conf.d/manageiq-remote-user.conf        644
    file = manageiq-external-auth-saml.conf /etc/httpd/conf.d/manageiq-external-auth-saml.conf 644
    file = idp-metadata.xml                 /etc/httpd/saml2/idp-metadata.xml                  644
    file = sp-key.key                       /etc/httpd/saml2/sp-key.key                        600:root:root
    file = sp-cert.cert                     /etc/httpd/saml2/sp-cert.cert                      644
    file = sp-metadata.xml                  /etc/httpd/saml2/sp-metadata.xml                   644
  manageiq-remote-user.conf: |
    RequestHeader unset X_REMOTE_USER
    ...
  manageiq-external-auth-saml.conf: |
    LoadModule auth_mellon_module modules/mod_auth_mellon.so
    ...
  idp-metadata.xml: |
    <EntitiesDescriptor ...
      ...
    </EntitiesDescriptor>
  sp-key.key: |
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
       ...
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
  sp-cert.cert: |
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
       ...
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  sp-metadata.xml: |
    <EntityDescriptor ...
       ...
    </EntityDescriptor>

The authentication configuration map can be defined and customized in the httpd pod as follows:

$ oc edit configmaps httpd-auth-configs

Or simply replaced if generated and edited externally as follows:

$ oc replace configmaps httpd-auth-configs --filename external-auth-configmap.yaml

Then redeploy the httpd pod for the new authentication configuration to take effect.

Support for automatically generating authentication configuration maps for the httpd pod is provided by ManageIQ/httpd_configmap_generator. Please see the README.md in that repo for further details.

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