PowerShell Desired State Configuration - for Linux
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Latest commit 99976e0 Jan 18, 2017 @Diastro Diastro committed with Diastro Updating azure automation worker bits to
- Fix runbook signature validation
- Adding registration proxy support


PowerShell Desired State Configuration for Linux

Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation ver. 1.1.1

All rights reserved.

MIT License

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


Getting Started

Latest Release

The latest release packages for PowerShell DSC for Linux can be downloaded here: Releases

Supported Linux operating systems

The following Linux operating system versions are supported by DSC for Linux.

  • CentOS 5, 6, and 7 (x86/x64)
  • Debian GNU/Linux 6, 7 and 8 (x86/x64)
  • Oracle Linux 5, 6 and 7 (x86/x64)
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 5, 6 and 7 (x86/x64)
  • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10, 11 and 12 (x86/x64)
  • Ubuntu Server 12.04 LTS, 14.04 LTS, 16.04 LTS (x86/x64)


The following table describes the required package dependencies for DSC for Linux.

Required package Description Minimum version
glibc GNU C Library 2.4 - 31.30
python Python 2.4 - 3.4
omi Open Management Infrastructure 1.0.8-4
openssl OpenSSL Libraries 0.9.8e or 1.0
python-ctypes Python CTypes library Must match Python version
libcurl cURL http client library 7.15.1

OMI Packages can be found at OMI.

Installing DSC Packages

OMI and DSC packages are available in RPM and Debian packages, for x86 and x64 architectures, and for systems with OpenSSL version 0.9.8 and version 1.0.x. To install DSC, select determine the packages that are correct for your operating system, and install them.

Examples Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, or Oracle Linux 7:

wget https://github.com/Microsoft/omi/releases/download/v1.1.0-0/omi-1.1.0.ssl_100.x64.rpm
wget https://github.com/Microsoft/PowerShell-DSC-for-Linux/releases/download/v1.1.1-294/dsc-1.1.1-294.ssl_100.x64.rpm

sudo rpm -Uvh omi-1.1.0.ssl_100.x64.rpm dsc-1.1.1-294.ssl_100.x64.rpm

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, 16.04 LTS, or Debian GNU/Linux 8, x64:

wget https://github.com/Microsoft/omi/releases/download/v1.1.0-0/omi-1.1.0.ssl_100.x64.deb
wget https://github.com/Microsoft/PowerShell-DSC-for-Linux/releases/download/v1.1.1-294/dsc-1.1.1-294.ssl_100.x64.deb

sudo dpkg -i omi-1.1.0.ssl_100.x64.deb dsc-1.1.1-294.ssl_100.x64.deb

For more information, review the latest release notes and product documentation.

To author DSC MOF configuration for Linux on a Windows computer:


  • A Windows computer with:
    • Adminstrative privileges
    • Windows PowerShell (>=4.0)


  • A Linux computer with:

  • Install the Linux Resource Provider MOF module:

    • The "nx" module can be installed from the PowerShell Gallery with: install-module nx
    • In order to compile a Configuration MOF that uses the DSC for Linux resources, use Import-DscResource -Module nx inside a DSC Configuration block.
  • Remotely managing a Linux system with DSC

    • You need a compiled configuration MOF to apply a new configuration to a system.
      Start-DscConfiguration -CimSession:$myCimSession -Path:"C:\path_to_compiled_mof_directory\" -Wait -Verbose
    • You can get the current configuration of the system by running: Get-DscConfiguration -CimSession:$myCimSession
    • You can test the current configuration of the system by running: Test-DscConfiguration -CimSession:$myCimSession
    • For more information on creating a CimSession for use with the -CimSession parameter, see: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj590760.aspx
  • Locally managing a Linux system with DSC

Building the Desired State Configuration (DSC) Local Configuration Manager and Linux Resource Providers


  • At least one modern Linux system with:
    • root login capability
    • These build tools:
      • GNU Make
      • g++
      • Python version 2.5 or later, the package python-devel
    • Open Management Infrastructure (OMI) 1.0.8. http://theopengroup.org/software/omi
      • pam-devel
      • openssl-devel

Building and installing the Local Configuration Manager and Linux Resource Providers

  1. Extract PSDSC.tar into a directory that you will build it from.
  2. Download and extract OMI 1.0.8 into a directory named omi-1.0.8 in a directory parallel to the LCM and Providers directory. The directory tree should look something like:
  1. Building

    • Configuring OMI and building
      • Configure OMI with desired options (refer to OMI documentation for this step).
        • The default configuration installs to /opt/omi-1.0.8
        • To use the default configuration, run: cd omi-1.0.8 && ./configure
      • Run: make
    • Installing OMI:
      • Run: cd omi-1.0.8 && sudo ./output/install
    • Registering the LCM + nxProviders with OMI:
      • Run: sudo make reg
  2. Running OMI

    • On the Linux system, run omiserver with environment variable OMI_HOME set to OMI's installed directory
      • Run as root: OMI_HOME=<PATH_TO_INSTALLED_OMI_DIR> $OMI_HOME/bin/omiserver
      • The default installation for OMI 1.0.8 is /opt/omi-1.0.8. Thus, for default installations, part 4Ai above becomes: OMI_HOME=/opt/omi-1.0.8 $OMI_HOME/bin/omiserver > Note: In order to run following reboots, it is recommended to configure OMI as a System-V, Upstart, or SystemD daemon

Building and using DSC and OMI from source

DSC and OMI can also be built together entirely from source in a self-contained directory. This is useful primarily for developers.

# Clone DSC source
git clone https://github.com/Microsoft/PowerShell-DSC-for-Linux.git
cd PowerShell-DSC-for-Linux

# Place the OMI source where DSC expects it
# Alternatively clone from Git and symlink to omi/Unix
wget https://collaboration.opengroup.org/omi/documents/33715/omi-1.0.8.tar.gz
tar xf omi-1.0.8.tar.gz

# Build OMI in developer mode
cd omi-1.0.8
./configure --dev
make -j
cd ..

# Build DSC in developer mode
./configure --no-rpm --no-dpkg --local
make -j
make reg

# Start the OMI server

Use Azure Automation as a DSC Pull Server

Note: For more information on Azure Automation’s DSC features, reference the documentation.
Linux computers can be onboarded to Azure Automation DSC, as long as they have outbound access to the internet, via a few simple steps:

Make sure version 1.1 or later of the DSC Linux agent is installed on the machines you want to onboard to Azure Automation DSC.

To configure Azure Automation as a DSC Pull Server from the Linux computer:

  • On each Linux machine to onboard to Azure Automation DSC, use Register.py to onboard using the PowerShell DSC Local Configuration Manager defaults:
    /opt/microsoft/dsc/Scripts/Register.py <Automation account registration key> <Automation account registration URL>

  • To find the registration key and registration URL for your Automation account, see the Secure Registration section below.

  • Using the Azure portal or cmdlets, check that the machines to onboard now show up as DSC nodes registered in your Azure Automation account.

Additional configuration options:

  • --ConfigurationName: the name of the configuration to apply
  • --RefreshFrequencyMins: Specifies how often (in minutes) LCM attempts to obtain the configuration from the pull server. If configuration on the pull server differs from the current one on the target node, it is copied to the pending store and applied.
  • --ConfigurationModeFrequencyMins: Specifies how often (in minutes) LCM ensures that the configuration is in the desired state.
  • --ConfigurationMode: Specifies how LCM should apply the configuration. Valid values are: ApplyOnly, ApplyAndMonitor, ApplyAndAutoCorrect

To configure Azure Automation as a DSC Pull Server with a metaconfiguration MOF:

  • Open the PowerShell console or PowerShell ISE as an administrator on a Windows machine in your local environment. This machine must have the latest version of WMF 5 installed
  • Connect to Azure Resource Manager using the Azure PowerShell module:
Switch-AzureMode AzureResourceManager
  • Download, from the Automation account you want to onboard nodes to, the PowerShell DSC metaconfigurations for the machines you want to onboard: Get-AzureAutomationDscOnboardingMetaconfig -ResourceGroupName MyResourceGroup AutomationAccountName MyAutomationAccount -ComputerName MyServer1, MyServer2 OutputFolder C:\Users\joe\Desktop

  • Optionally, view and update the metaconfigurations in the output folder as needed to match the PowerShell DSC Local Configuration Manager fields and values you want, if the defaults do not match your use case.

  • Remotely apply the PowerShell DSC metaconfiguration to the machines you want to onboard:

$SecurePass = ConvertTo -SecureString -string "<root password>" -AsPlainText Force 
$Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential "root" , $SecurePass 
$Opt = New-CimSessionOption -UseSsl: $true -SkipCACheck: $true -SkipCNCheck: $true -SkipRevocationCheck: $true 

$Session = New-CimSession -Credential: $Cred -ComputerName: <your Linux machine > -Port: 5986 -Authentication: basic -SessionOption: $Opt 
Set-DscLocalConfigurationManager -CimSession $Session –Path C:\Users\joe\Desktop\DscMetaConfigs
  • If you cannot apply the PowerShell DSC metaconfigurations remotely, for each Linux machine to onboard, copy the metaconfiguration corresponding to that machine from the folder in step 5 onto the Linux machine. Then call SetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py locally on each Linux machine to onboard to Azure Automation DSC:
/opt/microsoft/dsc/Scripts/SetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py –configurationmof <path to metaconfiguration file> 
  • Using the Azure portal or cmdlets, check that the machines to onboard now show up as DSC nodes registered in your Azure Automation account.

Importing resource modules to Azure Automation

The supplied resource modules with this release (nxNetworking, nxComputerManagement) can be imported to Azure Automation for distribution with DSC configurations. To import to Azure Automation, rename the .zip files to remove the _X.Y version string from the file name. Such as: nxNetworking.zip and nxComputerManagement.zip.

Performing DSC Operations from the Linux Computer

DSC for Linux includes scripts to work with configuration from the local Linux computer. These scripts are located in /opt/microsoft/dsc/Scripts and include the following:

GetDscConfiguration.py Returns the current configuration applied to the computer. Similar to the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Get-DscConfiguration cmdlet. sudo ./GetDscConfiguration.py

GetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py Returns the current meta-configuration applied to the computer. Similar to the Windows PowerShell cmdlet Get-DSCLocalConfigurationManager sudo ./GetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py

PerformRequiredConfigurationChecks.py Immediately checks the configuration in accordance with the MetaConfiguration settings and applies the configuration if an update is available. Useful for immediately applying configuration changes on the pull server. sudo ./PerformRequiredConfigurationChecks.py

RestoreConfiguration.py Applies the previous configuration known to DSC, a rollback.
sudo ./RestoreConfiguration.py

SetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py Applies a Meta Configuration MOF file to the computer. Similar to the Windows PowerShell cmdlet: Set-DSCLocalConfigurationManager. Requires the path to the Meta Configuration MOF to apply. sudo ./SetDscLocalConfigurationManager.py –configurationmof /tmp/localhost.meta.mof

StartDscConfiguration.py Applies a configuration MOF file to the computer. Similar to the Windows PowerShell cmdlet: StartDscConfiguration. Requires the path to the configuration MOF to apply. sudo ./StartDscConfiguration.py –configurationmof /tmp/localhost.mof

TestDscConfiguration.py Tests the current system configuration for compliance desired state. Similar to the Windows PowerShell cmdlet: Test-DscConfiguration.
sudo ./TestDscConfiguration.py

InstallModule.py Installs a custom DSC resource module. Requires the path to a .zip file containing the module shared object library and schema MOF files. sudo ./InstallModule.py /tmp/cnx_Resource.zip

RemoveModule.py Removes a custom DSC resource module. Requires the name of the module to remove. sudo ./RemoveModule.py cnx_Resource

Using PowerShell Desired State Configuration for Linux with a Pull Server

Using HTTPS with the Pull Server

Though unencrypted HTTP is supported for communication with the Pull server, HTTPS (SSL/TLS) is recommended. When using HTTPS, the DSC Local Configuration Manager requires that the SSL certificate of the Pull server is verifiable (signed by a trusted authority, has a common name that matches the URL, etc.).

You can modify these HTTPS requirements as needed, by modifying the file /etc/opt/omi/dsc/dsc.conf. The supported properties defined in this file are:

  • NoSSLv3 set this to true to require the TLS protocol and set this to false to support SSLv3 or TLS. The default is false.
  • DoNotCheckCertificate set this to true to ignore SSL certificate verification. The default is false.
  • CURL_CA_BUNDLE an optional path to a curl-ca-bundle.crt file containing the CA certificates to trust for SSL/TLS. For more information, see: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html
  • sslCipherSuite Optionally set your preferred SSL cipher suite list. Only ciphers matching the rules defined by this list will be supported for HTTPS negotiation. The syntax and available ciphers on your computer depend on whether the cURL package is configured to use OpenSSL or NSS as its SSL library. To determine which SSL library cURL is using, run the following command and look for OpenSSL or NSS in the list of linked libraries:
curl --version |head -n 1 curl 7.29.0 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.29.0 NSS/3.15.4 zlib/1.2.7 libidn/1.28 libssh2/1.4.3

For more information on configuring cipher support, see: http://curl.haxx.se/libcurl/c/CURLOPT_SSL_CIPHER_LIST.html

Using an HTTP(s) Proxy Server with DSC

DSC for Linux supports the use of an HTTP or HTTPS proxy server when communicating with a Pull Server. To configure a proxy server, edit the file /etc/opt/omi/conf/dsc/dsc.conf and add a line starting with PROXY=. The proxy server specification takes the format: The proxy configuration value has the following syntax: [protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]

Property Description
Protocol http or https
user Optional username for proxy authentication
password Optional password for proxy authentication
proxyhost Address or FQDN of the proxy server
port Optional port number for the proxy server

Example PROXY=https://proxyuser:proxypassword@proxyserver01:8080

PowerShell Desired State Configuration for Linux Log Files

The following log files are generated for DSC for Linux messages.

Log File Directory Description
omiserver.log /var/opt/omi/log Messages relating to the operation of the OMI CIM server.
dsc.log /var/opt/omi/log Messages relating to the operation of the Local Configuration Manager and DSC resource operations.

Code of Conduct

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.