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Swagger RESTful API Documentation Specification

Version 1.2

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

The Swagger specification is licensed under The Apache License, Version 2.0.

1. Introduction

Swagger™ is a project used to describe and document RESTful APIs.

The Swagger specification defines a set of files required to describe such an API. These files can then be used by the Swagger-UI project to display the API and Swagger-Codegen to generate clients in various languages. Additional utilities can also take advantage of the resulting files, such as testing tools.

2. Revision History

Version Date Notes
1.2 2014-03-14 Initial release of the formal document.
1.1 2012-08-22 Release of Swagger 1.1
1.0 2011-08-10 First release of the Swagger Specification

3. Definitions

In this case, there's either one "/users" resource that contains operations on the "/users/{id}" sub-resource, or two separate resources.

  • URL: A fully qualified URL.

4. Specification

4.1 Format

The files describing the RESTful API in accordance with the Swagger specification are represented as JSON objects and conform to the JSON standards.

For example, if a field is said to have an array value, the JSON array representation will be used:

{
   "field" : [...]
}

Please note that while the API is described using JSON, the input and/or output can be in XML, YAML, plain text, or whichever format you chose to use with your API.

Unless noted otherwise, all field names in the specification are case sensitive.

4.2 File Structure

The Swagger representation of the API is comprised of two file types:

  1. The Resource Listing - This is the root document that contains general API information and lists the resources. Each resource has its own URL that defines the API operations on it.

  2. The API Declaration - This document describes a resource, including its API calls and models. There is one file per resource.

4.3 Data Types

In the Swagger specification, the data types are used in several locations - Operations, Operation Parameters, Models, and within the data types themselves (arrays).

The fields used to describe a given data type are added flatly to the relevant object. For example, if an object Foo has the field name, and is also a data type, then it MUST also include the field type (or its variance, as explained ahead). In this example, Foo would look like:

"Foo" : {
   "name" : "sample",
   "type" : "string",
   ...
}

This section describes the general fields that are available to describe such data types. Some data types allow additional fields to extend further limitations on the data type value (see 4.3.3 Data Type Fields for further details).

Special care should be taken when referencing a model (or a complex type). There are currently two variations, and the proper variation should be documented everywhere the model may be used. This behavior will be unified in future versions of the spec.

The Swagger specification supports five data types:

  1. primitive (input/output)
  2. containers (as arrays/sets) (input/output)
  3. complex (as models) (input/output)
  4. void (output)
  5. File (input)

4.3.1 Primitives

Different programming languages represent primitives differently. The Swagger specification supports by name only the primitive types supported by the JSON-Schema Draft 4. However, in order to allow fine tuning a primitive definition, an additional format field MAY accompany the type primitive to give more information about the type used. If the format field is used, the respective client MUST conform to the elaborate type.

Common Name type format Comments
integer integer int32 signed 32 bits
long integer int64 signed 64 bits
float number float
double number double
string string
byte string byte
boolean boolean
date string date
dateTime string date-time

4.3.2 void

This value type is used to indicate that an operation returns no value. As such it MAY be used only for the return type of operations.

4.3.3 Data Type Fields

As explained above, when an object is said to include a data type, there are a set of fields it may include (some are required and some are optional).

Special care should be taken when referencing a model (or a complex type). There currently two variations, and the proper variation should be documented everywhere it may be used. This behavior will be unified in future versions of the spec.

The table below shows the available fields to describe a data type. The Validity column may impose additional restrictions as to which data type is required in order to include this field. For example, enum may only be included if the type field is set to string.

Field Name Type Validity Description
type string Any Required (if $ref is not used). The return type of the operation. The value MUST be one of the Primitives, array or a model's id.
$ref string Any Required (if type is not used). The Model to be used. The value MUST be a model's id.
format string primitive Fine-tuned primitive type definition. See Primitives for further information. The value MUST be one that is defined under Primitives, corresponding to the right primitive type.
defaultValue special primitive The default value to be used for the field. The value type MUST conform with the primitive's type value.
enum [string] string A fixed list of possible values. If this field is used in conjunction with the defaultValue field, then the default value MUST be one of the values defined in the enum.
minimum string number, integer The minimum valid value for the type, inclusive. If this field is used in conjunction with the defaultValue field, then the default value MUST be higher than or equal to this value. The value type is string and should represent the minimum numeric value. Note: This will change to a numeric value in the future.
maximum string number, integer The maximum valid value for the type, inclusive. If this field is used in conjunction with the defaultValue field, then the default value MUST be lower than or equal to this value. The value type is string and should represent the maximum numeric value. Note: This will change to a numeric value in the future.
items Items Object array Required. The type definition of the values in the container. A container MUST NOT be nested in another container.
uniqueItems boolean array A flag to note whether the container allows duplicate values or not. If the value is set to true, then the array acts as a set.

4.3.4 Items Object

This object is used to describe the value types used inside an array. Of the Data Type Fields, it can include either the type and format fields OR the $ref field (when referencing a model). The rest of the listed Data Type fields are not applicable.

If the type field is included it MUST NOT have the value array. There's currently no support for containers within containers.

4.3.4.1 Object Examples

For a primitive type:

{
  "type": "string"
}

For a complex type (model):

{
  "$ref": "Pet"
}

4.3.5 File

The File (case sensitive) is a special type used to denote file upload. Note that declaring a model with the name File may lead to various conflicts with third party tools and SHOULD be avoided.

When using File, the consumes field MUST be "multipart/form-data", and the paramType MUST be "form".

5. Schema

5.1 Resource Listing

The Resource Listing serves as the root document for the API description. It contains general information about the API and an inventory of the available resources.

By default, this document SHOULD be served at the /api-docs path.

Field Name Type Description
swaggerVersion string Required. Specifies the Swagger Specification version being used. It can be used by the Swagger UI and other clients to interpret the API listing. The value MUST be an existing Swagger specification version.
Currently, "1.0", "1.1", "1.2" are valid values. The field is a string type for possible non-numeric versions in the future (for example, "1.2a").
apis [ Resource Object ] Required. Lists the resources to be described by this specification implementation. The array can have 0 or more elements.
apiVersion string Provides the version of the application API (not to be confused by the specification version).
info Info Object Provides metadata about the API. The metadata can be used by the clients if needed, and can be presented in the Swagger-UI for convenience.
authorizations Authorizations Object Provides information about the authorization schemes allowed on this API.

5.1.1 Object Example

{
  "apiVersion": "1.0.0",
  "swaggerVersion": "1.2",
  "apis": [
    {
      "path": "/pet",
      "description": "Operations about pets"
    },
    {
      "path": "/user",
      "description": "Operations about user"
    },
    {
      "path": "/store",
      "description": "Operations about store"
    }
  ],
  "authorizations": {
    "oauth2": {
      "type": "oauth2",
      "scopes": [
        {
          "scope": "email",
          "description": "Access to your email address"
        },
        {
          "scope": "pets",
          "description": "Access to your pets"
        }
      ],
      "grantTypes": {
        "implicit": {
          "loginEndpoint": {
            "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
          },
          "tokenName": "access_token"
        },
        "authorization_code": {
          "tokenRequestEndpoint": {
            "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
            "clientIdName": "client_id",
            "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
          },
          "tokenEndpoint": {
            "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
            "tokenName": "access_code"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "info": {
    "title": "Swagger Sample App",
    "description": "This is a sample server Petstore server.  You can find out more about Swagger \n    at <a href=\"http://swagger.wordnik.com\">http://swagger.wordnik.com</a> or on irc.freenode.net, #swagger.  For this sample,\n    you can use the api key \"special-key\" to test the authorization filters",
    "termsOfServiceUrl": "http://swagger.io/terms/",
    "contact": "apiteam@wordnik.com",
    "license": "Apache 2.0",
    "licenseUrl": "http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html"
  }
}

5.1.2 Resource Object

The Resource object describes a resource API endpoint in the application.

Field Name Type Description
path string Required. A relative path to the API declaration from the path used to retrieve this Resource Listing. This path does not necessarily have to correspond to the URL which actually serves this resource in the API but rather where the resource listing itself is served. The value SHOULD be in a relative (URL) path format.
description string Recommended. A short description of the resource.
5.1.2.1 Object Example:
{
    "path": "/pets",
    "description": "Operations about pets."
}

5.1.3 Info Object

The object provides metadata about the API. The metadata can be used by the clients if needed, and can be presented in the Swagger-UI for convenience.

Field Name Type Description
title string Required. The title of the application.
description string Required. A short description of the application.
termsOfServiceUrl string A URL to the Terms of Service of the API.
contact string An email to be used for API-related correspondence.
license string The license name used for the API.
licenseUrl string A URL to the license used for the API.
5.1.3.1 Object Example:
{
  "title": "Swagger Sample App",
  "description": "This is a sample server Petstore server.",
  "termsOfServiceUrl": "http://swagger.io/terms/",
  "contact": "apiteam@wordnik.com",
  "license": "Apache 2.0",
  "licenseUrl": "http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html"
}

5.1.4 Authorizations Object

The object provides information about the authorization schemes provided on this API. Currently, Swagger supports three authorization schemes - basic authentication, API key and OAuth2. The Authorizations Object is used only to declare the available authorization schemes but not say which are required where. The actual authorization restrictions are done at the API declaration level.

Please note that the Authorizations Object is an object containing other object definitions and as such is structured as follows:

{
   "Authorization1" : {...},
   "Authorization2" : {...},
   ...,
   "AuthorizationN" : {...}
}
Field Name Type Description
{Authorization Name} Authorization Object A new authorization definition. The name given to the {Authorization Name} is a friendly name that should be used when referring to the authorization scheme. In many cases, the {Authorization Name} used is the same as its type, but it can be anything.
5.1.4.1 Object Example:
{
  "oauth2": {
    "type": "oauth2",
    "scopes": [
      {
        "scope": "email",
        "description": "Access to your email address"
      },
      {
        "scope": "pets",
        "description": "Access to your pets"
      }
    ],
    "grantTypes": {
      "implicit": {
        "loginEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
        },
        "tokenName": "access_token"
      },
      "authorization_code": {
        "tokenRequestEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
          "clientIdName": "client_id",
          "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
        },
        "tokenEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
          "tokenName": "access_code"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

5.1.5 Authorization Object

The object provides information about a specific authorization scheme. Currently, the authorization schemes supported are basic authentication, API key and OAuth2.

Within OAuth2, the Authorization Code Grant and Implicit Grant are supported.

In the table below, the Validity column imposes additional limitations to the requirement of the type in order to be able to use that field.

Field Name Type Validity Description
type string Any Required. The type of the authorization scheme. Values MUST be either "basicAuth", "apiKey" or "oauth2".
passAs string apiKey Required. Denotes how the API key must be passed. Valid values are "header" or "query".
keyname string apiKey Required. The name of the header or query parameter to be used when passing the API key.
scopes [Scope Object] oauth2 A list of supported OAuth2 scopes.
grantTypes Grant Types Object oauth2 Required. Detailed information about the grant types supported by the OAuth2 authorization scheme.
5.1.5.1 Object Example:
  "oauth2": {
    "type": "oauth2",
    "scopes": [
      {
        "scope": "email",
        "description": "Access to your email address"
      },
      {
        "scope": "pets",
        "description": "Access to your pets"
      }
    ],
    "grantTypes": {
      "implicit": {
        "loginEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
        },
        "tokenName": "access_token"
      },
      "authorization_code": {
        "tokenRequestEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
          "clientIdName": "client_id",
          "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
        },
        "tokenEndpoint": {
          "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
          "tokenName": "access_code"
        }
      }
    }
  }

5.1.6 Scope Object

Describes an OAuth2 authorization scope.

Field Name Type Description
scope string Required. The name of the scope.
description string Recommended. A short description of the scope.
5.1.6.1 Object Example:
{
  "scope": "email",
  "description": "Access to your email address"
}

5.1.7 Grant Types Object

Provides details regarding the OAuth2 grant types that are supported by the API. Currently, the Authorization Code and Implicit grants are supported.

At least one of the grant types MUST be included (otherwise there's no need for the OAuth2 declaration).

Field Name Type Description
implicit Implicit Object The Implicit Grant flow definition.
authorization_code Authorization Code Object The Authorization Code Grant flow definition.
5.1.7.1 Object Example:
{
  "implicit": {
    "loginEndpoint": {
      "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
    },
    "tokenName": "access_token"
  },
  "authorization_code": {
    "tokenRequestEndpoint": {
      "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
      "clientIdName": "client_id",
      "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
    },
    "tokenEndpoint": {
      "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
      "tokenName": "access_code"
    }
  }
}

5.1.8 Implicit Object

Provides details regarding the OAuth2's Implicit Grant flow type.

Field Name Type Description
loginEndpoint Login Endpoint Object Required. The login endpoint definition.
tokenName string An optional alternative name to standard "access_token" OAuth2 parameter.
5.1.8.1 Object Example:
{
  "loginEndpoint": {
    "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
  },
  "tokenName": "access_token"
}

5.1.9 Authorization Code Object

Provides details regarding the OAuth2's Authorization Code Grant flow type.

Field Name Type Description
tokenRequestEndpoint Token Request Endpoint Object Required. The token request endpoint definition.
tokenEndpoint Token Endpoint Object Required. The token endpoint definition.
5.1.9.1 Object Example:
{
  "tokenRequestEndpoint": {
    "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
    "clientIdName": "client_id",
    "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
  },
  "tokenEndpoint": {
    "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
    "tokenName": "access_code"
  }
}

5.1.10 Login Endpoint Object

Provides details regarding the Implicit Grant's authorization endpoint.

Field Name Type Description
url string Required. The URL of the authorization endpoint for the implicit grant flow. The value SHOULD be in a URL format.
5.1.10.1 Object Example:
{
  "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/dialog"
}

5.1.11 Token Request Endpoint Object

Provides details regarding the OAuth2's Authorization Endpoint.

Field Name Type Description
url string Required. The URL of the authorization endpoint for the authentication code grant flow. The value SHOULD be in a URL format.
clientIdName string An optional alternative name to standard "client_id" OAuth2 parameter.
clientSecretName string An optional alternative name to the standard "client_secret" OAuth2 parameter.
5.1.11.1 Object Example:
{
  "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/requestToken",
  "clientIdName": "client_id",
  "clientSecretName": "client_secret"
}

5.1.12 Token Endpoint Object

Provides details regarding the OAuth2's Token Endpoint.

Field Name Type Description
url string Required. The URL of the token endpoint for the authentication code grant flow. The value SHOULD be in a URL format.
tokenName string An optional alternative name to standard "access_token" OAuth2 parameter.
5.1.12.1 Object Example:
{
  "url": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/oauth/token",
  "tokenName": "access_code"
}

5.2 API Declaration

The API Declaration provides information about an API exposed on a resource. There should be one file per Resource described. The file MUST be served in the URL described by the path field.

Field Name Type Description
swaggerVersion string Required. Specifies the Swagger Specification version being used. It can be used by the Swagger UI and other clients to interpret the API listing. The value MUST be an existing Swagger specification version.
Currently, "1.0", "1.1", "1.2" are valid values.
apiVersion string Provides the version of the application API (not to be confused by the specification version).
basePath string Required. The root URL serving the API. This field is important because while it is common to have the Resource Listing and API Declarations on the server providing the APIs themselves, it is not a requirement. The API specifications can be served using static files and not generated by the API server itself, so the URL for serving the API cannot always be derived from the URL serving the API specification. The value SHOULD be in the format of a URL.
resourcePath string The relative path to the resource, from the basePath, which this API Specification describes. The value MUST precede with a forward slash ("/").
apis [API Object] Required. A list of the APIs exposed on this resource. There MUST NOT be more than one API Object per path in the array.
models Models Object A list of the models available to this resource. Note that these need to be exposed separately for each API Declaration.
produces [string] A list of MIME types the APIs on this resource can produce. This is global to all APIs but can be overridden on specific API calls.
consumes [string] A list of MIME types the APIs on this resource can consume. This is global to all APIs but can be overridden on specific API calls.
authorizations Authorizations Object A list of authorizations schemes required for the operations listed in this API declaration. Individual operations may override this setting. If there are multiple authorization schemes described here, it means they're all applied.

5.2.1 Object Example

{
  "apiVersion": "1.0.0",
  "swaggerVersion": "1.2",
  "basePath": "http://petstore.swagger.wordnik.com/api",
  "resourcePath": "/store",
  "produces": [
    "application/json"
  ],
  "authorizations": {},
  "apis": [
    {
      "path": "/store/order/{orderId}",
      "operations": [
        {
          "method": "GET",
          "summary": "Find purchase order by ID",
          "notes": "For valid response try integer IDs with value <= 5. Anything above 5 or nonintegers will generate API errors",
          "type": "Order",
          "nickname": "getOrderById",
          "authorizations": {},
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "orderId",
              "description": "ID of pet that needs to be fetched",
              "required": true,
              "type": "string",
              "paramType": "path"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 400,
              "message": "Invalid ID supplied"
            },
            {
              "code": 404,
              "message": "Order not found"
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "method": "DELETE",
          "summary": "Delete purchase order by ID",
          "notes": "For valid response try integer IDs with value < 1000.  Anything above 1000 or nonintegers will generate API errors",
          "type": "void",
          "nickname": "deleteOrder",
          "authorizations": {
            "oauth2": [
              {
                "scope": "test:anything",
                "description": "anything"
              }
            ]
          },
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "orderId",
              "description": "ID of the order that needs to be deleted",
              "required": true,
              "type": "string",
              "paramType": "path"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 400,
              "message": "Invalid ID supplied"
            },
            {
              "code": 404,
              "message": "Order not found"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "path": "/store/order",
      "operations": [
        {
          "method": "POST",
          "summary": "Place an order for a pet",
          "notes": "",
          "type": "void",
          "nickname": "placeOrder",
          "authorizations": {
            "oauth2": [
              {
                "scope": "test:anything",
                "description": "anything"
              }
            ]
          },
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "body",
              "description": "order placed for purchasing the pet",
              "required": true,
              "type": "Order",
              "paramType": "body"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 400,
              "message": "Invalid order"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "models": {
    "Order": {
      "id": "Order",
      "properties": {
        "id": {
          "type": "integer",
          "format": "int64"
        },
        "petId": {
          "type": "integer",
          "format": "int64"
        },
        "quantity": {
          "type": "integer",
          "format": "int32"
        },
        "status": {
          "type": "string",
          "description": "Order Status",
          "enum": [
            "placed",
            "approved",
            "delivered"
          ]
        },
        "shipDate": {
          "type": "string",
          "format": "date-time"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

5.2.2 API Object

The API Object describes one or more operations on a single path. In the apis array, there MUST be only one API Object per path.

Field Name Type Description
path string Required. The relative path to the operation, from the basePath, which this operation describes. The value SHOULD be in a relative (URL) path format.
description string Recommended. A short description of the resource.
operations [Operation Object] Required. A list of the API operations available on this path. The array may include 0 or more operations. There MUST NOT be more than one Operation Object per method in the array.
5.2.2.1 Object Example:
      {
      "path": "/pet",
      "operations": [
        {
          "method": "PUT",
          "summary": "Update an existing pet",
          "notes": "",
          "type": "void",
          "nickname": "updatePet",
          "authorizations": {},
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "body",
              "description": "Pet object that needs to be updated in the store",
              "required": true,
              "type": "Pet",
              "paramType": "body"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 400,
              "message": "Invalid ID supplied"
            },
            {
              "code": 404,
              "message": "Pet not found"
            },
            {
              "code": 405,
              "message": "Validation exception"
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "method": "POST",
          "summary": "Add a new pet to the store",
          "notes": "",
          "type": "void",
          "nickname": "addPet",
          "consumes": [
            "application/json",
            "application/xml"
          ],
          "authorizations": {
            "oauth2": [
              {
                "scope": "test:anything",
                "description": "anything"
              }
            ]
          },
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "body",
              "description": "Pet object that needs to be added to the store",
              "required": true,
              "type": "Pet",
              "paramType": "body"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 405,
              "message": "Invalid input"
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    }

5.2.3 Operation Object

The Operation Object describes a single operation on a path.

In the operations array, there MUST be only one Operation Object per method.

This object includes the Data Type Fields in order to describe the return value of the operation. The type field MUST be used to link to other models.

This is the only object where the type MAY have the value of void to indicate that the operation returns no value.

Field Name Type Description
method string Required. The HTTP method required to invoke this operation. The value MUST be one of the following values: "GET", "HEAD", "POST", "PUT", "PATCH", "DELETE", "OPTIONS". The values MUST be in uppercase.
summary string A short summary of what the operation does. For maximum readability in the swagger-ui, this field SHOULD be less than 120 characters.
notes string A verbose explanation of the operation behavior.
nickname string Required. A unique id for the operation that can be used by tools reading the output for further and easier manipulation. For example, Swagger-Codegen will use the nickname as the method name of the operation in the client it generates. The value MUST be alphanumeric and may include underscores. Whitespace characters are not allowed.
authorizations Authorizations Object A list of authorizations required to execute this operation. While not mandatory, if used, it overrides the value given at the API Declaration's authorizations. In order to completely remove API Declaration's authorizations completely, an empty object ({}) may be applied.
parameters [Parameter Object] Required. The inputs to the operation. If no parameters are needed, an empty array MUST be included.
responseMessages [Response Message Object] Lists the possible response statuses that can return from the operation.
produces [string] A list of MIME types this operation can produce. This is overrides the global produces definition at the root of the API Declaration. Each string value SHOULD represent a MIME type.
consumes [string] A list of MIME types this operation can consume. This is overrides the global consumes definition at the root of the API Declaration. Each string value SHOULD represent a MIME type.
deprecated string Declares this operation to be deprecated. Usage of the declared operation should be refrained. Valid value MUST be either "true" or "false". Note: This field will change to type boolean in the future.
5.2.3.1 Object Example
        {
          "method": "GET",
          "summary": "Find pet by ID",
          "notes": "Returns a pet based on ID",
          "type": "Pet",
          "nickname": "getPetById",
          "authorizations": {},
          "parameters": [
            {
              "name": "petId",
              "description": "ID of pet that needs to be fetched",
              "required": true,
              "type": "integer",
              "format": "int64",
              "paramType": "path",
              "minimum": "1.0",
              "maximum": "100000.0"
            }
          ],
          "responseMessages": [
            {
              "code": 400,
              "message": "Invalid ID supplied"
            },
            {
              "code": 404,
              "message": "Pet not found"
            }
          ]
        }

5.2.4 Parameter Object

The Parameter Object describes a single parameter to be sent in an operation and maps to the parameters field in the Operation Object.

This object includes the Data Type Fields in order to describe the type of this parameter. The type field MUST be used to link to other models.

If type is File, the consumes field MUST be "multipart/form-data", and the paramType MUST be "form".

Field Name Type Description
paramType string Required. The type of the parameter (that is, the location of the parameter in the request). The value MUST be one of these values: "path", "query", "body", "header", "form". Note that the values MUST be lower case.
name string Required. The unique name for the parameter. Each name MUST be unique, even if they are associated with different paramType values. Parameter names are case sensitive.
  • If paramType is "path", the name field MUST correspond to the associated path segment from the path field in the API Object.
  • If paramType is "query", the name field corresponds to the query parameter name.
  • If paramType is "body", the name is used only for Swagger-UI and Swagger-Codegen. In this case, the name MUST be "body".
  • If paramType is "form", the name field corresponds to the form parameter key.
  • If paramType is "header", the name field corresponds to the header parameter key.
See here for some examples.
description string Recommended. A brief description of this parameter.
required boolean A flag to note whether this parameter is required. If this field is not included, it is equivalent to adding this field with the value false. If paramType is "path" then this field MUST be included and have the value true.
allowMultiple boolean Another way to allow multiple values for a "query" parameter. If used, the query parameter may accept comma-separated values. The field may be used only if paramType is "query", "header" or "path".
5.2.4.1 Name Examples
  • If paramType is "path", and assuming the path is "/pet/{id}":

"name": "id" ```

  • If paramType is "query", and assuming the URL call is "http://host/resource?limit=100" (that is, there's a query parameter called "limit"):

"name": "limit" ```

"name": "body" ```

5.2.4.2 Object Example
{
  "name": "body",
  "description": "Pet object that needs to be updated in the store",
  "required": true,
  "type": "Pet",
  "paramType": "body"
}

5.2.5 Response Message Object

The Response Message Object describes a single possible response message that can be returned from the operation call, and maps to the responseMessages field in the Operation Object. Each Response Message allows you to give further details as to why the HTTP status code may be received.

Field Name Type Description
code integer Required. The HTTP status code returned. The value SHOULD be one of the status codes as described in RFC 2616 - Section 10.
message string Required. The explanation for the status code. It SHOULD be the reason an error is received if an error status code is used.
responseModel string The return type for the given response.
5.2.5.1 Object Example
  {
    "code": 404,
    "message": "no project found",
    "responseModel": "ErrorModel"
  }

5.2.6 Models Object

The Models Object holds a field per model definition, and this is different than the structure of the other objects in the spec. It follows a subset of the JSON-Schema specification.

Please note that the Models Object is an object containing other object definitions and as such is structured as follows:

{
   "Model1" : {...},
   "Model2" : {...},
   ...,
   "ModelN" : {...}
}
Field Name Type Description
{Model Name} Model Object A new model definition. Note the actual name of the field is the name you're giving your model. For example, "Category", "Pet", "User".
5.2.6.1 Object Example
{
    "Category": {
      "id": "Category",
      "properties": {
        "id": {
          "type": "integer",
          "format": "int64"
        },
        "name": {
          "type": "string"
        }
      }
    }
}

5.2.7 Model Object

A Model Object holds the definition of a new model for this API Declaration.

Models in Swagger allow for inheritance. The inheritance is controlled by two fields - subTypes to give the name of the models extending this definition, and discriminator to support polymorphism.

Field Name Type Description
id string Required. A unique identifier for the model. This MUST be the name given to {Model Name}.
description string A brief description of this model.
required [string] A definition of which properties MUST exist when a model instance is produced. The values MUST be the {Property Name} of one of the properties.
properties Properties Object Required. A list of properties (fields) that are part of the model
subTypes [string] List of the model ids that inherit from this model. Sub models inherit all the properties of the parent model. Since inheritance is transitive, if the parent of a model inherits from another model, its sub-model will include all properties. As such, if you have Foo->Bar->Baz, then Baz will inherit the properties of Bar and Foo. There MUST NOT be a cyclic definition of inheritance. For example, if Foo -> ... -> Bar, having Bar -> ... -> Foo is not allowed. There also MUST NOT be a case of multiple inheritance. For example, Foo -> Baz <- Bar is not allowed. A sub-model definition MUST NOT override the properties of any of its ancestors. All sub-models MUST be defined in the same API Declaration.
discriminator string MUST be included only if subTypes is included. This field allows for polymorphism within the described inherited models. This field MAY be included at any base model but MUST NOT be included in a sub-model. The value of this field MUST be a name of one of the properties in this model, and that field MUST be in the required list. When used, the value of the discriminator property MUST be the name of the parent model or any of its sub-models (to any depth of inheritance).
5.2.7.1 Object Example
{
  "id": "Order",
  "properties": {
    "id": {
      "type": "integer",
      "format": "int64"
    },
    "petId": {
      "type": "integer",
      "format": "int64"
    },
    "quantity": {
      "type": "integer",
      "format": "int32"
    },
    "status": {
      "type": "string",
      "description": "OrderStatus",
      "enum": [
        "placed",
        "approved",
        "delivered"
      ]
    },
    "shipDate": {
      "type": "string",
      "format": "date-time"
    }
  }
}
5.2.7.2 Inheritance Example

Say we have a general Animal model, and a sub-model for Cat.

"Animal": {
  "id": "Animal",
  "required": [
    "id",
    "type"
  ],
  "properties": {
    "id": {
      "type": "long"
    },
    "type": {
      "type": "string"
    }
  },
  "subTypes": ["Cat"],
  "discriminator": "type"
},
"Cat": {
  "id": "Cat",
  "required": [
    "likesMilk"
  ],
  "properties": {
    "likesMilk": {
      "type": "boolean"
    }
  },
}

5.2.8 Properties Object

The Properties Object holds a field per property definition, and this is different than the structure of the other objects in the spec. It follows a subset of the JSON-Schema specification.

Please note that the Properties Object is an object containing other object definitions and as such is structured as follows:

{
   "Property1" : {...},
   "Property2" : {...},
   ...,
   "PropertyN" : {...}
}
Field Name Type Description
{Property Name} Property Object A new model property definition. Note the actual name of the field is the name you're giving your property. For example, "id", "name", "age".
5.2.8.1 Object Example
      {
        "id": {
          "type": "integer",
          "format": "int64"
        },
        "name": {
          "type": "string"
        }
      }

5.2.9 Property Object

A Property Object holds the definition of a new property for a model.

This object includes the Data Type Fields in order to describe the type of this property. The $ref field MUST be used when linking to other models.

Properties MUST NOT contain other properties. If there's a need for an internal object hierarchy, additional models MUST be created and linked to a flat structure.

Field Name Type Description
description string Recommended. A brief description of this property.
5.2.9.1 Object Examples

A simple 64bit integer field called "id", with a description and min/max values:

"id": {
    "type": "integer",
    "format": "int64",
    "description": "unique identifier for the pet",
    "minimum": "0.0",
    "maximum": "100.0"
}

A "category" field of a Category model.

"category": {
    "$ref": "Category"
}

A "tags" field of type array containing Tag models.

"tags": {
    "type": "array",
    "items": {
        "$ref": "Tag"
    }
}

5.2.10 Authorizations Object

The Authorizations Object provides information about the authorization schemes enforced on this API. If used in the API Declaration's authorizations, it applies to all operations listed. If used in the Operation's authorizations, it applies to the operation itself and may override the API Declaration's authorizations. If multiple authorization schemes are described, they are all required to perform the operations listed.

Please note that the Authorizations Object is an object containing arrays of object definitions and as such is structured as follows:

{
   "Authorization1" : [...],
   "Authorization2" : [...],
   ...,
   "AuthorizationN" : [...]
}
Field Name Type Description
{Authorization Name} * The authorization scheme to be used. The name given to the {Authorization Name} MUST be a friendly name that was given to an authorization scheme in the Resource Listing's authorizations. If the friendly name describes an OAuth2 security scheme, the value should be of type [Scope Object] (but may be an empty array to denote 'no scopes'). For all other authorization scheme types, the value MUST be an empty array.
5.2.10 Object Example:
{
  "oauth2": [
    {
      "scope": "write:pets",
      "description": "modify pets in your account"
    },
    {
      "scope": "read:pets",
      "description": "read your pets"
    }
  ]
}

5.2.11 Scope Object

Describes an OAuth2 authorization scope. The scope described here MUST be described in the respective friendly name definition of the security scheme in the Resource Listing's authorizations.

Field Name Type Description
scope string Required. The name of the scope.
description string Recommended. A short description of the scope.
5.2.11.1 Object Example:
{
  "scope": "email",
  "description": "Access to your email address"
}