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== Definition
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
=== Objects ===
==== Atoms and Sequences
All data **objects** in Euphoria are either **atoms** or **sequences**. An **atom** is
a single numeric value. A **sequence** is a collection of objects, either atoms or sequences
themselves. A sequence can contain any mixture of atom and sequences; a sequence
does not have to contain all the same data type. Because the **objects**
contained in a sequence can be an arbitrary mix of atoms or sequences, it is
an extremely versatile data structure, capable of representing any sort of data.
A sequence is represented by a list of objects in brace brackets **{ }**, separated by
commas with an optional sequence terminator, ##$##. Atoms can have any integer or
double-precision floating point value. They can range from approximately -1e300 (minus
one times 10 to the power 300) to +1e300 with 15 decimal digits of accuracy. Here are
some Euphoria objects:
-- examples of atoms:
-- examples of sequences:
{2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19}
{1, 2, {3, 3, 3}, 4, {5, {6}}}
{{"jon", "smith"}, 52389, 97.25}
{} -- the 0-element sequence
By default, number literals use //base 10//, but you can have integer literals
written in other bases, namely binary //(base 2)//, octal //(base 8)//, and
hexadecimal //(base 16)//. To do this, the number is prefixed by a 2-character
code that lets Euphoria know which base to use.
|= Code |= Base |
| 0b | 2 = **B**inary |
| 0t | 8 = Oc**t**al |
| 0d | 10 = **D**ecimal |
| 0x | 16 = He**x**adecimal |
For example:
0b101 --> decimal 5
0t101 --> decimal 65
0d101 --> decimal 101
0x101 --> decimal 257
Additionally, hexadecimal integers can also be written by prefixing the number with
the '#' character.
For example:
#FE -- 254
#A000 -- 40960
#FFFF00008 -- 68718428168
-#10 -- -16
Only digits and the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, in either uppercase or lowercase,
are allowed in hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal numbers are always positive,
unless you add a minus sign in front of the # character. So for instance
#FFFFFFFF is a huge positive number
(4294967295), **not** ##-1##, as some machine-language programmers might expect.
Sometimes, and especially with large numbers, it can make reading numeric
literals easier when they have embedded grouping characters. We are familiar
with using commas (periods in Europe) to group large numbers by three-digit
subgroups. In Euphoria we use the underscore character to achieve the same
thing, and we can group them
anyway that is useful to us.
atom big = 32_873_787 -- Set 'big' to the value 32873787
atom salary = 56_110.66 -- Set salary to the value 56110.66
integer defflags = #0323_F3CD
object phone = 61_3_5536_7733
integer bits = 0b11_00010_1
**Sequences** can be nested to any depth, i.e. you can have sequences within
sequences within sequences and so on to any depth (until you run out of
memory). Brace brackets are used to construct sequences out of a list of
expressions. These expressions can be constant or evaluated at run-time.
{ x+6, 9, y*w+2, sin(0.5) }
All sequences can include a special //end of sequence// marker which is the ##$##
character. This is for convience of editing lists that may change often as development
sequence seq_1 = { 10, 20, 30, $ }
sequence seq_2 = { 10, 20, 30 }
equal(seq_1, seq_2) -- TRUE
The **"Hierarchical Objects"** part of the Euphoria acronym comes from the
hierarchical nature of nested sequences. This should not be confused with the
class hierarchies of certain object-oriented languages.
Why do we call them atoms? Why not just "numbers"? Well, an ##atom## //is//
just a number, but we wanted to have a distinctive term that emphasizes that
they are indivisible (that's what "atom" means in Greek). In the world of
physics you can 'split' an atom into smaller parts, but you no
longer have an atom~--only various particles. You can 'split' a
number into smaller parts, but you no longer have a number~--only various
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all the
data that a Euphoria program can manipulate. With this analogy, **sequence**s
might be thought of as "molecules", made from atoms and other molecules. A
better analogy would be that sequences are like directories, and atoms are
like files. Just as a directory on your computer can contain both files and
other directories, a sequence can contain both atoms and other sequences
(and //those// sequences can contain atoms and sequences and so on).
. object
. / \
. / \
. atom sequence
As you will soon discover, sequences make Euphoria very simple //and// very
powerful. **Understanding atoms and sequences is the key to understanding
;**Performance Note~:**
:Does this mean that all atoms are stored in memory as eight-byte floating-point
numbers? No. The Euphoria interpreter usually stores integer-valued atoms as
machine integers (four bytes) to save space and improve execution speed. When
fractional results occur or integers get too big, conversion to IEEE
eight-byte floating-point format happens automatically.
==== Character Strings and Individual Characters
A **character string** is just a ##sequence## of characters. It may be
entered in a number of ways ...
* Using double-quotes e.g.
* Using raw string notation e.g.
-- Using back-quotes
-- Using three double-quotes
* Using binary strings e.g.
b"1001 00110110 0110_0111 1_0101_1010" -- ==> {#9,#36,#67,#15A}
* Using hexadecimal byte strings e.g.
x"65 66 67 AE" -- ==> {#65,#66,#67,#AE}
When you put too many hex characters together they are split up appropriately for you:
x"656667AE" -- 8-bit ==> {#65,#66,#67,#AE}
**The rules for double-quote strings are:**
# They begin and end with a double-quote character
# They cannot contain a double-quote
# They must be only on a single line
# They cannot contain the TAB character
# If they contain the back-slash '\' character, that character must immediately
be followed by one of the special //escape// codes. The back-slash and escape
code will be replaced by the appropriate single character equivalent.
If you need to include double-quote, end-of-line, back-slash, or TAB characters
inside a double-quoted string, you need to enter them in a special manner.
"Bill said\n\t\"This is a back-slash \\ character\".\n"
Which, when displayed should look like ...
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
**The rules for raw strings are:**
# Enclose with three double-quotes {{{"""..."""}}} or back-quote. {{{`...`}}}
# The resulting string will never have any carriage-return characters in it.
# If the resulting string begins with a new-line, the initial new-line is
removed and any trailing new-line is also removed.
# A special form is used to automatically remove leading whitespace from the
source code text. You might code this form to align the source text for ease of
reading. If the first line after the raw string start token begins
with one or more underscore characters, the number of consecutive underscores
signifies the maximum number of whitespace characters that will be removed from
each line of the raw string text. The underscores represent an assumed left
margin width. **Note**, these leading underscores do not form part of the raw
string text.
-- No leading underscores and no leading whitespace
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
Which, when displayed should look like ...
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
-- No leading underscores and but leading whitespace
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
Which, when displayed should look like ...
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
-- Leading underscores and leading whitespace
_____Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
Which, when displayed should look like ...
Bill said
"This is a back-slash \ character".
Extended string literals are useful when the string contains new-lines, tabs,
or back-slash characters because they do not have to be entered
in the special manner. The back-quote form can be used when the string literal
contains a set of three double-quote characters, and the triple quote form can
be used when the text literal contains back-quote characters. If a literal
contains both a back quote and a set of three double-quotes, you will need to
concatenate two literals.
object TQ, BQ, QQ
TQ = `This text contains """ for some reason.`
BQ = """This text contains a back quote ` for some reason."""
QQ = """This text contains a back quote ` """ & `and """ for some reason.`
**The rules for binary strings are...**
# they begin with the pair ##b"## and end with a double-quote (##"##) character
# they can only contain binary digits (0-1), and space, underscore,
tab, newline, carriage-return. Anything else is invalid.
# an underscore is simply ignored, as if it was never there. It is used to aid
# each set of contiguous binary digits represents a single sequence element
# they can span multiple lines
# The non-digits are treated as punctuation and used to delimit individual
b"1 10 11_0100 01010110_01111000" == {0x01, 0x02, 0x34, 0x5678}
**The rules for hexadecimal strings are:**
# They begin with the pair ##x"## and end with a double-quote (##"##) character
# They can only contain hexadecimal digits (0-9 A-F a-f), and space, underscore,
tab, newline, carriage-return. Anything else is invalid.
# An underscore is simply ignored, as if it was never there. It is used to aid
# Each pair of contiguous hex digits represents a single sequence element with a
value from 0 to 255
# They can span multiple lines
# The non-digits are treated as punctuation and used to delimit individual
x"1 2 34 5678_AbC" == {0x01, 0x02, 0x34, 0x56, 0x78, 0xAB, 0x0C}
Character strings may be manipulated and operated upon just like any other
sequences. For example the string we first looked at "ABCDEFG" is entirely
equivalent to the sequence:
{65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71}
which contains the corresponding ASCII codes. The Euphoria compiler will
immediately convert "ABCDEFG" to the above sequence of numbers. In a sense,
there are no "strings" in Euphoria, only sequences of numbers. A quoted string
is really just a convenient notation that saves you from having to type in all
the ASCII codes.
It follows that "" is equivalent to {}. Both represent
the sequence of zero length, also known as the **empty sequence**. As
a matter of programming style, it is natural to use "" to suggest a zero length
sequence of characters, and {} to suggest some other kind of sequence.
An **individual character** is an **atom**. It must be entered using single
quotes. There is a difference between an individual character (which is an
atom), and a character string of length 1 (which is a sequence). e.g.
'B' -- equivalent to the atom 66 - the ASCII code for B
"B" -- equivalent to the sequence {66}
Again, ##'B'## is just a notation that is equivalent to typing ##66##. There
are no "characters" in Euphoria, just numbers (atoms). However, it is
possible to use characters without ever having to use their numerical
Keep in mind that an atom is //not// equivalent to a one-element sequence
containing the same value, although there are a few built-in routines that
choose to treat them similarly.
====Escaped Characters====
Special characters may be entered using a back-slash:
|=Code | Meaning|
| \n | newline |
| \r | carriage return |
| \t | tab |
| {{{\\}}} | backslash |
| \" | double quote |
| \' | single quote |
| \0 | null |
| \e | escape |
| \E | escape |
| \b/d..d/ | A binary coded value, the \b is followed by 1 or more binary digits. \\
Inside strings, use the space character to delimit or end a binary value.
| \x/hh/ | A 2-hex-digit value, e.g. "\x5F" ==> {95} |
| \u/hhhh/ | A 4-hex-digit value, e.g. "\u2A7C" ==> {10876} |
| \U/hhhhhhhh/ | An 8-hex-digit value, e.g. "\U8123FEDC" ==> {2166619868} |
For example, ##"Hello, World!\n"##, or ##'~\~\'##. The demonstration editor ##edx## displays character
strings in green.
Note that you can use the underscore character ##'_'## inside the
##\b##, ##\x##, ##\u##, and ##\U##
values to aid readability, e.g. ##"\U8123_FEDC" ==> {2166619868}##
=== Identifiers
An identifier is just the name you give something in your program. This can be
a variable, constant, function, procedure, parameter, or namespace. An identifier
must begin with either a letter or an underscore, then followed by zero or more
letters, digits or underscore characters. There is no theoretical limit to how
large an identifier can be but in practice it should be no more than about 30
Identifiers are **case-sensitive**. This means that ##"Name"## is a different
identifier from ##"name"##, or ##"NAME"##, etc...
Examples of valid identifiers~:
Examples of invalid identifiers~:
0n -- must not start with a digit
^color26 -- must not start with a punctuation character
Shell Sort -- Cannot have spaces in identifiers.
quick-sort -- must only consist of letters, digits or underscore.
=== Comments
Comments are ignored by Euphoria and have no effect on execution speed.
For example the ##edx## editor displays comments in red.
There are three forms of comment text:
* The //line// format comment is started by two dashes and extends to the
end of the current line.
-- This is a comment which extends to the end of this line only.
* The //multi-line// format comment is started by ##/*## and extends to the
next occurrence of ##*/##, even if that occurs on a different line.
/* This is a comment which
extends over a number
of text lines.
* On the first line only of your program, you can use a special comment
beginning with the two character sequence ###!##. This is mainly used to tell
//Unix// shells which program to execute the 'script' program with.
This informs the Linux shell that your file should be executed by the
Euphoria interpreter, and gives the full path to the interpreter. If you make
your file executable, you can run it, just by typing its name, and without the
need to type "##eui##". On //Windows// this line is just
treated as a comment (though Apache Web server on //Windows// does
recognize it.). If your file is a shrouded file, use ##eub.exe##
instead of ##eui##.
Line comments are typically used to annotate a single (or small section) of
code, whereas multi-line comments are typically used to give larger pieces of
documentation inside the source text.
=== Expressions
Like other programming languages, Euphoria lets you calculate results by
forming expressions. However, in Euphoria you can perform calculations on
entire sequences of data with one expression, where in most other languages you
would have to construct a loop. In Euphoria you can handle a sequence much as
you would a single number. It can be copied, passed to a subroutine, or
calculated upon as a unit. For example,
{1,2,3} + 5
is an expression that adds the sequence ##{1,2,3}## and the ##atom 5## to get
the resulting sequence ##{6,7,8}##.
We will see more examples later.
==== Relational Operators
The relational operators **##< > <= >= = !=##** each produce a ##1## (true) or
a ##0## (false) result.
8.8 < 8.7 -- 8.8 less than 8.7 (false)
-4.4 > -4.3 -- -4.4 greater than -4.3 (false)
8 <= 7 -- 8 less than or equal to 7 (false)
4 >= 4 -- 4 greater than or equal to 4 (true)
1 = 10 -- 1 equal to 10 (false)
8.7 != 8.8 -- 8.7 not equal to 8.8 (true)
As we will soon see you can also apply these operators to sequences.
==== Logical Operators
The logical operators ##and##, ##or##, ##xor##, and ##not## are used to
determine the "truth" of an expression. e.g.
1 and 1 -- 1 (true)
1 and 0 -- 0 (false)
0 and 1 -- 0 (false)
0 and 0 -- 0 (false)
1 or 1 -- 1 (true)
1 or 0 -- 1 (true)
0 or 1 -- 1 (true)
0 or 0 -- 0 (false)
1 xor 1 -- 0 (false)
1 xor 0 -- 1 (true)
0 xor 1 -- 1 (true)
0 xor 0 -- 0 (false)
not 1 -- 0 (false)
not 0 -- 1 (true)
You can also apply these operators to numbers other than ##1## or ##0##. The
rule is: zero means false and non-zero means true. So for instance:
5 and -4 -- 1 (true)
not 6 -- 0 (false)
These operators can also be applied to sequences. See below.
In some cases [[:short_circuit]] evaluation will be used for expressions
containing ##and## or ##or##. Specifically, short circuiting applies inside decision making expressions. These are found in the [[:if statement]], [[:while statement]] and the [[:loop until statement]]. More on this later.
==== Arithmetic Operators
The usual arithmetic operators are available: add, subtract, multiply, divide,
unary minus, unary plus.
3.5 + 3 -- 6.5
3 - 5 -- -2
6 * 2 -- 12
7 / 2 -- 3.5
-8.1 -- -8.1
+8 -- +8
Computing a result that is too big (i.e. outside of -1e300 to +1e300) will
result in one of the special atoms **+infinity** or **-infinity**. These appear
as ##inf## or ##-inf## when you print them out. It is also possible to generate
##nan## or ##-nan##. "nan" means "not a number", i.e. an undefined value (such
as ##inf## divided by ##inf##). These values are defined in the
IEEE floating-point standard. If you see one of these special values in your
output, it usually indicates an error in your program logic, although
generating inf as an intermediate result may be acceptable in some cases. For
instance, ##1/inf## is ##0##, which may be the "right" answer for your
Division by zero, as well as bad arguments to math library routines, e.g.
square root of a negative number, log of a non-positive number etc. cause an
immediate error message and your program is aborted.
The only reason that you might use unary plus is to emphasize to the reader of
your program that a number is positive. The interpreter does not actually
calculate anything for this.
==== Operations on Sequences
All of the relational, logical and arithmetic operators described above, as
well as the math routines described in [[:Language Reference]], can be applied
to sequences as well as to single numbers (atoms).
When applied to a sequence, a unary (one operand) operator is actually applied
to each element in the sequence to yield a sequence of results of the same
length. If one of these elements is itself a sequence then the same rule is
applied again recursively. e.g.
x = -{1, 2, 3, {4, 5}} -- x is {-1, -2, -3, {-4, -5}}
If a binary (two-operand) operator has operands which are both sequences then
the two sequences must be of the same length. The binary operation is then
applied to corresponding elements taken from the two sequences to get a
sequence of results. e.g.
x = {5, 6, 7, 8} + {10, 10, 20, 100}
-- x is {15, 16, 27, 108}
x = {{1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}} + {-1, 0, 1} -- ERROR: 2 != 3
-- but
x = {{1, 2, 3} + {-1, 0, 1}, {4, 5, 6} + {-1, 0, 1}} -- CORRECT
-- x is {{0, 2, 4}, {3, 5, 7}}
If a binary operator has one operand which is a sequence while the other is a
single number (atom) then the single number is effectively repeated to form a
sequence of equal length to the sequence operand. The rules for operating on
two sequences then apply. Some examples:
y = {4, 5, 6}
w = 5 * y -- w is {20, 25, 30}
x = {1, 2, 3}
z = x + y -- z is {5, 7, 9}
z = x < y -- z is {1, 1, 1}
w = {{1, 2}, {3, 4}, {5}}
w = w * y -- w is {{4, 8}, {15, 20}, {30}}
w = {1, 0, 0, 1} and {1, 1, 1, 0} -- {1, 0, 0, 0}
w = not {1, 5, -2, 0, 0} -- w is {0, 0, 0, 1, 1}
w = {1, 2, 3} = {1, 2, 4} -- w is {1, 1, 0}
-- note that the first '=' is assignment, and the
-- second '=' is a relational operator that tests
-- equality
**Note:** When you wish to compare two strings (or other sequences), you
should **not** (as in some other languages) use the '=' operator:
if "APPLE" = "ORANGE" then -- ERROR!
'##=##' is treated as an operator, just like '##+##', '##*##' etc., so it is
applied to
corresponding sequence elements, and the sequences must be the same length.
When they are equal length, the result is a sequence of ones an zeros. When they
are not equal length, the result is an error. Either way you'll get an error,
since an if-condition must be an atom, not a sequence. Instead you should use
the ##equal## built-in routine:
if equal("APPLE", "ORANGE") then -- CORRECT
In general, you can do relational comparisons using the ##compare## built-in
if compare("APPLE", "ORANGE") = 0 then -- CORRECT
You can use ##compare## for other comparisons as well:
if compare("APPLE", "ORANGE") < 0 then -- CORRECT
-- enter here if "APPLE" is less than "ORANGE" (TRUE)
Especially useful is the idiom ##compare(x, "") = 1## to determine whether ##x##
is a non empty sequence. ##compare(x, "") = -1## would test for ##x## being an
atom, but ##atom(x) = 1## does the same faster and is clearer to read.
==== Subscripting of Sequences
A single element of a sequence may be selected by giving the element number in
square brackets. Element numbers start at 1. Non-integer subscripts are rounded
down to an integer.
For example, if ##x## contains ##{5, 7.2, 9, 0.5, 13}## then ##x[2]## is
##7.2##. Suppose we assign something different to ##x[2]##:
x[2] = {11,22,33}
Then ##x## becomes: ##{5, {11,22,33}, 9, 0.5, 13}##. Now if we ask for
##x[2]## we get ##{11,22,33}## and if we ask for ##x[2][3]## we get the
##atom## 33. If you try to subscript with a number that is outside of the range
##1## to the number of elements, you will get a subscript error. For example
##x[0]##, ##x[-99]## or ##x[6]## will cause errors. So will ##x[1][3]## since
##x[1]## is not a sequence. There is no limit to the number of subscripts that
may follow a variable, but the variable must contain sequences that are nested
deeply enough. The two dimensional array, common in other languages, can be
easily represented with a sequence of sequences:
x = {
{5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, -- x[1]
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, -- x[2]
{0, 1, 0, 1, 0} -- x[3]
where we have written the numbers in a way that makes the structure
clearer. An expression of the form x[i][j] can be used to access any element.
The two dimensions are not symmetric however, since an entire "row" can be
selected with x[i], but you need to use [[:vslice]] in the Standard Library
to select an entire column. Other logical structures, such as n-dimensional
arrays, arrays of strings, structures, arrays of structures etc. can also be
handled easily and flexibly:
3-D array:
y = {
{{1,1}, {3,3}, {5,5}},
{{0,0}, {0,1}, {9,1}},
{{-1,9},{1,1}, {2,2}}
-- y[2][3][1] is 9
Array of strings:
s = {"Hello", "World", "Euphoria", "", "Last One"}
-- s[3] is "Euphoria"
-- s[3][1] is 'E'
A Structure:
employee = {
To access "fields" or elements within a structure it is good programming style
to make up an enum that names the various fields. This will make your program
easier to read. For the example above you might have:
employees = {
{{"John","Smith"}, 45000, 27, 185.5}, -- a[1]
{{"Bill","Jones"}, 57000, 48, 177.2}, -- a[2]
-- .... etc.
-- employees[2][SALARY] would be 57000.
The ##length## built-in function will tell you how many elements are in a
sequence. So the last element of a sequence ##s##, is:
A short-hand for this is:
can be simplified to:
The ##$## may only appear between square braces and it equals the length of the
sequence that is being subscripted. Where there's nesting, e.g.:
s[$ - t[$-1] + 1]
The first ##$## above refers to the length of ##s##, while the second ##$##
refers to the length of ##t## (as you'd probably expect). An example where
##$## can save a lot of typing, make your code clearer, and probably even faster
longname[$][$] -- last element of the last element
Compare that with the equivalent:
**Subscripting and function side-effects:**
In an assignment statement,
with left-hand-side subscripts:
lhs_var[lhs_expr1][lhs_expr2]... = rhs_expr
The expressions are evaluated, and any subscripting is performed, from left
to right. It is possible to have function calls in the right-hand-side
expression, or in any of the left-hand-side expressions. If a function call
has the side-effect of modifying the lhs_var, it is not defined whether those
changes will appear in the final value of the lhs_var, once the assignment has
been completed. To be sure about what is going to happen, perform the function
call in a separate statement, i.e. do not try to modify the lhs_var in two
different ways in the same statement. Where there are no left-hand-side
subscripts, you can always assume that the final value of the lhs_var will be
the value of rhs_expr, regardless of any side-effects that may have changed
**Euphoria data structures are almost infinitely flexible.**
Arrays in many
languages are constrained to have a fixed number of elements, and those
elements must all be of the same type. Euphoria eliminates both of those
restrictions by defining all arrays (sequences) as a list of zero or more
Euphoria objects whose element count can be changed at any time.
You can easily add a new structure to the employee sequence
above, or store an unusually long name in the NAME field and Euphoria will take
care of it for you. If you wish, you can store a variety of different employee
"structures", with different sizes, all in one sequence. However, when you
retrieve a sequence element, it is not guaranteed to be of any type. You, as a
programmer, need to check that the retrieved data is of the type you'd expect,
Euphoria will not. The only thing it will check is whether an assignment is
legal. For example, if you try to assign a sequence to an integer variable,
Euphoria will complain at the time your code does the assignment.
Not only can a Euphoria program represent all conventional data
structures but you can create very useful, flexible structures that would be
hard to declare in many other languages.
Note that expressions in general may not be subscripted, just variables. For
example: ##{5+2,6-1,7*8,8+1}[3]## is //not// supported, nor is something like:
##date()[MONTH]##. You have to assign the sequence returned by ##date## to a
variable, then subscript the variable to get the month.
==== Slicing of Sequences
A sequence of consecutive elements may be selected by giving the starting and
ending element numbers. For example if ##x## is ##{1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1}##
then ##x[3..5]## is the sequence ##{2, 2, 2}##. ##x[3..3]## is the sequence
##{2}##. ##x[3..2]## is also allowed. It evaluates to the zero length sequence
##{}##. If ##y## has the value: ##{"fred", "george", "mary"}## then
##y[1..2]## is ##{"fred", "george"}##.
We can also use slices for overwriting portions of variables. After
##x[3..5] = {9, 9, 9}## ##x## would be ##{1, 1, 9, 9, 9, 1, 1, 1}##. We could
also have said ##x[3..5] = 9## with the same effect. Suppose ##y## is
##{0, "Euphoria", 1, 1}##. Then ##y[2][1..4]## is ##"Euph"##. If we say
##y[2][1..4] = "ABCD"## then ##y## will become ##{0, "ABCDoria", 1, 1}##.
In general, a variable name can be followed by 0 or more subscripts, followed
in turn by 0 or 1 slices. Only variables may be subscripted or sliced, not
We need to be a bit more precise in defining the rules for **empty
slices**. Consider a slice ##s[i..j]## where ##s## is of length ##n##. A slice
from ##i## to ##j##, where ##j = i - 1## and ##i >= 1## produces the
[[:emptyseq "empty sequence"]],
even if ##i = n + 1##. Thus
##1..0## and ##n + 1..n## and everything in between are legal
**(empty) slices**. Empty
slices are quite useful in many algorithms. A slice from ##i## to ##j## where
##j < i - 1## is illegal , i.e. "reverse" slices such as ##s[5..3]## are not
We can also use the ##$## shorthand with slices, e.g.
s[$][1..floor($/2)] -- first half of the last element of s
==== Concatenation of Sequences and Atoms - The '&' Operator ====
@[amp concat|]
Any two objects may be concatenated using the **&** operator. The
result is a sequence with a length equal to the sum of the lengths of the
concatenated objects.
{1, 2, 3} & 4 -- {1, 2, 3, 4}
4 & 5 -- {4, 5}
{{1, 1}, 2, 3} & {4, 5} -- {{1, 1}, 2, 3, 4, 5}
x = {}
y = {1, 2}
y = y & x -- y is still {1, 2}
You can delete element ##i## of any sequence s by concatenating the parts of the
sequence before and after ##i##:
s = s[1..i-1] & s[i+1..length(s)]
This works even when ##i## is ##1## or ##length(s)##, since ##s[1..0]## is a
legal empty slice, and so is ##s[length(s)+1..length(s)]##.
==== Sequence-Formation
Finally, sequence-formation, using braces and commas:
{a, b, c, ... }
is also an operator. It takes n operands, where ##n## is ##0## or more, and
makes an n-element sequence from their values. e.g.
x = {apple, orange*2, {1,2,3}, 99/4+foobar}
The sequence-formation operator is listed at the bottom of the a
[[:precedence chart]].
==== Multiple Assignment
Special sequence notation on the left hand side of an assignment can be made to
assign to multiple variables with a single statement. This can be useful for
using functions that return multiple values in a sequence, such as ##[[:value]]##.
atom success, val
{ success, val } = value( "100" )
-- success = GET_SUCCESS
-- val = 100
It is also possible to ignore some of the values in the right hand side. Any
elements beyond the number supplied on the left hand side are ignored. Other
values can also be ignored by using a question mark ('##?##') instead of a variable
{ ?, val } = value( "100" )
Variables may only appear once on the left hand side, however, they may appear
on both the left and right hand side. For instance, to swap the values of two
{ a, b } = { b, a }
==== Other Operations on Sequences
Some other important operations that you can perform on sequences have English
names, rather than special characters. These operations are built-in to
**eui.exe/euiw.exe**, so they'll always be there, and so they'll be fast. They
are described in detail in the [[:Language Reference]], but are
important enough to Euphoria programming that we should mention them here before
proceeding. You call these operations as if they were subroutines, although
they are actually implemented much more efficiently than that.
===== length(sequence s)
Returns the length of a sequence s.
This is the number of elements in s. Some of these elements may be
sequences that contain elements of their own, but ##length## just gives you the
"top-level" count. Note however that the length of an atom is always ##1##.
length({5,6,7}) -- 3
length({1, {5,5,5}, 2, 3}) -- 4 (not 6!)
length({}) -- 0
length(5) -- 1
===== repeat(object o1, integer count)
Returns a sequence that consists of an item repeated count times.
repeat(0, 100) -- {0,0,0,...,0} i.e. 100 zeros
repeat("Hello", 3) -- {"Hello", "Hello", "Hello"}
repeat(99,0) -- {}
The item to be repeated can be any atom or sequence.
===== append(sequence s1, object o1)
Returns a sequence by adding an object o1 to the end of a sequence
append({1,2,3}, 4) -- {1,2,3,4}
append({1,2,3}, {5,5,5}) -- {1,2,3,{5,5,5}}
append({}, 9) -- {9}
The length of the new sequence is always 1 greater than the length of
the original sequence. The item to be added to the sequence can be any atom or
===== prepend(sequence s1, object o1)
Returns a new sequence by adding an element to the beginning of a
sequence s. e.g.
append({1,2,3}, 4) -- {1,2,3,4}
prepend({1,2,3}, 4) -- {4,1,2,3}
append({1,2,3}, {5,5,5}) -- {1,2,3,{5,5,5}}
prepend({}, 9) -- {9}
append({}, 9) -- {9}
The length of the new sequence is always one greater than the length of
the original sequence. The item to be added to the sequence can be any atom or
These two built-in functions, ##append## and
##prepend##, have some similarities to the concatenate operator,
##&##, but there are clear differences. e.g.
-- appending a sequence is different
append({1,2,3}, {5,5,5}) -- {1,2,3,{5,5,5}}
{1,2,3} & {5,5,5} -- {1,2,3,5,5,5}
-- appending an atom is the same
append({1,2,3}, 5) -- {1,2,3,5}
{1,2,3} & 5 -- {1,2,3,5}
===== insert(sequence in_what, object what, atom position)
This function takes a target sequence, in_what, shifts its tail one notch and
plugs the object what in the hole just created. The modified sequence is
returned. For instance:
s = insert("Joe",'h',3) -- s is "Johe", another string
s = insert("Joe","h",3) -- s is {'J','o',{'h'},'e'}, not a string
s = insert({1,2,3},4,-0.5) -- s is {4,1,2,3}, like prepend()
s = insert({1,2,3},4,8.5) -- s is {1,2,3,4}, like append()
The length of the returned sequence is one more than the one of ##in_what##.
This is the same rule as for ##append## and ##prepend## above, which are
actually special cases of ##insert##.
===== splice(sequence in_what, object what, atom position)
If what is an ##atom##, this is the same as ##insert##. But if what is a
sequence, that sequence is inserted as successive elements into ##in_what##
at ##position##. Example:
s = splice("Joe",'h',3)
-- s is "Johe", like insert()
s = splice("Joe","hn Do",3)
-- s is "John Doe", another string
s = splice("Joh","n Doe",9.3)
-- s is "John Doe", like with the & operator
s = splice({1,2,3},4,-2)
-- s is {4,1,2,3}, like with the & operator in reversed order
The length of ##splice(in_what, what, position)## always is ##length(in_what)
+ length(what)##, like for concatenation using ##&##.
=== Precedence Chart
When two or more operators follow one another in an expression, there must be
rules to tell in which order they should be evaluated, as different orders
usually lead to different results. It is common and convenient to use a
**precedence order** on operators. Operators with the highest degree of
precedence are evaluated first, then those with highest precedence
among what remains, and so on.
The precedence of operators in expressions is as follows:
**highest precedence**
**highest precedence**
function/type calls
unary- unary+ not
* /
+ -
< > <= >= = !=
and or xor
**lowest precedence**
{ , , , }
Thus ##2+6*3## means ##2+(6*3)## rather than ##(2+6)*3##. Operators on the same
above have equal precedence and are evaluated left to right. You can force
any order of operations by placing round brackets ##( )## around an expression.
For instance, ##6/3*5## is ##2*5##, not ##6/15##.
Different languages or contexts may have slightly different precedence rules.
You should be careful when translating a formula from a language to another;
Euphoria is no exception. Adding superfluous parentheses to explicitly denote
the exact order of evaluation does not cost much, and may help either readers
used to some other precedence chart or translating to or from another context
with slightly different rules. Watch out for ##and## and ##or##, or
##*## and ##/##.
The equals symbol ##'='## used in an [[:assignment statement]] is not an
operator, it's just part of the syntax of the language.
== Declarations
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
=== Identifiers
**Identifiers**, which encompass all explicitly declared variable, constant
or routine names, may be of any length. Upper and lower case are distinct.
Identifiers must start with a letter or underscore and then be followed by
any combination of letters, digits and underscores. The following
**reserved words** have special meaning in Euphoria and cannot be used
as identifiers:
!! tom ... colored links not working
!!@@(k <<font color="#0000FF" text=`$(0)`>>)@
!!@@(b <<font color="#9900CC" text=`$(0)`>>)@
!! |$$(k and )|$$(k export )|$$(k public )|
!! |$$(k as )|$$(k fallthru )|$$(k retry )|
!! |$$(k break )|$$(k for )|$$(k return )|
!! |$$(k by )|$$(k function )|$$(k routine )|
!! |$$(k case )|$$(k global )|$$(k switch )|
!! |$$(k constant )|$$(k goto )|$$(k then )|
!! |$$(k continue )|$$(k if )|$$(k to )|
!! |$$(k do )|$$(k ifdef )|$$(k type )|
!! |$$(k else )|$$(k include )|$$(k until )|
!! |$$(k elsedef )|$$(k label )|$$(k while )|
!! |$$(k elsif )|$$(k loop )|$$(k with )|
!! |$$(k elsifdef )|$$(k namespace )|$$(k without )|
!! |$$(k end )|$$(k not )|$$(k xor )|
!! |$$(k entry )|$$(k or )||
!! |$$(k enum )|$$(k override )||
!! |$$(k exit )|$$(k procedure )||
!!@@(k <<font color="#0000FF" text=`$(0)`>>)@
!!@@(b <<font color="#9900CC" text=`$(0)`>>)@
and export public
as fallthru retry
break for return
by function routine
case global switch
constant goto then
continue if to
do ifdef type
else include until
elsedef label while
elsif loop with
elsifdef namespace without
end not xor
entry or
enum override
exit procedure
For example, the ##edx## editor displays these words in blue.
The following are Euphoria built-in routines. It is best if you do
not use these for your own identifiers:
abort getenv peek4s system
and_bits gets peek4u system_exec
append hash peeks tail
arctan head platform tan
atom include_paths poke task_clock_start
c_func insert poke2 task_clock_stop
c_proc integer poke4 task_create
call length position task_list
call_func log power task_schedule
call_proc machine_func prepend task_self
clear_screen machine_proc print task_status
close match printf task_suspend
command_line match_from puts task_yield
compare mem_copy rand time
cos mem_set remainder trace
date not_bits remove xor_bits
delete object repeat ?
delete_routine open replace &
equal option_switches routine_id $
find or_bits sequence
find_from peek sin
floor peek_string splice
get_key peek2s sprintf
getc peek2u sqrt
Identifiers can be used in naming the following:
* procedures
* functions
* types
* variables
* constants
* enums
==== procedures
These perform some computation and may contain a list of parameters, e.g.
procedure empty()
end procedure
procedure plot(integer x, integer y)
position(x, y)
puts(1, '*')
end procedure
There are a fixed number of named parameters, but this is not restrictive since
any parameter could be a variable-length sequence of arbitrary objects. In many
languages variable-length parameter lists are impossible. In C, you must set
up strange mechanisms that are complex enough that the average programmer
cannot do it without consulting a manual or a local guru.
A copy of the value of each argument is passed in. The formal parameter
variables may be modified inside the procedure but this does not affect the
value of the arguments. Pass by reference can be achieved using indexes into
some fixed sequence.
;**Performance Note~:**
:The interpreter does not actually copy sequences or floating-point numbers
unless it becomes necessary. For example,
y = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.5,"ABC"}
x = y
The statement ##x = y## does not actually cause a new copy of ##y## to be
created. Both ##x## and ##y## will simply "point" to the same sequence. If we
later perform ##x[3] = 9##, then a separate sequence will be created for ##x##
in memory (although there will still be just one shared copy of ##8.5## and
##"ABC"##). The same thing applies to
"copies" of arguments passed in to subroutines.
For a number of procedures or functions~--see below~--some parameters
may have the same value in many cases. The most expected value for any parameter
may be given a default value. To pass the default value, use a question mark ##?##,
or omit the value. When the parameter is not the last in the list to the routine,
you should use the ##?## for clarity, rather than simply omitting the parameter,
and having consecutive commas.
procedure foo(sequence s, integer n=1)
? n + length(s)
end procedure
foo("abc") -- prints out 4 = 3 + 1. n was not specified, so was set to 1.
foo("abc", ? ) -- prints out 4 = 3 + 1. n was not specified, so was set to 1.
foo("abc", 3) -- prints out 6 = 3 + 3
This is not limited to the last parameter(s):
procedure bar(sequence s="abc", integer n, integer p=1)
? length(s)+n+p
end procedure
bar(?, 2) -- prints out 6 = 3 + 2 + 1
bar(, 2) -- prints out 6 = 3 + 2 + 1. Legal, but considered bad form.
bar(2) -- errors out, as 2 is not a sequence
bar(?, 2, ?) -- same as bar(,2)
bar(?, 2, 3) -- prints out 8 = 3 + 22 + 3
bar({}, 2, ?) -- prints out 3 = 0 + 2 + 1
bar() -- errors out, second parameter is omitted,
-- but doesn't have a default value
Any expression may be used in a default value. Parameters that have been
already mentioned may even be part of the expression:
procedure baz(sequence s, integer n=length(s))
? n
end procedure
baz("abcd") -- prints out 4
==== functions
These are just like procedures, but they return a value, and can be used in an
expression, e.g.
function max(atom a, atom b)
if a >= b then
return a
return b
end if
end function
==== return statement
Any Euphoria object can be returned. You can, in effect, have multiple return
values, by returning a sequence of objects. e.g.
return {x_pos, y_pos}
However, Euphoria does not have variable lists. When you return a sequence, you
still have to dispatch its contents to variables as needed. And you cannot pass
a sequence of parameters to a routine, unless using [[:call_func]] or
[[:call_proc]], which carries a performance penalty.
We will use the general term "subroutine", or simply "routine" when a remark is
applicable to both procedures and functions.
Defaulted parameters can be used in functions exactly as they are in
procedures. See the section above for a few examples.
==== types
These are special functions that may be used in declaring the allowed values
for a variable. A type must have exactly one parameter and should return an
atom that is either true (non-zero) or false (zero). Types can also be called
just like other functions. See [[:Specifying the Type of a variable]].
Although there are no restrictions to using defaulted parameters with types,
their use is so much constrained by a type having exactly one parameter that
they are of little practical help there.
You cannot use a type to perform any adjustment to the value being checked, if
only because this value may be the temporary result of an expression, not an
actual variable.
==== variables
These may be assigned values during execution e.g.
-- x may only be assigned integer values
integer x
x = 25
-- a, b and c may be assigned *any* value
object a, b, c
a = {}
b = a
c = 0
When you declare a variable you name the variable (which protects you against
making spelling mistakes later on) and you define which sort of values may
legally be assigned to the variable during execution of your program.
The simple act of declaring a variable does not assign any value to it. If you
attempt to read it before assigning any value to it, Euphoria will issue a
run-time error as "variable xyz has never been assigned a value".
To guard against forgetting to initialize a variable, and also because it may
make the code clearer to read, you can combine declaration and assignment:
integer n = 5
This is equivalent to
integer n
n = 5
It is not infrequent that one defines a private variable that bears the same
name as one already in scope. You can reuse the value of that variable when
performing an initialization on declare by using a default namespace for the
current file:
namespace app
integer n
procedure foo()
integer n = app:n + 2
? n
end procedure
foo() -- prints out 7
==== constants
These are variables that are assigned an initial value that can never change
constant MAX = 100
constant Upper = MAX - 10, Lower = 5
constant name_list = {"Fred", "George", "Larry"}
The result of any expression can be assigned to a constant, even one involving
calls to previously defined functions, but once the assignment is made, the
value of the constant variable is "locked in".
Constants may not be declared inside a subroutine.
==== enum
An enumerated value is a special type of constant where the first value
defaults to the number 1 and each item after that is incremented by 1 by default. An
optional ##by## keyword can be supplied to change the increment value. As with sequences,
enums can also be terminated with a ##$## for ease of editing ##enum## lists that may
change frequently during development.
-- ONE is 1, TWO is 2, THREE is 3, FOUR is 4
You can change the value of any one item by assigning it a numeric value. Enums
can only take numeric values. You cannot set the starting value to an
expression or other variable. Subsequent values are always the previous value
plus one, unless they too are assigned a default value.
-- ONE is 1, TWO is 2, THREE is 3
-- ABC is 10, DEF is 11, XYZ is 12
Euphoria sequences use integer indexes, but with ##enum## you may write code
like this:
enum X, Y
sequence point = { 0,0 }
point[X] = 3
point[Y] = 4
By default, unless an enum member is being specifically set to some value, its
will be one more than the previous member's value, with the first default value
being ##1##. This default can be overridden. The syntax is:
enum by DELTA member1, member2, ... ,memberN
where ##'DELTA'## is a literal number with an optional operation code
(##*, +, -, /##) preceding it.
enum by 2 A,B,C=6,D --> values are 1,3,6,8
enum by -2 A=10,B,C,D --> values are 10,8,6,4
enum by * 2 A,B,C,D,E --> values are 1,2,4,8,16
enum by / 3 A=81,B,C,D,E --> values are 81,27,9,3,1
Also note that enum members do not have to be integers.
enum by / 2 A=5,B,C --> values are 5, 2.5, 1.25
==== enum type
There is also a special form of ##enum##, an //enum type//. This is a simple way
to write a user-defined type based on the set of values in a specific enum
The type created this way can be used anywhere a normal user-defined type can be
For example,
enum type RGBA RED, GREEN, BLUE, ALPHA end type
-- Only allow values of RED, GREEN, BLUE, or ALPHA as parameters
procedure xyz( RGBA x, RGBA y)
-- do stuff...
end procedure
However there is one significant difference when it comes to enum types. For
normal types, when calling the type function, it returns either ##0## or ##1##.
The enum type function returns ##0## if the argument is not a member of the
enum set, and it returns a non-zero atom when the argument is a member. The value returned might be ##1## or it might not be ##1##. Don't rely on the type returning one. In EUPHORIA any atom that is not ##0## is true. The non-zero value returned differs between 4.0 and 4.1.
For example,
enum type color RED=4, GREEN=7, BLACK=1, BLUE=3 , PINK=10 end type
-- color(RED) --> TRUE but might not be 1.
if color(GREEN) then -- good.
-- do stuff
end if
-- color(BLUE) --> also TRUE but might not be 1.
if color(BLUE) = 1 then -- BAD, very BAD.
-- BLUE is a color but this branch might not get executed.
-- do stuff
end if
-- As a matter of style you may compare to 0.
if color(BLACK) != 0 then -- good. Any non-zero is true in EUPHORIA
-- So, compare to 0 if you wish.
-- do stuff
end if
enum by DELTA member1, member2, ... ,memberN
where ##'DELTA'## is a literal number with an optional operation code
(##*, +, -, /##) preceding it.
enum by 2 A,B,C=6,D --> values are 1,3,6,8
enum by -2 A=10,B,C,D --> values are 10,8,6,4
enum by * 2 A,B,C,D,E --> values are 1,2,4,8,16
enum by / 3 A=81,B,C,D,E --> values are 81,27,9,3,1
Also note that enum members do not have to be integers.
enum by / 2 A=5,B,C --> values are 5, 2.5, 1.25
=== Specifying the type of a variable
So far you've already seen some examples of variable types but now we will
define types more precisely.
Variable declarations have a type name followed by a list of the variables
being declared. For example,
object a
global integer x, y, z
procedure fred(sequence q, sequence r)
The types: **object**, **sequence**, **atom** and **integer** are
**predefined**. Variables of type **object** may take on //any// value. Those
declared with type **sequence** must always be sequences. Those declared with
type **atom** must always be atoms.
Variables declared with type **integer** must be atoms with
integer values from ##-1073741824## to ##+1073741823## inclusive. You can
perform exact
calculations on larger integer values, up to about ##15## decimal digits, but
declare them as **atom**, rather than integer.
:In a procedure or function parameter list like the one for ##fred## above,
a type name may only be followed by a single parameter name.
;**Performance Note~:**
:Calculations using variables declared as integer will usually be somewhat
faster than calculations involving variables declared as atom. If your machine
has floating-point hardware, Euphoria will use it to manipulate atoms that
are not integers. If your machine doesn't have floating-point
hardware (this may happen on old 386 or 486 PCs), Euphoria will call software
arithmetic routines contained in **euid.exe** (or in //Windows//). You can force
##eui.exe## to
bypass any floating-point hardware, by setting an environment variable:
SET NO87=1
The slower software routines will be used, but this could be of some advantage
if you are worried about the floating-point bug in some early Pentium
==== User-defined types
To augment the [[:predefined types]], you can create **user-defined types**. All
you have to
do is define a single-parameter function, but declare it with **type ...
end type** instead of **function ... end function**. For
type hour(integer x)
return x >= 0 and x <= 23
end type
hour h1, h2
h1 = 10 -- ok
h2 = 25 -- error! program aborts with a message
Variables ##h1## and ##h2## can only be assigned integer values in the range
##0## to ##23##
inclusive. After each assignment to ##h1## or ##h2## the interpreter will call
passing the new value. The value will first be checked to see if it is an
integer (because of "integer x"). If it is, the return statement will be
executed to test the value of ##x## (i.e. the new value of ##h1## or ##h2##).
If ##hour##
returns true, execution continues normally. If ##hour## returns false then the
program is aborted with a suitable diagnostic message.
"hour" can be used to declare subroutine parameters as well:
procedure set_time(hour h)
##set_time## can only be called with a reasonable value for parameter ##h##,
otherwise the program will abort with a message.
A variable's type will be checked after each assignment to the variable (except
where the compiler can predetermine that a check will not be necessary), and
the program will terminate immediately if the type function returns false.
Subroutine parameter types are checked each time that the subroutine is called.
This checking guarantees that a variable can never have a value that does not
belong to the type of that variable.
Unlike other languages, the type of a variable does not affect any calculations
on the variable, nor the way its contents are displayed. Only the value of the
variable matters
in an expression. The type just serves as an error check to prevent any
"corruption" of the variable. User-defined types can catch unexpected
logical errors in your program. They are not designed to catch or correct user
input errors. In particular, they cannot adjust a wrong value to some other,
presumably legal, one.
Type checking can be turned off or on between subroutines using the with
##type_check## or ##without type_check## (see [[:specialstatements]]).
It is initially on by default.
;**Note to Bench markers~:**
: When comparing the speed of Euphoria programs against programs written in
other languages, you should specify **without type_check** at the top of
the file. This gives Euphoria permission to skip run-time type checks, thereby
saving some execution time. All other checks are still performed, e.g.
subscript checking, uninitialized variable checking etc. Even when you turn
off type checking, Euphoria reserves the right to make checks at strategic
places, since this can actually allow it to run your program //faster// in
many cases. So you may still get a type check failure even when you have
turned off type checking. Whether type checking is on or off, you will never
get a **//machine-level//** exception. **You will always get a
meaningful message from Euphoria when something goes wrong**. (//This
might not be the case when you [[:poke]] directly
into memory, or call routines written in C or machine code.//)
Euphoria's way of defining types is simpler than what you will find in other
languages, yet Euphoria provides the programmer with //greater// flexibility
in defining the legal values for a type of data. Any algorithm can be used to
include or exclude values. You can even declare a variable to be of type object
which will allow it to take on //any// value. Routines can be written to
work with very specific types, or very general types.
For many programs, there is little advantage in defining new types, and you may
wish to stick with the four [[:predefined types]].
Unlike other languages, Euphoria's type mechanism is optional. You don't need
it to create a program.
However, for larger programs, strict type definitions can aid the process of
debugging. Logic errors are caught close to their source and are not allowed
to propagate in subtle ways through the rest of the program. Furthermore, it
is easier to reason about the misbehavior of a section of code when you are
guaranteed that the variables involved always had a legal value, if not the
desired value.
Types also provide meaningful, machine-checkable documentation about your
program, making it easier for you or others to understand your code at a later
date. Combined with the subscript checking,
uninitialized variable checking, and other checking that is always present,
strict run-time type checking makes debugging much easier in Euphoria than in
most other languages. It also increases the reliability of the final program
since many latent bugs that would have survived the testing phase in other
languages will have been caught by Euphoria.
;**Anecdote 1~:**
: In porting a large C program to Euphoria, a number of latent bugs were
discovered. Although this C program was believed to be totally "correct", we
found: a situation where an uninitialized variable was being read; a place
where element number "-1" of an array was routinely written and read; and a
situation where something was written just off the screen. These problems
resulted in errors that weren't easily visible to a casual observer, so they
had survived testing of the C code.
;**Anecdote 2~:**
:The Quick Sort algorithm presented on page 117 of //Writing Efficient
Programs// by Jon Bentley has a subscript error! The algorithm will sometimes
read the element just //before// the beginning of the array to be sorted,
and will sometimes read the element just //after// the end of the array.
Whatever garbage is read, the algorithm will still work - this is probably why
the bug was never caught. But what if there isn't any (virtual) memory just
before or just after the array? Bentley later modifies the algorithm such that
this bug goes away~--but he presented this version as being correct.
**//Even the experts need subscript checking!//**
;**Performance Note~:**
:When typical user-defined types are used extensively, type checking adds only
20 to 40 percent to execution time. Leave it on unless you really need the
extra speed. You might also consider turning it off for just a few
heavily-executed routines. [[:Profiling]] can help with this decision.
==== integer
An Euphoria ##integer## is a mathematical integer restricted to the range
##-1,073,741,824## to ##+1,073,741,823##.
As a result, a variable of the integer type, while allowing computations as fast
as possible, cannot hold 32-bit machine addresses, even though the latter are
mathematical integers. You must use the [[:atom]] type for this purpose. Also,
even though the product of two integers is a mathematical integer, it may not
fit into an integer, and should be kept in an atom instead.
==== atom
An ##atom## can hold three kinds of data:
* Mathematical integers in the range ##-power(2,53)## to +##power(2,53)##
* Floating point numbers, in the range ##-power(2,1024)+1## to ##+power(2,1024)-1##
* Large mathematical integers in the same range, but with a fuzz that grows
with the magnitude of the integer.
##power(2,53)## is slightly above 9.10^^15^^, ##power(2,1024)## is in the
10^^308^^ range.
Because of these constraints, which arise in part from common hardware
limitations, some care is needed for specific purposes:
* The sum or product of two integers is an ##atom##, but may not be an
* Memory addresses, or handles acquired from anything non Euphoria, including
the operating system, **must** be stored as an ##atom##.
* For large numbers, usual operations may yield strange results:
integer n = power(2, 27) -- ok
integer n_plus = n + 1, n_minus = n - 1 -- ok
atom a = n * n -- ok
atom a1 = n_plus * n_minus -- still ok
? a - a1 -- prints 0, should be 1 mathematically
//This is not an Euphoria bug//. The IEEE 754 standard for floating point
numbers provides for 53 bits of precision for any real number, and an accurate
computation of ##a-a1## would require 54 of them. Intel FPU chips do have 64 bit
precision registers, but the low order 16 bits are only
used internally, and Intel recommends against using them for high precision
arithmetic. Their SIMD machine instruction set only uses the IEEE 754 defined
==== sequence
A sequence is a type that is a //container//. A sequence has //elements// which
can be accessed through their //index//, like in ##my_sequence[3]##.
##sequence##s are so generic as being able to store all sorts of data
structures: strings, trees, lists, anything. Accesses to sequences are always
bound checked, so that you cannot read or write an element that does not exist,
ever. A large amount of extraction and shape change operations on
sequences is available, both as built-in operations and library routines. The
elements of a sequence can have any type.
##sequence##s are implemented very efficiently. Programmers used to pointers
will soon notice that they can get most usual pointer operations done using
sequence indexes. The loss in efficiency is usually hard to notice, and the gain
in code safety and bug prevention far outweighs it.
==== object
This type can hold any data Euphoria can handle, both atoms and sequences.
The ##object## type returns 0 if a variable is not initialized, else ##1##.
=== Scope
==== Why scopes, and what are they?
The //scope// of an identifier is the portion of the program where its
declaration is in effect, i.e. where that identifier is //visible//.
Euphoria has many pre-defined procedures, functions and types. These are
defined automatically at the start of any program. For exmaple, the ##edx## editor shows
them in magenta. These pre-defined names are not reserved. You can override
them with your own variables or routines.
It is possible to use a user-defined identifier before it has been declared,
provided that it will be declared at some point later in the program.
For example, procedures, functions and types can call themselves or one another
//recursively//. Mutual
recursion, where routine A calls routine B which directly or indirectly calls
routine A, implies one of A or B being called before it is defined. This was
traditionally the most frequent situation which required using the
[[:routine_id]] mechanism, but is now supported directly.
See [[:Indirect Routine Calling]] for more details on the [[:routine_id]]
==== Defining the scope of an identifier
The scope of an identifier is a description of what code can 'access' it. Code
in the same scope of an identifier can access that identifier and code not in
the same scope cannot access it.
The scope of a **variable** depends upon where and how it is declared.
* If it is declared within a ##**for**##, ##**while**##, ##**loop**## or
##**switch**##, its scope starts at the declaration and ends at the respective
##**end**## statement.
* In an ##**if**## statement, the scope starts at the declaration and ends
either at the next ##**else**##, ##**elsif**## or ##**end if**## statement.
* If a variable is declared within a routine (known as a private variable) and
outside one of the structures listed above, the scope of the variable starts at
the declaration and ends at the routine's ##**end**## statement.
* If a variable is declared outside of a routine (known as a module variable),
and does not have a scope modifier, its scope starts at the declaration and ends
at the end of the file it is declared in.
The scope of a **constant** that does not have a scope modifier, starts at the
declaration and ends at the end of the file it is declared in.
The scope of a **enum** that does not have a scope modifier, starts at the
declaration and ends at the end of the file it is declared in.
The scope of all **procedures**, **functions** and **types**, which do not have
a scope modifier, starts at the beginning of the source file and ends at the end
of the source file in which they are declared. In other words, these can be
accessed by any code in the same file.
Constants, enums, module variables, procedures, functions and types, which do
not have a scope modifier are referred to as **local**. However, these
identifiers can have a scope modifier preceding their declaration, which causes
their scope to extend beyond the file they are declared in.
* If the keyword **global** precedes the declaration, the scope of these
identifiers extends to the whole application. They can be accessed by code
anywhere in the application files.
* If the keyword **public** precedes the declaration, the scope extends to any
file that explicitly includes the file in which the identifier is declared, or
to any file that includes a file that in turn ##public include##s the file
containing the ##public## declaration.
* If the keyword **export** precedes the declaration, the scope only extends to
any file that directly includes the file in which the identifier is declared.
When you **[[:include]]** a Euphoria file in another file, only the identifiers
declared using a scope modifier are accessible to the file doing the include.
The other declarations in the included file are invisible to the file doing the
include, and you will get an error message, "##Errors resolving the following
references##", if you try to use them.
There is a variant of the **include** statement, called **public include**,
which will be discussed later and behaves differently on **public** symbols.
Note that **constant** and **enum** declarations must be outside of any
Euphoria encourages you to restrict the scope of identifiers. If all identifiers
were automatically global to the whole program, you might have a lot of naming
conflicts, especially in a large program consisting of files written by many
different programmers. A naming conflict might cause a compiler error message,
or it could lead to a very subtle bug, where different parts of a program
accidentally modify the same variable without being aware of it. Try to use
the most restrictive scope that you can. Make variables
**private** to one routine where possible, and where that is not
possible, make them **local** to a file, rather than
**global** to the whole program. And whenever an identifier needs to be known
from a few files only, make it **public** or **export** so as to hide it from
whoever does not need to see it ~-- and might some day define the same
For example:
-- sublib.e
export procedure bar()
end procedure
-- some_lib.e
include sublib.e
export procedure foo()
end procedure
bar() -- ok, declared in sublib.e
-- my_app.exw
include some_lib.e
foo() -- ok, declared in some_lib.e
bar() -- error! bar() is not declared here
Why not declare ##foo## as global, as it is meant to be used anywhere? Well,
one could, but this will increase the risks of name conflicts. This is why, for
instance, all public identifiers from the standard library have **public**
scope. **global** should be used rarely, if ever. Because earlier versions of
Euphoria didn't have **public** or **export**, it has to remain there for a
while. One should be very sure of not polluting any foreign file's
symbol table before using **global** scope.
Built-in identifiers act as if declared as **global** ~-- but they are not
declared in any
Euphoria coded file.
==== Using namespaces
Euphoria namespaces are used to disambiguate between symbols (routines, variables,
constants, etc) with the same names in different files. They may be declared as
a default namespace in a file for the convenience of the users of that file,
or they may be declared at the point where a file is included. Note that unlike
namespaces in some other languages, this does not provide a sandbox around the
symbols in the file. It is just an easy way to tell euphoria to look for a
symbol in a particular file.
Identifiers marked as ##global##, ##public## or ##export## are known as
//exposed// variables because they can be used in files other than the one they
were declared in.
All other identifiers can only be used within their own file. This information
is helpful when maintaining or enhancing the file, or when learning how to use
the file. You can make changes to the internal routines and variables, without
having to examine other files, or notify other users of the include file.
Sometimes, when using include files developed by others, you will encounter
a naming conflict. One of the include file authors has used the same name for
a exposed identifier as one of the other authors. One of way of fixing this, if you
have the source, is to simply edit one of the include files to correct
the problem, however then you'd have repeat this process whenever a new version
of the include file was released.
Euphoria has a simpler way to solve this. Using an extension to the
include statement, you can say for example:
include johns_file.e as john
include bills_file.e as bill
john:x += 1
bill:x += 2
In this case, the variable ##x## was declared in two different files, and you
want to refer to both variables in your file. Using the //namespace
identifier// of either ##john## or ##bill##, you can attach a prefix to ##x## to
indicate which ##x## you are
referring to. We sometimes say that ##john## refers to one //namespace//, while
##bill## refers to another distinct //namespace//. You can attach a namespace
identifier to any user-defined variable, constant, procedure or function. You
can do it to solve a conflict, or simply to make things clearer. A namespace
identifier has local scope. It is known only within the file that declares it,
i.e. the file that contains the include statement. Different files might
define different namespace identifiers to refer to the same included file.
There is a special, reserved namespace, ##**eu**## for referring to built-in
Euphoria routines. This can be useful when a built-in routine has been
procedure puts( integer fn, object text )
eu:puts(fn, "Overloaded puts says: "& text )
end procedure
puts(1, "Hello, world!\n")
eu:puts(1, "Hello, world!\n")
Files can also declare a default namespace to be used with the file. When a
file with a default namespace is included, if the include statement did not
specify a namespace, then the default namespace will be automatically declared
in that file. If the include statement declares a namespace for the newly
included file, then the specified namespace will be available instead of the
default. No two files can use the same namespace identifier. If two files
with the same default namespaces are included, at least one will be required to
have a different namespace to be specified.
To declare a default namespace in a file, the first token (whitespace and
comments are ignored) should be 'namespace' followed by the desired name:
-- foo.e : this file does some stuff
namespace foo
A namespace that is declared as part of an ##include## statement is local to the
file where the ##include## statement is. A default namespace declared in a file
is considered a public symbol in that file. Namespaces and other symbols (e.g.,
variables, functions, procedures and types) can have the same name without
conflict. A namespace declared through an ##include## statement will mask a
default namespace declared in another file, just like a normal local variable
will mask a public variable in another file. In this case, rather than using
the default namespace,
declare a new namespace through the ##include## statement.
Note that declaring a namespace, either through the include statement or as a
default namespace does not **require** that every symbol reference must be
qualified with that namespace. The namespace simply **allows** the user to
deconflict symbols in different files with the same name, or to
allow the programmer to be explicit about where symbols are coming from
for the purposes of clarity, or to avoid possible future conflicts.
A qualified reference does not absolutely restrict the reference to symbols that
actually reside within the specified file. It can also apply to symbols
included by that file. This is especially useful for multi-file libraries.
Programmers can use a single namespace for the library, even though some of the
visible symbols in that library are not declared in the main file:
-- lib.e
namespace lib
public include sublib.e
public procedure main()
-- sublib.e
public procedure sub()
-- app.ex
include lib.e
Now, what happens if you do not use 'public include'?
-- lib2.e
include sublib.e
-- app2.ex
include lib.e
lib:sub() -- error. sub() is visible in lib2.e but not in app2.ex
==== The visibility of public and export identifiers
When a file needs to see the public or exported identifiers in another file that
includes the first file, the first file must include that other (including)
For example,
-- Parent file: foo.e --
public integer Foo = 1
include bar.e -- bar.e needs to see Foo
showit() -- execute a routine in bar.e
-- Included file: bar.e --
include foo.e -- included so I can see Foo
constant xyz = Foo + 1
public procedure showit()
? xyz
end procedure
//Public// symbols can only be seen by the file that explicitly includes
the file where those public symbols are declared.
For example,
-- Parent file: foo.e --
include bar.e
showit() -- execute a public routine in bar.e
If however, a file wants a third file to also see the symbols that it can, it
needs to do a ##public include##.
For example,
-- Parent file: foo.e --
public include bar.e
showit() -- execute a public routine in bar.e
public procedure fooer()
. . .
end procedure
-- Appl file: runner.ex --
include foo.e
showit() -- execute a public routine that foo.e can see in bar.e
fooer() -- execute a public routine in foo.e
The ##public include## facility is designed to make having a library composed of
multiple files easy for an application to use. It allows the main library file
to expose symbols in files that //it// includes as if the application had
actually included them. That way, symbols meant for the end user can be declared
in files other than the main file, and the library can still be organized
however the author prefers without affecting the end user.
**Another example**\\
Given that we have two files LIBA.e and LIBB.e ...
-- LIBA.e --
public constant
foo1 = 1,
foo2 = 2
export function foobarr1()
return 0
end function
export function foobarr2()
return 0
end function
-- LIBB.e --
-- I want to pass on just the constants not
-- the functions from LIBA.e.
public include LIBA.e
The export scope modifier is used to limit the extent that symbols can be
accessed. It works just like ##public## except that ##export## symbols are only
ever passed up one level only. In other words, if a file wants to use an
##export## symbol, that file must include it explicitly.
In this example above, code in LIBB.e can see both the public and export symbols
declared in LIBA.e (##foo1, foo2 foobarr1## and ##foobarr2##) because it
explicitly includes LIBA.e. And by using the ##public## prefix on the
##include## of LIBA.e, it also allows any file that ##includes## LIBB.e to the
##public## symbols from LIBA.e but they will not see any ##export## symbols
declared in LIBA.e.
In short, a ##public include## is used expose ##public## symbols that are
included, up one level but not any ##export## symbols that were include.
==== The complete set of resolution rules
**Resolution** is the process by which the interpreter determines which specific
symbol will actually be used at any given point in the code. This is usually
quite easy as most symbol names in a given scope are unique and so Euphoria
does not have to choose between them. However, when the same symbol name is used
in different but enclosing scopes, Euphoria has to make a decision about which
symbol the coder is referring to.
When Euphoria sees an identifier name being used, it looks for the name's
declaration starting from the current scope and moving outwards through the
enclosing scopes until the name's declaration is found.
The hierarchy of scopes can be viewed like this ...
block 1
block 2
block n
So, if a name is used at a ##block## level, Euphoria will first check for its
declaration in the same block, and if not found will check the enclosing blocks
until it reaches the routine level, in which case it checks the routine
(including parameter names), and then check the file that the block is declared
in and finally check the global/public/export symbols.
By the way, Euphoria will not allow a name to be declared if it is already
declared in the same scope, or enclosing ##block## or enclosing ##routine##.
Thus the
following examples are illegal...
integer a
if x then
integer a -- redefinition not allowed.
end if
if x then
integer a
if y then
integer a -- redefinition not allowed.
end if
end if
procedure foo(integer a)
if x then
integer a -- redefinition not allowed.
end if
end procedure
But note that this below is valid ...
integer a = 1
procedure foo()
integer a = 2
? a
end procedure
? a
In this situation, the second declaration of 'a' is said to //shadow// the first
one. The output from this example will be ...
Symbols all declared in the same file (be they in blocks, routines or at the
file level) are easy to check by Euphoria for scope clashes. However, a problem
can arise when symbol names declared as global/public/export in different files
are placed in the same scope during ##include## processing. As it is quite
possible for these files to come from independent developers that are not aware
of each other's symbol names, the potential for name clashes is high. A name
clash is just when the same name is declared in the same scope but in different
files. Euphoria cannot generally decide which name you were referring to when
this happens, so it needs you help to resolve it. This is where the
##namespace## concept is used.
A namespace is just a name that you assign to an include file so that your code
can exactly specify where an identifier that your code is using actually comes
from. Using a namespace with an identifier, for example:
include somefile.e as my_lib
include another.e
enables Euphoria to resolve the identifier (##foo##) as explicitly coming from
the file associated with the namespace "my_lib". This means that if ##foo## was
also declared as global/public/export in //another.e// then that ##foo## would
be ignored and the ##foo## in //somefile.e// would be used instead. Without that
namespace, Euphoria would have complained (##Errors resolving the following
If you need to use both ##foo## symbols you can still do that by using two
different namespaces. For example:
include somefile.e as my_lib
include another.e as her_ns
my_lib:foo() -- Calls the one in somefile.e
her_ns:foo() -- Calls the one in another.e
Note that there is a reserved namespace name that is always in use. The special
namespace **##eu##** is used to let Euphoria know that you are accessing a
built-in symbol rather than one of the same name declared in someone's file.
For example...
include somefile.e as my_lib
result = my_lib:find(something) -- Calls the 'find' in somefile.e
xy = eu:find(X, Y) -- Calls Euphoria's built-in 'find'
The controlling variable used in a [[:for statement]] is special. It is
automatically declared at the beginning of the loop block, and its scope ends at
the end of the for-loop. If the loop is inside a function or procedure, the loop
variable cannot have the same name as any other variable declared in the routine
or enclosing block. When the loop is at the top level, outside of any routine,
the loop variable cannot have the same name as any other file-scoped variable.
You can use the same name in many different for-loops as long as the loops
are not nested. You do not declare loop variables as you would other variables
because they are automatically declared as
atoms. The range of values specified in the for statement defines the
legal values of the loop variable.
Variables declared inside other types of blocks, such as a **loop**, **while**,
**if** or **switch** statement use the same scoping rules as a for-loop index.
==== The override qualifier
There are times when it is necessary to replace a global, public or export
identifier. Typically, one would do this to extend the capabilities of a
routine. Or perhaps to supersede the user defined type of some public, export or
global variable, since the type itself may not be global.
This can be achieved by declaring the identifier as **override**:
override procedure puts(integer channel,sequence text)
eu:puts(log_file, text)
eu:puts(channel, text)
end procedure
A warning will be issued when you do this, because it can be very confusing, and
would probably break code, for the new routine to change the behavior of the
former routine. Code that was calling the former routine expects no difference
in service, so there should not be any.
If an identifier is declared global, public or export, but not override, and
there is a built-in of the same name, Euphoria will not assume an override, and
will choose the built-in. A warning will be generated whenever this happens.
=== Deprecation
Beginning in Euphoria 4.1, procedures and functions can be marked as deprecated.
Deprecation is a computer software term that assigns a status to a particular item
to indicate that it should be avoided, typically because it has been superseded.
Deprecated routines remain in the language or library but should be avoided.
The ##deprecate## modifier will cause a warning to appear if that routine is
used. It serves no more purpose but is a powerful way to keep an evolving library
clean, slim and fit for the task. Instead of simply removing an old routine
authors are encouraged to use the ##deprecate## modifier on a routine and leave
it a part of the library for at least one major version increment. It can then
be removed. This allows your users time to upgrade their code to the new
recommended routine. Deprecated routines should be included in your manual, state
when and why they were deprecated and what is the path future for accomplishing
the same task.
-- Say hello to someone
-- Parameters:
-- * name - name of person to say hello to
-- Deprecated:
-- ##say_hello## has been deprecated in favor of the new greet routine.
deprecate public procedure say_hello(sequence name)
printf(1, "Hello, %s\n", { name })
end procedure
public procedure greet(sequence name="World", sequence greeting="Hello")
printf(1, "%s, %s\n", { greeting, name })
end procedure
When deprecating a routine, the keyword ##deprecate## should occur before any
scope modifier.
== Assignment statement
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
An **assignment statement** assigns the value of an expression to
a simple variable, or to a subscript or slice of a variable. e.g.
x = a + b
y[i] = y[i] + 1
y[i..j] = {1, 2, 3}
The previous value of the variable, or element(s) of the subscripted or sliced
variable are discarded. For example, suppose x was a 1000-element sequence
that we had initialized with:
object x
x = repeat(0, 1000) -- a sequence of 1000 zeros
and then later we assigned an atom to x with:
x = 7
This is perfectly legal since x is declared as an **object**. The
previous value of x, namely the 1000-element sequence, would simply disappear.
Actually, the space consumed by the 1000-element sequence will be automatically
recycled due to Euphoria's dynamic storage allocation.
Note that the equals symbol '=' is used for both assignment and for
equality testing. There is never any confusion
because an assignment in Euphoria is a statement only, it can't be used as an
expression (as in C).
=== Assignment with Operator
Euphoria also provides some additional forms of the assignment statement.
To save typing, and to make your code a bit neater, you can combine assignment
with one of the operators:
+ - / * &
For example, instead of saying:
mylongvarname = mylongvarname + 1
You can say:
mylongvarname += 1
Instead of saying:
galaxy[q_row][q_col][q_size] = galaxy[q_row][q_col][q_size] * 10
You can say:
galaxy[q_row][q_col][q_size] *= 10
and instead of saying:
accounts[start..finish] = accounts[start..finish] / 10
You can say:
accounts[start..finish] /= 10
In general, whenever you have an assignment of the form:
left-hand-side = left-hand-side op expression
You can say:
left-hand-side op= expression
where **//op//** is one of:
+ - * / &
When the left-hand-side contains multiple subscripts/slices, the ##op=##
form will usually execute faster than the longer form. When you get used to it,
you may find the ##op=## form to be slightly more readable than the long
form, since you don't have to visually compare the left-hand-side against the
copy of itself on the right side.
You cannot use assignment with operators while declaring a variable, because
that variable is not initialized when you perform the assignment.
== Branching Statements
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
@[then|] @[else|]
=== if statement
An **if statement** tests a condition to see whether it is true or false, and
then depending on the result of that test, executes the appropriate set of
The syntax of ##if## is
ELSE ==: else [ STMTBLOCK ]
ENDIF ==: end if
**Description of syntax**\\
* An //if statement// consists of the keyword ##**if**##, followed by an
//expression// that evaluates to an atom, optionally followed by a //label//
clause, followed by the keyword ##**then**##.
Next is a set of zero or more statements. This is followed by zero or more
//elsif// clauses.
Next is an optional //else// clause and finally there is the keyword ##**end**##
followed by the keyword ##**if**##.
* An //elsif// clause consists of the key word ##**elsif**##, followed by an
//expression// that evaluates to an atom, followed by the keyword ##**then**##.
Next is a set of zero or more statements.
* An //else// clause consists of the keyword ##**else**## followed by a set of
zero or more statements.
In Euphoria, //false// is represented by an atom whose value is zero and
//true// is represented by an atom that has any non-zero value.
* When an //expression// being tested is true, Euphoria executes the statements
immediately following the ##**then**## keyword after the //expression//, up to
the corresponding ##**elsif**## or ##**else**##, whichever comes next, then
skips down to the corresponding ##**end if**##.
* When an //expression// is false, Euphoria skips over any statements until it
comes to the next corresponding ##**elsif**## or ##**else**##, whichever comes
next. If this is an ##**elsif**## then its //expression// is tested otherwise
any statements following the ##**else**## are executed.
For example:
if a < b then
x = 1
end if
if a = 9 and find(0, s) then
x = 4
y = 5
z = 8
end if
if char = 'a' then
x = 1
elsif char = 'b' or char = 'B' then
x = 2
elsif char = 'c' then
x = 3
x = -1
end if
Notice that ##**elsif**## is a contraction of //else if//, but it's cleaner
because it does not require an ##**end if**## to go with it. There is just one
##**end if**## for the entire //if statement//, even when there are many
##**elsif**## clauses contained in it.
The ##**if**## and ##**elsif**## expressions are tested using [[:short_circuit]]
An //if statement// can have a //label clause// just before the first
##**then**## keyword.
See the section on [[:Header Labels]]. Note that an //elsif clause// can not
have a label.
@[case|] @[do|]
=== switch statement ===
The switch statement is used to run a specific set of statements, depending on
the value of an expression. It often replaces a set of if-elsif statements due
to it's ability to be highly optimized, thus much greater performance. There are
some key differences, however. A switch statement operates upon the value of a
single expression, and the program
flow continues based upon defined cases. The syntax of a switch statement:
switch <expr> [with fallthru] [label "<label name>"] do
case <val>[, <val2>, ...] then
[code block]
[[break [label]]|fallthru]
case <val>[, <val2>, ...] then
[code block]
[[break [label]]|fallthru]
case <val>[, <val2>, ...] then
[code block]
[[break [label]]|fallthru]
[case else]
[code block]
[[break [label]]|fallthru]
end switch
The above example could be written with ##if## statements like this ..
object temp = expression
object breaking = false
if equal(temp, val1) then
[code block 1]
[breaking = true]
end if
if not breaking and equal(temp, val2) then
[code block 2]
[breaking = true]
end if
if not breaking and equal(temp, val3) then
[code block 3]
[breaking = true]
end if
if not breaking then
[code block 4]
[breaking = true]
end if
The <val> in a ##case## must be either an atom, literal string, constant or
enum. Multiple values for a single ##case## can be specified by separating the
values by commas. The same symbol (or literal) may not be used multiple times as
a ##case## for the same ##switch##. If two different symbols used as ##case## values
happen to have the same value, they must be in the same ##case...then## statement,
or an error will occur. If the parser can determine all values when the ##switch##
is parsed, then a compile time error will be thrown. Otherwise, the error will occur
the first time that the switch is encountered. Likewise, when translating code, if
the parser cannot determine all values at the time when the ##case## values are parsed,
the compilation will fail due to mulitple ##case## values in the emitted C code (it is
assumed that the programmer should work out this sort of bug in interpreted mode).
By default, control flows to the end of the ##switch## block
when the next ##case## is encountered. The default behavior can be modified in
two ways. The default for a particular ##switch## block can be changed so that
control passes to the next executable statement whenever a new case is
encountered by using ##with fallthru## in the ##switch## statement:
switch x with fallthru do
case 1 then
? 1
case 2 then
? 2
case else
? 0
end switch
Note that when ##with fallthru## is used, the ##break## statement can be used
to jump out of the ##switch## block. The behavior of individual ##case##s can
be changed by using the ##fallthru## statement:
switch x do
case 1 then
? 1
case 2 then
? 2
case else
? 0
end switch
Note that the ##break## statement before ##case else## was omitted, because
the equivalent action is taken automatically by default.
switch length(x) do
case 1 then
-- do something
case 2 then
-- do something extra
case 3 then
-- do something usual
case else
-- do something else
end switch
The ##label "name"## is optional and if used it gives a name to the switch
block. This name can be used in nested switch ##break## statements to break out
of an enclosing switch rather than just the owning switch. \\
switch opt label "LBLa" do
case 1, 5, 8 then
case 4, 2, 7 then
switch alt label "LBLb" do
case "X" then
break "LBLa"
case "Y" then
case else
end switch
case 3 then
case else
end switch
In the above, if opt is 2 and alt is "X" then it runs...\\
But if opt is 2 and alt is "Y" then it runs ...\\
In other words, the ##break "LBLa"## skips to the end of the switch called
"LBLa" rather than the switch called "LBLb".
@[elsedef|] @[elsifdef|]
=== ifdef statement
The ##ifdef## statement has a similar syntax to the ##if## statement.
ifdef SOME_WORD then
--... zero or more statements
elsifdef SOME_OTHER_WORD then
--... zero or more statements
--... zero or more statements
end ifdef
Of course, the ##elsifdef## and ##elsedef## clauses are optional, just like
##elsif## and ##else## are option in an ##if## statement.
The major differences between and ##if## and ##ifdef## statement are that
##ifdef## is executed at parse time not runtime, and ##ifdef## can only test for
the existence of a defined word whereas ##if## can test any boolean expression.
**Note** that since the ##ifdef## statement executes at parse time, run-time
values cannot be checked, only words defined by the ##-D## command line switch,
or by the ##with define## directive, or one of the special predefined words.
The purpose of ##ifdef## is to allow you to change the way your program operates
in a very efficient manner. Rather than testing for a specific condition
repeatedly during the running of a program, ##ifdef## tests for it once during
parsing and then generates the precise IL code to handle the condition.
For example, assume you have some debugging code in your application that
displays information to the screen. Normally you would not want to see this
display so you set a condition so it only displays during a 'debug' session. The
first example below shows how would could do this just using the ##if##
statement, and the second example shows the same thing but using the ##idef##
-- Example 1. --
if find("-DEBUG", command_line()) then
writefln("Debug x=[], y=[]", {x,y})
end if
-- Example 1. --
ifdef DEBUG then
writefln("Debug x=[], y=[]", {x,y})
end ifdef
As you can see, they are almost identical. However, in the first example,
everytime the program gets to this point in the code, it tests the command line
for the -DEBUG switch before deciding to display the information or not. But in
the second example, the existence of DEBUG is tested //once// at parse time, and
if it exists then, Euphoria generates the IL code to do the display. Thus when
the program is running then everytime it gets to this point in the code, it does
**not** check that DEBUG exists, instead it already knows it does so it just
does the display. If however, DEBUG did not exist at parse time, then the IL
code for the display would simply be omitted, meaning that during the running of
the program, when it gets to this point in the code, it does not
recheck for DEBUG, instead it already knows it doesn't exist and the IL code to
do the display also doesn't exist so nothing is displayed. This can be a much
needed performance boost for a program.
Euphoria predefines some words itself:
==== Euphoria Version Definitions
* **EU4** - Major Euphoria Version
* **EU4_1** - Major and Minor Euphoria Version
* **EU4_1_0** - Major, Minor and Release Euphoria Version
Euphoria is released with the common version scheme of Major, Minor and Release
version identifiers in the form of major.minor.release. When 4.1.1 is
released, ##EU4_1_1## will be defined and ##EU4_1## will still be defined, but ##EU4_1_0## will no longer be defined. When 4.2 is released, ##EU4_1## will no longer be defined, but ##EU4_2## will be defined. Finally, when 5.0 is released, ##EU4## will no longer be defined, but ##EU5## will be defined.
==== Platform Definitions
* **CONSOLE** - Euphoria is being executed
with the Console version of the interpreter (on windows, eui.exe, others are eui)
* **GUI** - Platform is Windows and is being executed with
the GUI version of the interpreter (euiw.exe)
* **WINDOWS** - Platform is Windows (GUI or Console)
* **LINUX** - Platform is Linux
* **OSX** - Platform is Mac OS X
* **FREEBSD** - Platform is FreeBSD
* **OPENBSD** - Platform is OpenBSD
* **NETBSD** - Platform is NetBSD
* **BSD** - Platform is a BSD variant (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD and OS X)
* **UNIX** - Platform is any Unix
==== Architecture Definitions
Chip architecture:
* **X86**
* **X86_64**
* **ARM**
Size of pointers and euphoria objects. This information can be derived from
the chip architecture, but is provided for convenience.
* **BITS32**
* **BITS64**
Size of long integers. On Windows, long integers are always 32 bits. On other
platforms, long integers are the same size as pointers. This information can
also be derived from a combination of other architecture and platform ifdefs,
but is provided for convenience.
* **LONG32**
* **LONG64**
==== Application Definitions
* **EUI** - Application is being interpreted by ##eui##.
* **EUC** - Application is being translated by ##euc##.
* **EUC_DLL** - Application is being translated by ##euc## into a //DLL// file.
* **EUB** - Application is being converted to a bound program by ##eub##.
* **EUB_SHROUD** - Application is being converted to a shrouded program by
* **CONSOLE** - Application is being translated, or converted to a bound //console// program by
##euc## or ##eub##, respectively.
* **GUI** - Application is being converted to a bound //Windows GUI//
program by ##eub##.
==== Library Definitions
* **DATA_EXECUTE** - Application will always get executable memory from
##allocate## even when the system has Data Execute Protection enabled for the
Euphoria Interpreter.
* **SAFE** - Enables safe runtime checks for operations for routines found in
##machine.e## and ##dll.e##
* **UCSTYPE_DEBUG** - Found in ##include/std/ucstypes.e##
* **CRASH** - Found in ##include/std/unittest.e##
More examples
-- file: myproj.ex
puts(1, "Hello, I am ")
ifdef EUC then
puts(1, "a translated")
end ifdef
ifdef EUI then
puts(1, "an interpreted")
end ifdef
ifdef EUB then
puts(1, "a bound")
end ifdef
ifdef EUB_SHROUD then
puts(1, ", shrouded")
end ifdef
puts(1, " program.\n")
C:\myproj> eui myproj.ex
Hello, I am an interpreted program.
C:\myproj> euc -con myprog.ex
... translating ...
... compiling ...
C:\myproj> myprog.exe
Hello, I am a translated program.
C:\myproj> bind myprog.ex
C:\myproj> myprog.exe
Hello, I am a bound program.
C:\myproj> shroud myprog.ex
C:\myproj> eub
Hello, I am a bound, shrouded program.
It is possible for one or more of the above definitions to be true at the same
time. For instance, ##EUC## and ##EUC_DLL## will both be true when the source
file has been translated to a DLL. If you wish to know if your source file is
translated and not a DLL, then you can
ifdef EUC and not EUC_DLL then
-- translated to an application
end ifdef
==== Using ifdef
You can define your own words either in source:
with define MY_WORD -- defines
without define OTHER_WORD -- undefines
or by command line:
eui -D MY_WORD myprog.ex
This can handle many tasks such as change the behavior of your application
when running on //Linux// vs. //Windows//, enable or disable debug style code or
possibly work differently in demo/shareware applications vs. registered
You should surround code that is not portable with ##ifdef## like:
ifdef WINDOWS then
-- Windows specific code.
include std/error.e
crash("This program must be run with the Windows interpreter.")
end ifdef
When writing **include files** that you cannot run on some platform, issue a
crash call in the **include file**. **Yet** make sure that public constants and
procedures are defined for the unsupported platform as well.
ifdef UNIX then
include std/bash.e
end ifdef
-- define exported and public constants and procedures for
-- OSX as well
ifdef WINDOWS or OSX then
-- OSX is not supported but we define public symbols for it anyhow.
The reason for doing this is so that the user that includes your include file
sees an "OS not supported" message instead of an "undefined reference" message.
Defined words must follow the same character set of an identifier, that is,
it must start with either a letter or underscore and contain any mixture of
letters, numbers and underscores. It is common for defined words to be in
all upper case, however, it is not required.
A few examples:
for a = 1 to length(lines) do
ifdef DEBUG then
printf(1, "Line %i is %i characters long\n", {a, length(lines[a])})
end ifdef
end for
sequence os_name
ifdef UNIX then
include unix_ftp.e
elsifdef WINDOWS then
include win32_ftp.e
crash("Operating system is not supported")
end ifdef
ifdef SHAREWARE then
if record_count > 100 then
message("Shareware version can only contain 100 records. Please register")
end if
end ifdef
The ##ifdef## statement is very efficient in that it makes the decision only
once during parse time and only emits the ##TRUE## portions of code to the
resulting interpreter. Thus, in loops that are iterated many times there is
zero performance hit when making the decision. Example:
while 1 do
ifdef DEBUG then
puts(1, "Hello, I am a debug message\n")
end ifdef
-- more code
end while
If ##DEBUG## is defined, then the interpreter/translator actually sees the code
as being:
while 1 do
puts(1, "Hello, I am a debug message\n")
-- more code
end while
Now, if ##DEBUG## is not defined, then the code the interpreter/translator sees
while 1 do
-- more code
end while
Do be careful to put the numbers after the platform names for //Windows//:
-- This puts() routine will never be called
-- even when run by the Windows interpreter!
ifdef WINDOWS then
puts(1,"I am on Windows\n")
end ifdef
== Loop statements
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
An iterative code block repeats its own execution zero, one or more times.
There are several ways to specify for how long the process should go on, and
how to stop or otherwise alter it. An iterative block may be informally called
a loop, and each execution of code in a loop is called an iteration of the
Euphoria has three flavors of loops. They all may harbor a
[[:Header Labels]], in order to make exiting or resuming them
more flexible.
=== while statement
A **while statement** tests a condition to see if it is non-zero
(true), and if so, a body of statements is executed. The condition is re-tested
after when the statements are run, and if still true the statements are
run again, and so on.
Syntax Format:
>##**while** //expr// //[//**with entry**//]// //[//**label** //"name"// //]// **do**##
>##**end while**##
Example 1
while x > 0 do
a = a * 2
x = x - 1
end while
Example 2
while sequence(Line) with entry do
Line = gets(handle)
end while
Example 3
while true label "main" do
res = funcA()
if res > 5 then
if funcB() > some_value then
continue "main" -- go to start of loop
end if
end if
for i = 1 to res do
if i > some_value then
exit "main" -- exit the "main" loop, not just this 'for' loop.
end if
end if
res = funcE(res, some_value)
end while
=== loop until statement
A **loop** statement tests a condition to see if it is
non-zero (true), and until it is true a loop is executed.
Syntax Format:
>##**loop** //[//**with entry**//]// //[//**label** //"name"// //]// **do**##
>>##**until** //expr//##
>##end loop##
loop do
a = a * 2
x = x - 1
until x<=0
end loop
loop with entry do
a = a * 2
x = x - 1
until x<=0
end loop
loop label "GONEXT" do
a = a * 2
y += 1
if y = 7 then continue "GONEXT" end if
x = x - 1
until x<=0
end loop
A ##while## statement differs from a ##loop## statement because the body of a
loop is executed at least once, since testing takes place **after** the body
completes. However in a ##while## statement, the test is taken **before**
the body is executed.
@[to|] @[by|]
=== for statement
Syntax Format:
>##**for** **loopvar** = **startexpr** to **endexpr** //[//**by delta**//]// **do**##
>##end for##
A **for** statement sets up a special loop that has its own **loop variable**.
The **loop variable** starts with the specified initial value and increments or
decrements it to the specified final value. The **for** statement is used when
you need to repeat a set of statements a specific number of times.\\
-- Display the numbers 1 to 6 on the screen.
puts(1, "1\n")
puts(1, "2\n")
puts(1, "3\n")
puts(1, "4\n")
puts(1, "5\n")
puts(1, "6\n")
This block of code simply starts at the first line and runs each in turn. But it
could be written more simply and flexibly by using a **for** statement.
for i = 1 to 6 do
printf(1, "%d\n", i)
end for
Now it's just three lines of code rather than six. More importantly, if we
needed to change the program to print the numbers from 1 to 100, we only have to
change one line rather than add 94 new lines.
for i = 1 to 100 do -- One line change.
printf(1, "%d\n", i)
end for
Or using another way ...
for i = 1 to 10 do
? i -- ? is a short form for print()
end for
-- fractional numbers allowed too
for i = 10.0 to 20.5 by 0.3 do
for j = 20 to 10 by -2 do -- counting down
? {i, j}
end for
end for
However, adding together floating point numbers that are not the ratio of an
integer by a power of 2 ~--// 0.3 is not such a ratio//~--leads to
some "fuzz" in the value of the index. In some cases, you might get unexpected
results because of this fuzz, which arises
from a common hardware limitation. For instance, ##floor(10*0.1)## is ##1## as
expected, but ##floor(0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1)## is ##0##.
The **loop variable** is declared automatically and exists until
the end of the loop. Outside of the loop the variable has no value and is not
even declared. If you need its final value, copy it into another variable
before leaving the loop. The compiler will not allow any assignments to a loop
variable. The initial value, loop limit and increment must all be atoms. If no
increment is specified then +1 is assumed. The limit and increment values are
established only on entering the loop, and are not affected by anything that
happens during the execution of the loop.
== Flow control statements
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
Program execution flow refers to the order in which program statements are run
in. By default, the next statement to run after the current one is the next
statement //physically// located after the current one.\\
a = b + c
printf(1, "The result of adding %d and %d is %d", {b,c,a})
In that example, ##b## is added to ##c##, assigning the result to ##a##, and
then the information is displayed on the screen using the ##printf## statement.
However, there are many times in which the order of execution needs to be
different from the default order, to get the job done. Euphoria has a number of
//flow control statements// that you can use to arrange the execution order of
A set of statements that are run in their order of appearance is called a
//block//. Blocks are good ways to organize code in easily identifiable chunks.
However it can be desirable to leave a block before reaching the end, or
slightly alter the default course of execution.\\
The following flow control keywords are available.
break retry entry exit continue return goto end
=== exit statement
Exiting a loop is done with the keyword **exit**. This causes flow
to immediately leave the current loop and recommence with the first statement
after the end of the loop.
for i = a to b do
c = i
if doSomething(i) = 0 then
exit -- Stop executing code inside the 'for' block.
end if
end for
-- Flow restarts here.
if c = a then ...
But sometimes you need to leave a block that encloses the current one. Euphoria
has two ways available for you to do this. The safest way, in terms of
future maintenance, is to name the block you want to exit from and use that name
on the exit statement. The other way is to use a number on the exit statement
that refers to the depth that you want to exit from.
A block's name is always a string literal and only a string literal. You cannot
use a variable that contains the block's name on an exit statement. The name
comes after the ##label## keyword, just before the ##do## keyword.\\
integer b
b = 0
for i = 1 to 20 label "main" do
for j = 1 to 20 do
b += i + j
? {i, j, b}
if b > 50 then
b = 0
exit "main"
end if
end for
end for
? b
The output from this is ...
{1, 1, 2}
{1, 2, 5}
{1, 3, 9}
{1, 4, 14}
{1, 5, 20}
{1, 6, 27}
{1, 7, 35}
{1, 8, 44}
{1, 9, 54}
The **exit "main"** causes execution flow to leave the **for** block named
The same thing could be achieved using the **exit N** format...
integer b
b = 0
for i = 1 to 20 do
for j = 1 to 20 do
b += i + j
? {i, j, b}
if b > 50 then
b = 0
exit 2 -- exit 2 levels of depth
end if
end for
end for
? b
But using this way means you have to take more care when changing the program
so that if you change the depth, you also need to change the //exit// statement.
:A special form of **exit N** is ##exit 0##. This leaves all levels of loop,
regardless of the depth. Control continues after the outermost loop block.
Likewise, ##exit -1## exits the second outermost loop, and so on.
For easier and safer program maintenance, the explicit label form is to be
preferred. Other forms are variously sensitive to changes in the program
organization. Yet, they may prove more convenient in short, short lived
programs, and are provided mostly for this purpose.
For information on how to associate a string to a block of code, see the section
[[:Header Labels]].
An **exit** without any label or number in a [[:while statement]] or a
[[:for statement]] causes immediate termination of that loop, with control
passing to the first statement after the loop.\\
for i = 1 to 100 do
if a[i] = x then
location = i
end if
end for
It is also quite common to see something like this:
constant TRUE = 1
while TRUE do
if some_condition then
end if
end while
i.e. an "infinite" while-loop that actually terminates via an **exit
statement** at some arbitrary point in the body of the loop.
;**Performance Note~:**
:Euphoria optimizes this type of loop. At run-time, no test is performed at the
top of the loop. There's just a simple unconditional jump from **end while**
back to the first statement inside the loop.
=== break statement
Works exactly like the **exit statement**, but applies to
**if statements** or **switch statements** rather than to loop statements of any
kind. Example:
if s[1] = 'E' then
a = 3
if s[2] = 'u' then
b = 1
if s[3] = 'p' then
break 0 -- leave topmost if block
end if
a = 2
b = 4
end if
a = 0
b = 0
end if
This code results in:
* "Dur" -> a=0 b=0
* "Exe" -> a=3 b=4
* "Eux" -> a=2 b=1
* "Eup" -> a=3 b=1
The same optional parameters can be used with the **break** statement as with
the **exit** statement, but of course apply to if and switch blocks only,
instead of loops.
=== continue statement
Likewise, skipping the rest of an iteration in a single
code block is done using a single keyword, **continue**.
The **continue statement** continues execution of the loop it
applies to by going to the next iteration now. Going to the next iteration
means testing a condition (for **while** and **loop** constructs, or changing
the **for** construct variable index and checking
whether it is still within bounds.
for i = 3 to 6 do
? i
if i = 4 then
end if
? i * i
end for
This will print 3, 9, 4, (2), 5 25, 6 36.
integer b
b = 0
for i = 1 to 20 label "main" do
for j = 1 to 20 do
b += i + j
if b > 50 then
printf(1, "%d ", b)
b = 0
continue "main"
end if
end for
end for
? b
The same optional parameters that can be used in an **exit** statement can apply
to a **continue** statement.
=== retry statement
The **retry statement** retries executing the current iteration of the loop it
applies to. The statement branches to the first statement of the designated
loop, without testing anything nor incrementing the for loop index.
Normally, a sub-block which contains a **retry statement** also contains another
flow control keyword, since otherwise the iteration would be endlessly executed.
errors = 0
for i = 1 to length(files_to_open) do
fh = open(files_to_open[i], "rb")
if fh=-1 then
if errors > 5 then
errors += 1
end if
end if
file_handles[i] = fh
end for
Since **retry** does not change the value of i and tries again
opening the same file, there has to be a way to break from the loop, which the
**exit statement** provides.
The same optional parameters that can be used in an **exit** statement can apply
to a **retry** statement.
=== with entry statement
It is often the case that the first iteration of a loop is somehow special.
Some things have to be done before the loop starts~--they are done before
the statement starting the loop. Now, the problem is that, just as often, some
things do not need to, or should not, be done at this initialization stage. The
**entry keyword** is an alternative to setting flags relentlessly
and forgetting to update them. Just add the **entry** keyword at
the point you wish the first iteration starts.
public function find_all(object x, sequence source, integer from)
sequence ret = {}
while from > 0 with entry do
ret &= from
from += 1
from = find_from(x, source, from)
end while
return ret
end function
Instead of performing an initial test, which may crash because from has not
been assigned a value yet, the first iteration jumps at the point where from is
being computed. The following iterations are normal. To emphasize the fact that
the first iteration is not normal, the entry clause must be added to the loop
header, after the condition.
The entry statement is not supported for ##for## loops, because they have a more
rigid nature structure than while or loop constructs.
; Note on infinite loops.
: With **eui.exe** or **eui**, control-c will always stop your program
immediately, but with the ##euiw.exe## that has not produced any console output,
you will have to use the //Windows// process monitor to end the application.
=== goto statement
##goto## instructs the computer to resume code execution at a place which does
not follow the statement.
The place to resume execution is called the //target// of the statement. It is
restricted to lie in the current routine, or the current file if outside any
Syntax is:
goto "label string"
The target of a ##goto## statement can be any accessible ##label## statement:
label "label string"
Label names must be double quoted constant strings. Characters that would be
illegal in an Euphoria identifier may appear in a label name, since it is a
regular string.
[[:Header Labels]] do not count as possible goto targets.
Use ##goto## in production code when all the following applies:
* you want to proceed with a statement which is not the following one;
* the various structured constructs wouldn't do, or very awkwardly;
* you contemplate a significant gain in speed/reliability from such a direct
* the code flow remains understandable for an outsider nevertheless.
During early development, it may be nice to have while the code is not firmly
structured. But most instances of ##goto## should melt into structured
constructs as soon as possible as code matures. You may find out that modifying
a program that has goto statements is usually trickier than if it had not had
The following may be situations where ##goto## can help:
* A routine has several return statements, and some processing must be done
before returning, no matter from where. It may be clearer to goto a single
return point and perform the processing only at this point.
* An exit statement in a loop corresponds to an early exit, and the normal
processing that immediately follows the loop is not relevant. Replacing an exit
statement followed by various flag testing by a single goto can help.
Explicit label names will tremendously help maintenance. Remember that there is
no limit to their contents.
goto-ing into a scope (like an if block, a for loop,...) will just do that. Some
variables may be defined only in that scope, and they may or may not have
sensible values. It is up to the programmer to take appropriate action in this
=== Header Labels ===
As shown in the above section on control flow statements, most can have their
own label. To label a flow control statement, use a ##label## clause immediately
preceding the flow control's terminator keyword (##then## / ##do##).
A ##label## clause consists of the keyword **##label##** followed by a string
literal. The string is the label name.
if n=0 label "an_if_block" then
end if
while TRUE label "a_while_block" do
end while
loop label "a_loop_block" do
until TRUE
end loop
switch x label "a_switch_block" do
end switch
**Note**: If a flow control statement has both an ##entry## clause and a
##label## clause, the ##entry## clause must come before the ##label## clause:
while 1 label "top" with entry do -- WRONG
while 1 with entry label "top" do -- CORRECT
== Short-Circuit Evaluation ==
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
When the condition tested by if, elsif, until, or while contains ##and## or
##or## operators, [[:short_circuit]] evaluation will be used. For example,
if a < 0 and b > 0 then ...
If a < 0 is false, then Euphoria will not bother to test if b is greater
than 0. It will know that the overall result is false regardless. Similarly,
if a < 0 or b > 0 then ...
if a < 0 is true, then Euphoria will immediately decide that the result is true,
without testing the value of b, since the result of this test would be
In general, whenever we have a condition of the form:
A and B
where A and B can be any two expressions, Euphoria will take a short-cut when A
is false and immediately make the overall result false, without even looking at
expression B.
Similarly, with:
A or B
when A is true, Euphoria will skip the evaluation of expression B, and declare
the result to be true.
If the expression B contains a call to a function, and that function has
possible **side-effects**, i.e. it might do more than just return a value,
you will get a compile-time warning. Older versions (pre-2.1) of Euphoria did
not use [[:short_circuit]] evaluation, and it's possible that some old
code will no longer work correctly, although a search of the Euphoria
archives did not turn up any programs that depend on side-effects in
this way, but other Euphoria code might do so.
The expression, B, could contain something that would normally cause a run-time
error. If Euphoria skips the evaluation of B, the error will not be discovered.
For instance:
if x != 0 and 1/x > 10 then -- divide by zero error avoided
while 1 or {1,2,3,4,5} do -- illegal sequence result avoided
B could even contain uninitialized variables, out-of-bounds subscripts
This may look like sloppy coding, but in fact it often allows you to write
something in a simpler and more readable way. For instance:
if length(x) > 1 and x[2] = y then
Without short-circuiting, you would have a problem when x contains less than 2
items. With short-circuiting, the assignment to x[2] will only be done when x
has at least 2 items. Similarly:
-- find 'a' or 'A' in s
i = 1
while i <= length(s) and s[i] != 'a' and s[i] != 'A' do
i += 1
end while
In this loop the variable i might eventually become greater than length(s).
Without short-circuit evaluation, a subscript out-of-bounds error will occur
when s[i] is evaluated on the final iteration. With short-circuiting, the loop
will terminate immediately when i <= length(s) becomes false. Euphoria will not
evaluate s[i] != 'a' and will not evaluate s[i] != 'A'. No subscript error will
**Short-circuit** evaluation of ##and## and ##or## takes place inside decision
making expressions. These are found in the [[:if statement]], [[:while statement]]
and the [[:loop until statement]]. It is not used in other contexts. For
example, the assignment statement:
x = 1 or {1,2,3,4,5} -- x should be set to {1,1,1,1,1}
If short-circuiting were used here, we would set x to 1, and not even look
at {1,2,3,4,5}. This would be wrong. Short-circuiting can be used in
if/elsif/until/while conditions because we only care if the result is true or
false, and conditions are required to produce an atom as a result.
== Special Top-Level Statements ==
:<<LEVELTOC level=2 depth=4>>
Before any of your statements are executed, the Euphoria front-end quickly
reads your entire program. All statements are syntax checked and converted to a
low-level intermediate language (IL). The interpreter immediately executes the
IL after it is completely generated. The translator converts the IL to C.
The binder/shrouder saves the IL on disk for later execution. These three
tools all share the same front-end (written in Euphoria).
If your program contains only routine and variable declarations, but no
top-level executable statements, then nothing will happen when you run it
(other than syntax checking). You need a top-level statement to call your main
routine (see [[:Example Programs]]). It's quite
possible to have a program with nothing but top-level executable statements and
no routines. For example you might want to use Euphoria as a simple calculator,
typing just a few [[:print]] or [[:? -> q_print]] statements into a file, and
then executing it.
As we have seen, you can use any Euphoria statement, including
[[:for statement]], [[:while statement]], [[:if statement]], etc... (but not
[[:return statement|return]]),
at the top level i.e. //outside// of any [[:function ->functions]] or
[[:procedure ->procedures]]. In addition, the
following special statements may //only// appear at the top level:
* ##include##
* ##with## / ##without##
=== include statement
When you write a large program it is often helpful to break it up into
logically separate files, by using **include statements**.
Sometimes you will want to reuse some code that you have previously written, or
that someone else has written. Rather than copy this code into your main
program, you can use an **include statement** to refer to the file
containing the code. The first form of the include statement is:
; ##include //filename//##
: This reads in (compiles) a Euphoria source file.
Some Examples:
include std/graphics.e
include /mylib/myroutines.e
public include library.e
Any top-level code in the included file will be executed at start up time.
Any ##global## identifiers that are declared in the file doing the including
will also be visible in the file being included. However the situation is
slightly different for an identifier declared as **public** or **export**. In
these cases the file being included will **not** see ##public/export## symbols
declared in the file doing the including, unless the file being included also
explicitly includes the file doing the including. Yes, you would better read
that again because its not that obvious. Here's an example...
We have two files, a.e and b.e ...
-- a.e --
? c -- declared as global in 'b.e'
-- b.e --
include a.e
global integer c = 0
This will work because being ##global## the symbol 'c' in b.e can be seen by all
files in this //include tree//.
However ...
-- a.e --
? c -- declared as public in 'b.e'
-- b.e --
include a.e
public integer c = 0
Will not work as public symbols can only be seen when their declaring file is
explicitly included. So to get this to work you need to write a.e as ...
-- a.e --
include b.e
? c -- declared as public in 'b.e'
**N.B.** Only those symbols declared as ##global##
in the included file will be visible (accessible) in the
remainder of the including file. Their visibility in other included files or in
the main program file depends on other factors. Specifically, a global symbols
can only be accessed by files in the same //include tree//. For example...
If we have danny.e declare a global symbol called 'foo', and bob.e includes danny.e,
then code in bob.e can access danny's 'foo'. Now if we also have cathy.e declare
a global symbol called 'foo', and anne.e includes cathy.e, then code in ann.e can
access cathy's 'foo'. Nothing unusual about that situation. Now, if we have a program
that includes both bob.e and anne.e, the code in bob.e and anne.e should still
work even though there are now two global 'foo' symbols available. This is because
the include tree for bob.e //only// contains danny.e and likewise the include tree
for anne.e //only// contains cathy.e. So as the two 'foo' symbols are in separate
include trees (from bob.e and anne.e perspective) code in those files continues
to work correctly. A problem can occur if the main program (the one that includes
both bob.e and anne.e) references 'foo'. In order for Euphoria to know which one
the code author meant to use, the coder must use the namespace facility.
--- mainprog.ex ---
include anne.e as anne
include bob.e as bob
anne:foo() -- Specify the 'foo' from anne.e.
If the above code did not use namespaces, Euphoria would not have know which
'foo' to use ~-- the one from bob.e or the one in anne.e.
If public precedes the include statement, then all public identifiers from the
included file will also be visible to the including file, and visible to any
file that includes the current file.
If an absolute //filename// is given, Euphoria will open it and start
parsing it. When a relative //filename// is given, Euphoria will try to open
the file relative to the following directories, in the following order:
# The directory containing the current source file. i.e. the source file that
contains the include statement that is being processed.
# The directory containing the main file given on the interpreter, translator or
binder ~-- see [[:command_line]].
# If you've defined an environment variable named ##EUINC##, Euphoria will
check each directory listed in ##EUINC## (from left to right).
##EUINC## should be a list of directories, separated by semicolons
(colons on //Linux// / //FreeBSD//), similar
in form to your ##PATH## variable. ##EUINC## can be added to your
set of //Linux// / //FreeBSD// or //Windows// environment variables.
(Via ##Control Panel / Performance & Maintenance / System / Advanced##
on //XP//, or ##AUTOEXEC.BAT## on older versions of
##EUINC## lets you organize your include files according to application
areas, and avoid adding numerous unrelated files to ##euphoria\include##.
# Finally, if it still hasn't found the file, it will look in
##euphoria\include##. This directory contains the standard Euphoria
include files. The environment variable ##EUDIR## tells Euphoria where
to find your ##euphoria## directory.
An included file can include other files. In fact, you can "nest" included
files up to 30 levels deep.
Include file names typically end in ##.e##, or sometimes ##.ew## or
(when they are intended for use with //Windows// or //Unix//). This is just a
convention. It is not required.
If your filename (or path) contains blanks or escape-able characters , you must
enclose it in double-quotes, otherwise quotes are optional. When a filename is
enclosed in double-quotes, you can also use the standard escape character
notation to specify filenames that have non-ASCII characters in them.
Note that under Windows, you can also use the forward slash '/' instead
of the usually back-slash '\'. By doing this, the file paths are compatible with
//Unix// systems and it means you don't have to 'escape' the back-slashes. \\
For example:
include "c:/program files/myfile.e"
Other than possibly defining a new namespace identifier (see below), an include
statement will be quietly ignored if the same file has already been
An include statement must be written on a line by itself. Only a comment can
appear after it on the same line.
The second form of the include statement is:
; ##include** **//filename// as //namespace_identifier//##:
: This is just like the simple include, but it also defines a
//namespace identifier// that can be attached to global identifiers in the
included file that you want to refer to in the main file. This might be
necessary to disambiguate references to those identifiers, or you might feel
that it makes your code more readable. This ##as identifier## namespace exists
in the current file, along with
any ##namespace identifier## the included file may define.
See Also:
[[:Using namespaces]].
=== with / without
These special statements affect the way that Euphoria translates your program
into internal form. Options to the ##with## and ##without## statement come
in two flavors. One simply turns an option on or off, while the others have
multiple states.
==== On / Off options
|| Default || Option ||
| without | [[:Profiling "profile"]] |
| without | [[:Profiling "profile_time"]] |
| without | [[:trace]] |
| without | [[:with_batch "batch"]] |
| with | [[:type_check]] |
| with | [[:indirect_includes]] |
| with | [[:with_inline "inline"]] |
##with## turns **on** one of the options and ##without## turns
**off** one of the options.
For more information on the ##profile##, ##profile_time## and ##trace##
options, see [[:Debugging and Profiling]]. For more information on the
##type_check## option, see [[:Performance Tips]].
There is also a rarely-used special ##with## option where a code
number appears after ##with##. In previous releases this code was
used by RDS to make a file exempt from adding to the statement count in the old
"Public Domain" Edition. This is not used any longer, but does not cause an
You can select any combination of settings, and you can change the settings,
but the changes must occur //between// subroutines, not within a subroutine.
The only exception is that you can only turn on one type of profiling for a
given run of your program.
An **included file** inherits the **with/without** settings in
effect at the point where it is included. An included file can change these
settings, but they will revert back to their original state at the end of the
included file. For instance, an included file might turn off warnings for
itself and (initially) for any files that it includes, but this will not turn
off warnings for the main file.
This ##with/without## option changes the way in which global symbols are
resolved. Normally, the parser uses the way that files were included to
resolve a usage of a global symbol. If ##without indirect_includes## is
in effect, then only direct includes are considered when resolving global
This option is especially useful when a program uses some code that was
developed for a prior version of Euphoria that uses the pre-4.0 standard
library, when all exposed symbols were global. These can often clash
with symbols in the new standard library. Using ##without indirect_includes##
would not force a coder to use namespaces to resolve symbols that clashed
with the new standard library.
Note that this setting does not propagate down to included files, unlike
most ##with/without options##. Each file begins with ##indirect_includes##
turned on.
**@[with_batch|with batch]**,
Causes the program to not present the "Press Enter" prompt if an error
occurs. The exit code will still be set to 1 on error. This is helpful
for programs that run in a mode where no human may be directly interacting
with it. For example, a CGI application or a CRON job.
You can also set this option via a
[[:batch_command_line "command line parameter"]].
==== Complex with / without options
===== with / without warning
Any warnings that are issued will appear on your screen after your program
has finished execution. Warnings indicate minor problems. A warning will
never terminate the execution of your program. You will simply have to hit
the Enter key to keep going ~-- which may stop the program on an unattended
The forms available are ...
; ##with warning##
: enables all warnings
; ##without warning##
: disables all warnings
; ##with warning {//warning name list//}\\
with warning = {//warning name list//}##
: enables only these warnings, and disables all other
; ##without warning {//warning name list//}\\
without warning = {//warning name list//}##
: enables all warnings except the warnings listed
; ##with warning &= {//warning name list//}\\
with warning += {//warning name list//}##
: enables listed warnings in addition to whichever are enabled already
; ##without warning &= {//warning name list//}\\
without warning += {//warning name list//}##
: disables listed warnings and leaves any not listed in its current state.
; ##with warning save##
: saves the current warning state, i.e. the list of all enabled
warnings. This destroys any previously saved state.
; ##with warning restore##
: causes the previously saved state to be restored.
; ##without warning strict##
: overrides some of the warnings that the -STRICT command line option tests for,
but only until the end of the next function or procedure. The warnings overridden
* default_arg_type
* not_used
* short_circuit
* not_reached
* empty_case
* no_case_else
The **with/without warnings** directives will have no effect if the
##-STRICT## command line switch is used. The latter turns on all warnings
and ignores any **with/without warnings** statement. It also warns if a parameter of a routine is unused. However, it can be
temporarily affected by the "##without warning strict##" directive.
**Warning Names**
|= Name |= Meaning
| ##none## | When used with the ##with## option, this turns off all
warnings. When used with the ##without## option, this turns on
all warnings.
| ##resolution## | an identifier was used in a file, but was defined in
a file this file doesn't (recursively) include.
| ##short_circuit## | a routine call that **could affect the state of your program** may not take place because of [[:short_circuit "short circuit"]] evaluation in a conditional clause.
| ##override## | a built-in is being overridden
| ##builtin_chosen## | an unqualified call caused Euphoria to choose between a
built-in and another global which does not override it.
Euphoria chooses the built-in.
| ##not_used## | A variable has not been used and is going out of scope.
<<<<<<< HEAD
| ##no_value## | A variable never got assigned a value and is going out of scope.
| ##custom## | Any warning that was defined using the ##warning## procedure.
| ##no_value## | A variable is used but *never* gets assigned a value.
| ##custom## | Any warning that was defined using the warning() procedure.
>>>>>>> origin/4.0
| ##not_reached## | After a keyword that branches unconditionally, the only
thing that should appear is an end of block keyword, or
possibly a label that a goto statement can target.
Otherwise, there is no way that the statement can be
reached at all. This warning notifies this condition.
| ##translator## | An option was given to the translator, but this option is
not recognized as valid for the C compiler being used.
| ##cmdline## | A command line option was not recognized.
| ##mixed_profile## | For technical reasons, it is not possible to use
both ##with profile## and ##with profile_time## in the
same section of code. The profile statement read
last is ignored, and this warning is issued.
| ##empty_case## | In ##switch## that have ##without fallthru##, an empty case
block will result in no code being executed within the switch
| ##default_case## | A ##switch## that does not have a ##case else## clause.
| ##default_arg_type## | Reserved (not in use yet)
| ##deprecated## | Reserved (not in use yet)
| ##all## | Turns all warnings on. They can still be disabled by
with/without warning directives.
with warning save
without warning &= (builtin_chosen, not_used)
. . . -- some code that might otherwise issue warnings
with warning restore
Initially, only the following warnings are enabled:
* ##builtin_chosen##
* ##cmdline##
* ##custom##
* ##mixed_profile##
* ##not_reached##
* ##override##
* ##resolution##
* ##translator##
This set can be changed using -W or -X command line switches.
===== with / without define
As mentioned about [[:ifdef statement]], this top level statement is used to
define/undefine tags which the ifdef statement may use.
The following tags have a predefined meaning in Euphoria:
* WINDOWS: platform is any version of Windows (tm) from '95 on to Vista and beyond
* WINDOWS: platform is any kind of Windows system
* UNIX: platform is any kind of Unix style system
* LINUX: platform is Linux
* FREEBSD: platform is FreeBSD
* OSX: platform is OS X for Macintosh
* SAFE: turns on a slower debugging version of ##memory.e## called
##safe.e## when defined. Switching mode by renaming files **//no longer works//**.
* EU4: defined on all versions of the version 4 interpreter
* EU4_0: defined on all versions of the interpreter from 4.0.0 to 4.0.X
* EU4_0_0: defined only for version 4.0.0 of the interpreter
The name of a tag may contain any character that is a valid
identifier character, that is ##A-Za-z0-9_##. It is not required, but
by convention defined words are upper case.
==== with / without inline
This directive allows coders some flexibility with inlined routines. The default
is for inlining to be on. Any routine that is defined when ##without inline##
is in effect will never be inlined.
##with inline## takes an optional integer parameter that defines the largest
routine (by size of IL code) that will be considered for inlining. The default
is 30.
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