Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
538 lines (378 sloc) 19 KB


pyramid_mailer is a package for the Pyramid framework to take the pain out of sending emails. It is compatible with Python 2.7, 3.3, and 3.4, as well as PyPy. It has the following features:

  1. A wrapper around the low-level email functionality of standard Python. This includes handling multipart emails with both text and HTML content, and file attachments.
  2. The option of directly sending an email or adding it to the queue in your maildir.
  3. Wrapping email sending in the transaction manager. If you have a view that sends a customer an email for example, and there is an error in that view (for example, a database error) then this ensures that the email is not sent.
  4. A :class:`pyramid_mailer.DummyMailer` class to help with writing unit tests, or other situations where you want to avoid emails being sent accidentally from a non-production install.

pyramid_mailer uses the repoze_sendmail package for general email sending, queuing and transaction management, and it borrows code from Zed Shaw's Lamson library for low-level multipart message encoding and wrapping.


For local development, a developer has a few options:

  1. Include the :mod:`pyramid_mailer.debug` module in your application's configuration (see :ref:`debugging`) so mails save to a local file.

  2. Run a fake SMTPD server for developing and debugging your webapp. Python provides an SMTP server in its standard library called smtpd. We can make use of it by simply running the following command in a new terminal (this example uses port 2525; feel free to change that):

    python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:2525
  3. Use your ISP's mail relay.

  4. Ensure an SMTP server is installed and running. This is usually used for a production environment. Follow instructions for the appropriate operating system:


    For Linux users, a common SMTP server to use is Postfix. Most Linux distributions carry Postfix, so ensure it is installed and running. Ubuntu/Debian users see Ubuntu's Postfix guide. Other Linux users can follow the ArchLinux Postfix guide. OSX users can check out the OSX Postfix instructions.


    Windows users can use Windows' built-in Internet Information Services to setup an SMTP with IIS.


Install using pip install pyramid_mailer or easy_install pyramid_mailer.

If installing from source, untar/unzip, cd into the directory and do python install.

The source repository is on Github. Please report any bugs, issues or queries there.

Getting Started (The Easier Way)

Or, in your application's configuration development.ini add:

pyramid.includes =

Or, in your application's configuration stanza use the :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.include` method:


Thereafter, the mailer is available via the request.mailer attribute:

mailer = request.mailer

To send a message, you must first create a :class:`~pyramid_mailer.message.Message` instance:

from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

message = Message(subject="hello world",
                  body="hello, arthur")

The Message is then passed to the Mailer instance. You can either send the message right away:


or add it to your mail queue (a maildir on disk):


Usually you provide the sender to your Message instance. Often however a site might just use a single from address. If that is the case you can provide the default_sender to your Mailer and this will be used in throughout your application as the default if the sender is not otherwise provided.

If you don't want to use transactions, you can side-step them by using :meth:`~pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.send_immediately`:

mailer.send_immediately(message, fail_silently=False)

This will send the email immediately, without the transaction, so if it fails you have to deal with it manually. The fail_silently flag will swallow any connection errors silently - if it's not important whether the email gets sent.

Getting Started (The Harder Way)

To get started the harder way (without using config.include), create an instance of :class:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer`:

from pyramid_mailer.mailer import Mailer

mailer = Mailer()

The mailer can take a number of optional settings, detailed in :ref:`configuration`. It's a good idea to create a single Mailer instance for your application, and add it to your registry in your configuration setup:

config = Configurator(settings=settings)
config.registry['mailer'] = Mailer.from_settings(settings)

or alternatively:

from pyramid_mailer import mailer_factory_from_settings
config.registry['mailer'] = mailer_factory_from_settings(settings)

You can then access your mailer in a view:

def my_view(request):
    mailer = request.registry['mailer']

Note that the pyramid_mailer.get_mailer() API will not work if you construct and set your own mailer in this way.


If you configure a :class:`~pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer` using :meth:`~pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.from_settings` or via config.include('pyramid_mailer'), you can pass the settings from your Paste .ini file. For example:

[app:myproject] = localhost
mail.port = 25

By default, the prefix is assumed to be mail.. If you use the config.include mechanism, to set another prefix, use the pyramid_mailer.prefix key in the config file. For example:

[app:myproject] = localhost
foo.port = 25
pyramid_mailer.prefix = foo.

If you use the :meth:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.from_settings` or :func:`pyramid_mailer.mailer_factory_from_settings` API, these accept a prefix directly; for example:

mailer_factory_from_settings(settings, prefix='foo.')

If you don't use Paste, just pass the settings directly into your Pyramid Configurator:

settings = {'':'localhost', 'mail.port':'25'}

The available settings are listed below.

Setting Default Description localhost SMTP host
mail.port 25 SMTP port
mail.username None SMTP username
mail.password None SMTP password
mail.tls False Use TLS
mail.ssl False Use SSL
mail.keyfile None SSL key file
mail.certfile None SSL certificate file
mail.queue_path None Location of maildir
mail.default_sender None Default from address
mail.debug 0 SMTP debug level
mail.sendmail_app /usr/sbin/sendmail Sendmail executable
mail.sendmail_template {sendmail_app} -t -i -f {sender} Template for sendmail execution
mail.debug_include_bcc False Include Bcc headers when :ref:`debugging`
Note: SSL will only work with pyramid_mailer if you are using Python
2.6 or higher, as it uses the SSL additions to the smtplib package. While it may be possible to work around this if you have to use Python 2.5 or lower, pyramid_mailer does not support this out of the box.

Note: the mail.debug option will be passed to the underlying smtplib connection. Any values for this option that Python would consider > 0 will result in debug messages for all messages sent and received from the server. Thus, specifying mail.debug with any value will result in debug messages as pyramid_mailer will not attempt to coerce this value from its original string.


If you are using transaction management with your Pyramid application then pyramid_mailer will only send the emails (or add them to the mail queue) when the transactions are committed.

For example:

import transaction

from pyramid_mailer.mailer import Mailer
from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

mailer = Mailer()
message = Message(subject="hello arthur",
                  body="hello from ford")


The email is not actually sent until the transaction is committed.

When the repoze.tm2 tm middleware is in your Pyramid WSGI pipeline or if you've included the pyramid_tm package in your Pyramid configuration, transactions are already managed for you, so you don't need to explicitly commit or abort within code that sends mail. Instead, if an exception is raised, the transaction will implicitly be aborted and mail will not be sent; otherwise it will be committed, and mail will be sent.

HTML email

Below is a recipe how to send templatized HTML and plain text email. The email is assembled from three templates: subject, HTML body and text body. It is also recommend to use premailer Python package to transform email CSS styles to inline CSS, as email clients are pretty restricted what comes to their ability to understand CSS.

from pyramid.renderers import render

from pyramid_mailer import get_mailer
from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

import premailer

def send_templated_mail(request, recipients, template, context, sender=None):
    """Send out templatized HTML and plain text emails.

    The email is assembled from three different templates:

    * Read subject from a subject specific template $template.subject.txt

    * Generate HTML email from HTML template, $template.body.html

    * Generate plain text email from HTML template, $template.body.txt

    :param request: HTTP request, passed to the template engine. Request configuration is used to get hold of the configured mailer.

    :param recipients: List of recipient emails

    :param template: Template filename base string for template tripled (subject, HTML body, plain text body). For example ``email/my_message`` would map to templates ``email/my_message.subject.txt``, ``email/my_message.body.txt``, ``email/my_message.body.html``

    :param context: Template context variables as a dict

    :param sender: Override the sender email - if not specific use the default set in the config as ``mail.default_sender``

    assert recipients
    assert len(recipients) > 0

    subject = render(template + ".subject.txt", context, request=request)
    subject = subject.strip()

    html_body = render(template + ".body.html", context, request=request)
    text_body = render(template + ".body.txt", context, request=request)

    if not sender:
        sender = request.registry.settings["mail.default_sender"]

    # Inline CSS styles
    html_body = premailer.transform(html_body)

    message = Message(subject=subject, sender=sender, recipients=recipients, body=text_body, html=html_body)

    mailer = get_mailer(request)


Attachments are added using the :class:`pyramid_mailer.message.Attachment` class:

from pyramid_mailer.message import Attachment
from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

message = Message()

photo_data = open("photo.jpg", "rb").read()
attachment = Attachment("photo.jpg", "image/jpg", photo_data)


You can pass the data either as a string or file object, so the above code could be rewritten:

from pyramid_mailer.message import Attachment
from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

message = Message()

attachment = Attachment("photo.jpg", "image/jpg",
                        open("photo.jpg", "rb"))


A transfer encoding can be specified via the transfer_encoding option. Supported options are currently quoted-printable (default), base64, 7bit and 8bit.

You can also pass an attachment as the body and/or html arguments to specify Content-Transfer-Encoding or other Attachment attributes:

from pyramid_mailer.message import Attachment
from pyramid_mailer.message import Message

body = Attachment(data="hello, arthur",
html = Attachment(data="<p>hello, arthur</p>",
message = Message(body=body, html=html)


If your site is in development and you want to avoid accidental sending of any emails to customers, but still see what emails would get sent, you can use config.include('pyramid_mailer.debug') to make the current mailer an instance of the :class:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.DebugMailer`, hence writing all emails to a file instead of sending them out. In other words if you add pyramid_mailer.debug to your development.ini, all emails that would be sent out will instead get written to files so you can inspect them:

pyramid.includes =

Set the mail.debug_include_bcc flag to True if you want the bcc recipients written to the file

Unit tests

When running unit tests you probably don't want to actually send any emails inadvertently. However it's still useful to keep track of what emails would be sent in your tests.

In either case, config.include('pyramid_mailer.testing') can be used to make the current mailer an instance of the :class:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.DummyMailer`:

from pyramid import testing

class TestViews(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.config = testing.setUp()

    def tearDown(self):

    def test_some_view(self):
        from pyramid.testing import DummyRequest
        from pyramid_mailer import get_mailer
        request = DummyRequest()
        mailer = get_mailer(request)
        response = some_view(request)

One can also use the DummyMailer to keep track of emails sent from a WebTest functional test.:

class FunctionalTests(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        from myapp import main
        settings = {'pyramid.includes' : 'pyramid_mailer.testing'}
        app = main({}, **settings)
        from webtest import TestApp
        self.testapp = TestApp(app)

    def test_some_functionality(self):
        res = self.testapp.get('/post_email', status=200)
        registry =
        mailer = get_mailer(registry)

The DummyMailer instance keeps track of emails "sent" in two properties: queue for emails send via :meth:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.send_to_queue` and outbox for emails sent via :meth:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.send`. Each stores the individual Message instances:

self.assertEqual(len(mailer.outbox), 1)
self.assertEqual(mailer.outbox[0].subject, "hello world")

self.assertEqual(len(mailer.queue), 1)
self.assertEqual(mailer.queue[0].subject, "hello world")


When you send mail to a queue via :meth:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer.send_to_queue`, the mail will be placed into a maildir directory specified by the queue_path parameter or setting to :class:`pyramid_mailer.mailer.Mailer`. A separate process will need to be launched to monitor this maildir and take actions based on its state. Such a program comes as part of repoze_sendmail (a dependency of the pyramid_mailer package). It is known as qp. qp will be installed into your Python (or virtualenv) bin or Scripts directory when you install repoze_sendmail.

qp is a script that is meant to be run as a cron job because what it does is that it looks at maildir and sends messages. You'll need to arrange for qp to be a long-running process that monitors the maildir state.:

$ bin/qp /path/to/mail/queue

This will attempt to use the localhost SMTP server to send any messages in the queue over time. qp has other options that allow you to choose different settings. Use it's --help parameter to see more:

$ bin/qp --help


Sending messages via the queue requires the use of a transaction manager. If no manager is enabled, it must be emulated by issuing a manual commit via transaction.commit().

import transaction
tx = transaction.begin()
except Exception:
    # handle a failed delivery


.. module:: pyramid_mailer

.. autofunction:: mailer_factory_from_settings

.. autofunction:: get_mailer

.. module:: pyramid_mailer.mailer

.. autoclass:: Mailer

.. autoclass:: DummyMailer

.. module:: pyramid_mailer.message

.. autoclass:: Message

.. autoclass:: Attachment

.. module:: pyramid_mailer.exceptions

.. autoclass:: InvalidMessage

.. autoclass:: BadHeaders