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d4884eb Sep 21, 2017
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@tdicola @nichdu @caternuson
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# Copyright (c) 2014 Adafruit Industries
# Author: Tony DiCola
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
# of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
# in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
# to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
# furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
# all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
# IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
# THE SOFTWARE.
import time
import Adafruit_GPIO as GPIO
import Adafruit_GPIO.I2C as I2C
import Adafruit_GPIO.MCP230xx as MCP
import Adafruit_GPIO.PWM as PWM
# Commands
LCD_CLEARDISPLAY = 0x01
LCD_RETURNHOME = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYMODESET = 0x04
LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL = 0x08
LCD_CURSORSHIFT = 0x10
LCD_FUNCTIONSET = 0x20
LCD_SETCGRAMADDR = 0x40
LCD_SETDDRAMADDR = 0x80
# Entry flags
LCD_ENTRYRIGHT = 0x00
LCD_ENTRYLEFT = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT = 0x01
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT = 0x00
# Control flags
LCD_DISPLAYON = 0x04
LCD_DISPLAYOFF = 0x00
LCD_CURSORON = 0x02
LCD_CURSOROFF = 0x00
LCD_BLINKON = 0x01
LCD_BLINKOFF = 0x00
# Move flags
LCD_DISPLAYMOVE = 0x08
LCD_CURSORMOVE = 0x00
LCD_MOVERIGHT = 0x04
LCD_MOVELEFT = 0x00
# Function set flags
LCD_8BITMODE = 0x10
LCD_4BITMODE = 0x00
LCD_2LINE = 0x08
LCD_1LINE = 0x00
LCD_5x10DOTS = 0x04
LCD_5x8DOTS = 0x00
# Offset for up to 4 rows.
LCD_ROW_OFFSETS = (0x00, 0x40, 0x14, 0x54)
# Char LCD plate GPIO numbers.
LCD_PLATE_RS = 15
LCD_PLATE_RW = 14
LCD_PLATE_EN = 13
LCD_PLATE_D4 = 12
LCD_PLATE_D5 = 11
LCD_PLATE_D6 = 10
LCD_PLATE_D7 = 9
LCD_PLATE_RED = 6
LCD_PLATE_GREEN = 7
LCD_PLATE_BLUE = 8
# Char LCD plate button names.
SELECT = 0
RIGHT = 1
DOWN = 2
UP = 3
LEFT = 4
# Char LCD backpack GPIO numbers.
LCD_BACKPACK_RS = 1
LCD_BACKPACK_EN = 2
LCD_BACKPACK_D4 = 3
LCD_BACKPACK_D5 = 4
LCD_BACKPACK_D6 = 5
LCD_BACKPACK_D7 = 6
LCD_BACKPACK_LITE = 7
class Adafruit_CharLCD(object):
"""Class to represent and interact with an HD44780 character LCD display."""
def __init__(self, rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7, cols, lines, backlight=None,
invert_polarity=True,
enable_pwm=False,
gpio=GPIO.get_platform_gpio(),
pwm=PWM.get_platform_pwm(),
initial_backlight=1.0):
"""Initialize the LCD. RS, EN, and D4...D7 parameters should be the pins
connected to the LCD RS, clock enable, and data line 4 through 7 connections.
The LCD will be used in its 4-bit mode so these 6 lines are the only ones
required to use the LCD. You must also pass in the number of columns and
lines on the LCD.
If you would like to control the backlight, pass in the pin connected to
the backlight with the backlight parameter. The invert_polarity boolean
controls if the backlight is one with a LOW signal or HIGH signal. The
default invert_polarity value is True, i.e. the backlight is on with a
LOW signal.
You can enable PWM of the backlight pin to have finer control on the
brightness. To enable PWM make sure your hardware supports PWM on the
provided backlight pin and set enable_pwm to True (the default is False).
The appropriate PWM library will be used depending on the platform, but
you can provide an explicit one with the pwm parameter.
The initial state of the backlight is ON, but you can set it to an
explicit initial state with the initial_backlight parameter (0 is off,
1 is on/full bright).
You can optionally pass in an explicit GPIO class,
for example if you want to use an MCP230xx GPIO extender. If you don't
pass in an GPIO instance, the default GPIO for the running platform will
be used.
"""
# Save column and line state.
self._cols = cols
self._lines = lines
# Save GPIO state and pin numbers.
self._gpio = gpio
self._rs = rs
self._en = en
self._d4 = d4
self._d5 = d5
self._d6 = d6
self._d7 = d7
# Save backlight state.
self._backlight = backlight
self._pwm_enabled = enable_pwm
self._pwm = pwm
self._blpol = not invert_polarity
# Setup all pins as outputs.
for pin in (rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7):
gpio.setup(pin, GPIO.OUT)
# Setup backlight.
if backlight is not None:
if enable_pwm:
pwm.start(backlight, self._pwm_duty_cycle(initial_backlight))
else:
gpio.setup(backlight, GPIO.OUT)
gpio.output(backlight, self._blpol if initial_backlight else not self._blpol)
# Initialize the display.
self.write8(0x33)
self.write8(0x32)
# Initialize display control, function, and mode registers.
self.displaycontrol = LCD_DISPLAYON | LCD_CURSOROFF | LCD_BLINKOFF
self.displayfunction = LCD_4BITMODE | LCD_1LINE | LCD_2LINE | LCD_5x8DOTS
self.displaymode = LCD_ENTRYLEFT | LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT
# Write registers.
self.write8(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
self.write8(LCD_FUNCTIONSET | self.displayfunction)
self.write8(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode) # set the entry mode
self.clear()
def home(self):
"""Move the cursor back to its home (first line and first column)."""
self.write8(LCD_RETURNHOME) # set cursor position to zero
self._delay_microseconds(3000) # this command takes a long time!
def clear(self):
"""Clear the LCD."""
self.write8(LCD_CLEARDISPLAY) # command to clear display
self._delay_microseconds(3000) # 3000 microsecond sleep, clearing the display takes a long time
def set_cursor(self, col, row):
"""Move the cursor to an explicit column and row position."""
# Clamp row to the last row of the display.
if row > self._lines:
row = self._lines - 1
# Set location.
self.write8(LCD_SETDDRAMADDR | (col + LCD_ROW_OFFSETS[row]))
def enable_display(self, enable):
"""Enable or disable the display. Set enable to True to enable."""
if enable:
self.displaycontrol |= LCD_DISPLAYON
else:
self.displaycontrol &= ~LCD_DISPLAYON
self.write8(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def show_cursor(self, show):
"""Show or hide the cursor. Cursor is shown if show is True."""
if show:
self.displaycontrol |= LCD_CURSORON
else:
self.displaycontrol &= ~LCD_CURSORON
self.write8(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def blink(self, blink):
"""Turn on or off cursor blinking. Set blink to True to enable blinking."""
if blink:
self.displaycontrol |= LCD_BLINKON
else:
self.displaycontrol &= ~LCD_BLINKON
self.write8(LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def move_left(self):
"""Move display left one position."""
self.write8(LCD_CURSORSHIFT | LCD_DISPLAYMOVE | LCD_MOVELEFT)
def move_right(self):
"""Move display right one position."""
self.write8(LCD_CURSORSHIFT | LCD_DISPLAYMOVE | LCD_MOVERIGHT)
def set_left_to_right(self):
"""Set text direction left to right."""
self.displaymode |= LCD_ENTRYLEFT
self.write8(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def set_right_to_left(self):
"""Set text direction right to left."""
self.displaymode &= ~LCD_ENTRYLEFT
self.write8(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def autoscroll(self, autoscroll):
"""Autoscroll will 'right justify' text from the cursor if set True,
otherwise it will 'left justify' the text.
"""
if autoscroll:
self.displaymode |= LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT
else:
self.displaymode &= ~LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT
self.write8(LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def message(self, text):
"""Write text to display. Note that text can include newlines."""
line = 0
# Iterate through each character.
for char in text:
# Advance to next line if character is a new line.
if char == '\n':
line += 1
# Move to left or right side depending on text direction.
col = 0 if self.displaymode & LCD_ENTRYLEFT > 0 else self._cols-1
self.set_cursor(col, line)
# Write the character to the display.
else:
self.write8(ord(char), True)
def set_backlight(self, backlight):
"""Enable or disable the backlight. If PWM is not enabled (default), a
non-zero backlight value will turn on the backlight and a zero value will
turn it off. If PWM is enabled, backlight can be any value from 0.0 to
1.0, with 1.0 being full intensity backlight.
"""
if self._backlight is not None:
if self._pwm_enabled:
self._pwm.set_duty_cycle(self._backlight, self._pwm_duty_cycle(backlight))
else:
self._gpio.output(self._backlight, self._blpol if backlight else not self._blpol)
def write8(self, value, char_mode=False):
"""Write 8-bit value in character or data mode. Value should be an int
value from 0-255, and char_mode is True if character data or False if
non-character data (default).
"""
# One millisecond delay to prevent writing too quickly.
self._delay_microseconds(1000)
# Set character / data bit.
self._gpio.output(self._rs, char_mode)
# Write upper 4 bits.
self._gpio.output_pins({ self._d4: ((value >> 4) & 1) > 0,
self._d5: ((value >> 5) & 1) > 0,
self._d6: ((value >> 6) & 1) > 0,
self._d7: ((value >> 7) & 1) > 0 })
self._pulse_enable()
# Write lower 4 bits.
self._gpio.output_pins({ self._d4: (value & 1) > 0,
self._d5: ((value >> 1) & 1) > 0,
self._d6: ((value >> 2) & 1) > 0,
self._d7: ((value >> 3) & 1) > 0 })
self._pulse_enable()
def create_char(self, location, pattern):
"""Fill one of the first 8 CGRAM locations with custom characters.
The location parameter should be between 0 and 7 and pattern should
provide an array of 8 bytes containing the pattern. E.g. you can easyly
design your custom character at http://www.quinapalus.com/hd44780udg.html
To show your custom character use eg. lcd.message('\x01')
"""
# only position 0..7 are allowed
location &= 0x7
self.write8(LCD_SETCGRAMADDR | (location << 3))
for i in range(8):
self.write8(pattern[i], char_mode=True)
def _delay_microseconds(self, microseconds):
# Busy wait in loop because delays are generally very short (few microseconds).
end = time.time() + (microseconds/1000000.0)
while time.time() < end:
pass
def _pulse_enable(self):
# Pulse the clock enable line off, on, off to send command.
self._gpio.output(self._en, False)
self._delay_microseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be > 450ns
self._gpio.output(self._en, True)
self._delay_microseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be > 450ns
self._gpio.output(self._en, False)
self._delay_microseconds(1) # commands need > 37us to settle
def _pwm_duty_cycle(self, intensity):
# Convert intensity value of 0.0 to 1.0 to a duty cycle of 0.0 to 100.0
intensity = 100.0*intensity
# Invert polarity if required.
if not self._blpol:
intensity = 100.0-intensity
return intensity
class Adafruit_RGBCharLCD(Adafruit_CharLCD):
"""Class to represent and interact with an HD44780 character LCD display with
an RGB backlight."""
def __init__(self, rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7, cols, lines, red, green, blue,
gpio=GPIO.get_platform_gpio(),
invert_polarity=True,
enable_pwm=False,
pwm=PWM.get_platform_pwm(),
initial_color=(1.0, 1.0, 1.0)):
"""Initialize the LCD with RGB backlight. RS, EN, and D4...D7 parameters
should be the pins connected to the LCD RS, clock enable, and data line
4 through 7 connections. The LCD will be used in its 4-bit mode so these
6 lines are the only ones required to use the LCD. You must also pass in
the number of columns and lines on the LCD.
The red, green, and blue parameters define the pins which are connected
to the appropriate backlight LEDs. The invert_polarity parameter is a
boolean that controls if the LEDs are on with a LOW or HIGH signal. By
default invert_polarity is True, i.e. the backlight LEDs are on with a
low signal. If you want to enable PWM on the backlight LEDs (for finer
control of colors) and the hardware supports PWM on the provided pins,
set enable_pwm to True. Finally you can set an explicit initial backlight
color with the initial_color parameter. The default initial color is
white (all LEDs lit).
You can optionally pass in an explicit GPIO class,
for example if you want to use an MCP230xx GPIO extender. If you don't
pass in an GPIO instance, the default GPIO for the running platform will
be used.
"""
super(Adafruit_RGBCharLCD, self).__init__(rs, en, d4, d5, d6, d7,
cols,
lines,
enable_pwm=enable_pwm,
backlight=None,
invert_polarity=invert_polarity,
gpio=gpio,
pwm=pwm)
self._red = red
self._green = green
self._blue = blue
# Setup backlight pins.
if enable_pwm:
# Determine initial backlight duty cycles.
rdc, gdc, bdc = self._rgb_to_duty_cycle(initial_color)
pwm.start(red, rdc)
pwm.start(green, gdc)
pwm.start(blue, bdc)
else:
gpio.setup(red, GPIO.OUT)
gpio.setup(green, GPIO.OUT)
gpio.setup(blue, GPIO.OUT)
self._gpio.output_pins(self._rgb_to_pins(initial_color))
def _rgb_to_duty_cycle(self, rgb):
# Convert tuple of RGB 0-1 values to tuple of duty cycles (0-100).
red, green, blue = rgb
# Clamp colors between 0.0 and 1.0
red = max(0.0, min(1.0, red))
green = max(0.0, min(1.0, green))
blue = max(0.0, min(1.0, blue))
return (self._pwm_duty_cycle(red),
self._pwm_duty_cycle(green),
self._pwm_duty_cycle(blue))
def _rgb_to_pins(self, rgb):
# Convert tuple of RGB 0-1 values to dict of pin values.
red, green, blue = rgb
return { self._red: self._blpol if red else not self._blpol,
self._green: self._blpol if green else not self._blpol,
self._blue: self._blpol if blue else not self._blpol }
def set_color(self, red, green, blue):
"""Set backlight color to provided red, green, and blue values. If PWM
is enabled then color components can be values from 0.0 to 1.0, otherwise
components should be zero for off and non-zero for on.
"""
if self._pwm_enabled:
# Set duty cycle of PWM pins.
rdc, gdc, bdc = self._rgb_to_duty_cycle((red, green, blue))
self._pwm.set_duty_cycle(self._red, rdc)
self._pwm.set_duty_cycle(self._green, gdc)
self._pwm.set_duty_cycle(self._blue, bdc)
else:
# Set appropriate backlight pins based on polarity and enabled colors.
self._gpio.output_pins({self._red: self._blpol if red else not self._blpol,
self._green: self._blpol if green else not self._blpol,
self._blue: self._blpol if blue else not self._blpol })
def set_backlight(self, backlight):
"""Enable or disable the backlight. If PWM is not enabled (default), a
non-zero backlight value will turn on the backlight and a zero value will
turn it off. If PWM is enabled, backlight can be any value from 0.0 to
1.0, with 1.0 being full intensity backlight. On an RGB display this
function will set the backlight to all white.
"""
self.set_color(backlight, backlight, backlight)
class Adafruit_CharLCDPlate(Adafruit_RGBCharLCD):
"""Class to represent and interact with an Adafruit Raspberry Pi character
LCD plate."""
def __init__(self, address=0x20, busnum=I2C.get_default_bus(), cols=16, lines=2):
"""Initialize the character LCD plate. Can optionally specify a separate
I2C address or bus number, but the defaults should suffice for most needs.
Can also optionally specify the number of columns and lines on the LCD
(default is 16x2).
"""
# Configure MCP23017 device.
self._mcp = MCP.MCP23017(address=address, busnum=busnum)
# Set LCD R/W pin to low for writing only.
self._mcp.setup(LCD_PLATE_RW, GPIO.OUT)
self._mcp.output(LCD_PLATE_RW, GPIO.LOW)
# Set buttons as inputs with pull-ups enabled.
for button in (SELECT, RIGHT, DOWN, UP, LEFT):
self._mcp.setup(button, GPIO.IN)
self._mcp.pullup(button, True)
# Initialize LCD (with no PWM support).
super(Adafruit_CharLCDPlate, self).__init__(LCD_PLATE_RS, LCD_PLATE_EN,
LCD_PLATE_D4, LCD_PLATE_D5, LCD_PLATE_D6, LCD_PLATE_D7, cols, lines,
LCD_PLATE_RED, LCD_PLATE_GREEN, LCD_PLATE_BLUE, enable_pwm=False,
gpio=self._mcp)
def is_pressed(self, button):
"""Return True if the provided button is pressed, False otherwise."""
if button not in set((SELECT, RIGHT, DOWN, UP, LEFT)):
raise ValueError('Unknown button, must be SELECT, RIGHT, DOWN, UP, or LEFT.')
return self._mcp.input(button) == GPIO.LOW
class Adafruit_CharLCDBackpack(Adafruit_CharLCD):
"""Class to represent and interact with an Adafruit I2C / SPI
LCD backpack using I2C."""
def __init__(self, address=0x20, busnum=I2C.get_default_bus(), cols=16, lines=2):
"""Initialize the character LCD plate. Can optionally specify a separate
I2C address or bus number, but the defaults should suffice for most needs.
Can also optionally specify the number of columns and lines on the LCD
(default is 16x2).
"""
# Configure the MCP23008 device.
self._mcp = MCP.MCP23008(address=address, busnum=busnum)
# Initialize LCD (with no PWM support).
super(Adafruit_CharLCDBackpack, self).__init__(LCD_BACKPACK_RS, LCD_BACKPACK_EN,
LCD_BACKPACK_D4, LCD_BACKPACK_D5, LCD_BACKPACK_D6, LCD_BACKPACK_D7,
cols, lines, LCD_BACKPACK_LITE, enable_pwm=False, gpio=self._mcp)