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Most of VimFx’s commands are straight-forward enough to not need any documentation. For some commands, though, there is a bit more to know.

In this document, many commands are referred to by their default shortcut. You can of course change those if you like. (Read about modes to tell the difference between commands and shortcuts.)


Some commands support counts. That means that you can type a number before a command and it will change its behavior based on that number—the count. For example, typing 12x would close 12 tabs.

(As opposed to Vim, you may only supply a count before a command, not in the middle of one. That’s because VimFx’s commands are simple sequences, while Vim’s are operators and motions.)


Goes count levels up in the URL hierarchy.

H and L

Goes count pages backward/forward in history.

Scrolling commands

Specifying a count make them scroll count times as far.

J, K

Selects the tab count tabs backward/forward.

If the count is greater than one they don’t wrap around when reaching the ends of the tab bar, unless:

  • the first tab is selected and J is used.
  • the last tab is selected and K is used.

They only wrap around once.


Selects the count most recently visited tab.


Selects the count oldest unvisited tab.

Tip: It might help to make “unread” tabs visually different through custom styling:

// Unread, unvisited tabs (opened in the background). These are the ones that
// can be selected using `gL`.
.tabbrowser-tab[unread]:not([VimFx-visited]):not(#override) {
    font-style: italic !important;

// Unread but previously selected tabs (that have changed since last select).
.tabbrowser-tab[unread][VimFx-visited]:not(#override) {
    font-weight: bold !important;

gJ, gK

Moves the current tab count tabs forward/backward.

As opposed to J and K, pinned and non-pinned tabs are handled separately. The first non-pinned tab wraps to the last tab, and the last tab wraps to the first non-pinned tab, and vice versa for non-pinned tabs. Use gp to move a tab between the pinned and non-pinned parts of the tab bar.

Other than the above, the count and wrap semantics work like J and K.

g0, g^, g$

g0 selects the tab at index count, counting from the start.

g^ selects the tab at index count, counting from the first non-pinned tab.

g$ selects the tab at index count, counting from the end.


Closes the current tab and count minus one of the following tabs.


Restores the count last closed tabs.


Passes on the next count keypresses to the page, without activating VimFx commands.

The hint commands

Explained in the their own section below.


Explained in its own section below.

Scrolling commands

Firefox lets you scroll with the arrow keys, page down, page up, home, end and space by default. VimFx provides similar scrolling commands (and actually overrides <space>), but they work a little bit differently.

VimFx chooses which element to scroll in this order:

  1. The currently focused element, if it is scrollable.
  2. The closest scrollable parent element for the currently focused element.
  3. The largest scrollable element on the page (if any, and including the entire page itself).

You can focus scrollable elements using the ef command (or the f command). Scrollable browser elements, such as in the dev tools, can be focused using the eb command. The right border of hint markers for scrollable elements is styled to remind of a scroll bar, making them easier to recognize among hints for links.

Note that ef and f do not add a hint marker for the largest scrollable element (such as the entire page). There’s no need to focus that element, since it is scrolled by default if no other scrollable element is focused, as explained above. (This prevents the largest scrollable element from likely eating your best hint char on most pages; see The hint commands).

g[ and g]

Each time you use gg, G, 0, $, /, a/, g/, n, N or ', the current scroll position is recorded in a list just before the scrolling command in question is performed. You can then travel back to the scroll positions in that list by using the g[ command. Went too far back? Use the g] to go forward again.

If the current scroll position already exists in the list, it is moved to the end. This way, repeating g[ you will scroll back to old positions only once.

Both g[ and g] go count steps in the list.

This feature is inspired by Vim’s jump list. Some people prefer changing the shortcuts to <c-o> and <c-i> to match Vim’s.

Marks: m and '

Other than traditional scrolling, VimFx has marks. Press m followed by a letter to associate the current scroll position with that letter. For example, press ma to save the position into mark a. Then you can return to that position by pressing ' followed by the same letter, e.g. 'a.

Note: Firefox has a ' shortcut by default. It opens the Quick Find bar. VimFx provides the g/ shortcut instead.

Special marks

Just like Vim, VimFx has a few special marks. These are set automatically.

  • ': Pressing '' takes you to the scroll position before the last gg, G, 0, $, /, a/, g/, n, N, ', g[ or g].

  • /: Pressing '/ takes you to the scroll position before the last /, a/ or g/.

(You can change these marks by using the scroll.last_position_mark and scroll.last_find_mark options.)

Minor notes

Unlike Vim, you may press any key after m, and the scroll position will be associated with that key (Vim allows only a–z, roughly).

Unlike Vim and Vimium, VimFx has no global marks. The reason is that they would be a lot more complicated to implement and do not seem useful enough to warrant that effort.

As mentioned above, m stores the current scroll position. Specifically, that means the scroll position of the element that would be scrolled if the active element isn’t scrollable; see Scrolling commands above.


gi focuses the text input you last used, or the first one on the page. Note that a prevented autofocus still counts as having focused and used a text input. This allows you to have your cake and eat it too: You can enable autofocus prevention, and type gi when you wish you hadn’t.

gi takes a count. It then selects the counth text input on the page. Note that gi and 1gi are different: The latter always focuses the first input of the page, regradless of which input you used last.

After having focused a text input using gi, <tab> and <s-tab> will only cycle between text inputs, instead of moving the focus between all focusable elements as they usually do. (See also the focus_previous_key and focus_next_key advanced options.)

The hint commands / Hints mode

When invoking one of the hint commands (such as f, et or one of the v commands) you enter Hints mode. In Hints mode, markers with hints are shown for some elements. By typing the letters of a hint something is done to that element, depending on the command. You can also type the text of an element with a hint marker: See the Hint characters option for more information.

Another way to find links on the page is to use g/. It’s like the regular find command (/), except that it searches links only.

Which elements get hints depends on the command as well:

  • f and af: Anything clickable—links, buttons, form controls.
  • F, et, ew and ep: Anything that can be opened in a new tab or window—links.
  • yf: Anything that has something useful to copy—links (their URL) and text inputs (their text).
  • ef: Anything focusable—links, buttons, form controls, scrollable elements, frames.
  • ec: Most things that have a context menu—images, links, videos and text inputs, but also many textual elements.
  • eb: Browser elements, such as toolbar buttons.

It might seem simpler to match the same set of elements for all of the commands. The reason that is not the case is because the fewer elements the shorter the hints. (Also, what should happen if you tried to F a button?)

(You can also customize which elements do and don’t get hints.)

Another way to make hints shorter is to assign the same hint to all links with the same URL. So don’t be surprised if you see the same hint repeated several times.

VimFx also tries to give you shorter hints for elements that you are more likely to click. This is done by the surprisingly simple rule: The larger the element, the shorter the hint. To learn more about hint characters and hint length, read about the Hint characters option.

Hints are added on top of the corresponding element. If they obscure the display too much you can hold down ctrl and shift simultaneously to make them transparent, letting you peek through them. (See Styling and the hints.peek_through option if you’d like to change that.) The hints can also sometimes cover each other. Press <c-space> and <s-space> to switch which one should be on top.

Yet another way to deal with areas crowded with hint markers is to type part of a marker’s element text. That will filter out hint markers whose elements don’t match what you’ve typed. Pagination links are good examples, like these (fake) ones: 1 2 3 4 5 6. It’s very hard to tell which hint to use to go to page three. But if you type “3” things will be much clearer. (It might even auto-activate the hint marker!)

When giving a count to a hint command, all markers will be re-shown after you’ve typed the hint characters of one of them, count minus one times. All but the last time, the marker’s link will be opened in a new background tab. The last time the command opens links as normal (in the current tab (f) or in a new background (F) or foreground tab (et)).

Note that the hint command adds markers not only to links, but to buttons and form controls as well. What happens the count minus one times then? Buttons, checkboxes and the like are simply clicked, allowing you to quickly check many checkboxes in one go, for example. Text inputs cancel the command.

af works as if you’d supplied an infinite count to f. (In fact, the af command is implemented by running the same function as for the f command, passing Infinity as the count argument!) Therefore the af command does not accept a count itself.

The et, ef, yf and eb commands do not accept counts.

Press <up> to increase the count by one. This is useful when you’ve already entered Hints mode but realize that you want to interact with yet a marker. This can be faster than going into Hints mode once more.

If you’ve pressed f but realize that you’d rather open a link in a new tab you can hold ctrl while typing the last hint character. This is similar to how you can press <c-enter> on a focused link to open it in a new tab (while just <enter> would have opened it in the same tab). Hold alt to open in a new foreground tab. In other words, holding ctrl works as if you’d pressed F from the beginning, and holding alt works as if you’d pressed et.

For the F and et commands, holding ctrl makes them open links in the same tab instead, as if you’d used the f command. Holding alt toggles whether to open tabs in the background or foreground—it makes F work like et, and et like F. As mentioned in Hint auto-activation, the best hint is highlighted with a different color, and can be activated by pressing <enter>. Holding alt or ctrl works there too: <c-enter> toggles same/new tab and <a-enter> toggles background/foreground tab.

(Also see the advanced options hints.toggle_in_tab and hints.toggle_in_background.)

Finally, if the element you wanted to interact with didn’t get a hint marker you can try pressing <c-backspace> while the hints are still shown. That will give hint markers to all other elements. Warning: This can be very slow, and result in an overwhelming amount of hint markers (making it difficult to know which hint to activate sometimes). See this as an escape hatch if you really want to avoid using the mouse at all costs. (Press <c-backspace> again to toggle back to the previous hints.)

Mnemonics and choice of default hint command shortcuts

The main command is f. It comes from the Vimium and Vimperator extensions. The mnemonic is “follow link.” It is a good key, because on many keyboard layouts it is located right under where your left index finger rests.

The most common variations of f are centered around that letter: F, yf and af. (Some users might want to swap F and et, though.) In Vim, it is not uncommon that an uppercase letter does the same thing as its lowercase counterpart, but with some variation (in this case, F opens links in new tabs instead of in the current tab), and y usually means “yank” or “copy.” VimFx also has this pattern that a means “all.”

You can think of the above commands as the “f commands.” That sounds like “eff-commands” when you say it out loud, which is a way of remembering that the rest of the f variations are behind the e key. That’s also a pretty good key/letter, because it is close to f both alphabetically, and physically in many keyboard layouts (and is pretty easy to type).

The second key after e was chosen based on mnemonics: There’s et as in tab, ew as in window, ep as in private window, ef as in focus, ec as in context menu and eb as in browser.

The v commands / Caret mode

The point of Caret mode is to copy text from web pages using the keyboard.

Entering Caret mode

Pressing v will enter Hints mode with hint markers for all elements with text inside. When activating a marker, its element will get a blinking caret at the beginning of it, and Caret mode will be entered.

The av command does the same thing as v, but instead of placing the caret at the beginning of the element, it selects the entire element (it selects all of the element).

The yv command brings up the same hint markers as av does, and then takes the text that av would have selected and copies it to the clipboard. It does not enter Caret mode at all.

The letter v was chosen for these shortcuts because that’s what Vim uses to enter its Visual mode, which was an inspiration for VimFx’s Caret mode.

Caret mode commands

Caret mode uses Firefox’s own Caret mode under the hood. This means that you can use the arrows keys, <home>, <end>, <pageup> and <pagedown> (optionally holding ctrl) to move the caret as usual. Hold shift while moving the caret to select text.

In addition to the above, VimFx provides a few commands inspired by Vim.

  • h, j, k, l: Move the caret left, down, up or right, like the arrow keys.

  • b, w: Move the caret one word backward or forward, like <c-left> and <c-right> but a bit “Vim-adjusted” (see the section on Vim below) in order to be more useful.

  • 0 (or ^), $: Move the caret to the start or end of the line.

The above commands (except the ones moving to the start or end of the line) accept a count. For example, press 3w to move three words forward.

Press v to start selecting text. After doing so, VimFx’s commands for moving the caret select the text instead of just moving the caret. Press v again to collapse the selection again. (Note that after pressing v, only VimFx’s commands goes into “selection mode,” while Firefox’s work as usual, requiring shift to be held to select text.)

o moves the caret to the “other end” of the selection. If the caret is at the end of the selection, o will move it to the start (while keeping the selection intact), and vice versa. This let’s you adjust the selection in both ends.

Finally, y is a possibly faster alternative to the good old <c-c>. Other than copying the selection to the clipboard, it also exits Caret mode, saving you yet a keystroke. (<escape> is unsurprisingly used to exit Caret mode otherwise.)

Workflow tips

If you’re lucky, the text you want to copy is located within a single element that contains no other text, such as the text of a link or an inline code snippet. If so, using the yv command (which copies an entire element without entering Caret mode) is the fastest.

If you want to copy almost all text of an element, or a bit more than it, use the av command (which selects an entire element). Then adjust the selection using the various Caret mode commands. Remember that o lets you adjust both ends of the selection.

In all other cases, use the v command to place the caret close to the text you want to copy. Then move the caret in place using the various Caret mode commands, hit v to start selecting, and move the again.

Use y to finish (or <escape> to abort). Alternatively, use the <menu> key to open the context menu for the selection.

For Vim users

As seen above, Caret mode is obviously inspired by Vim’s Visual mode. However, keep in mind that the point of Caret mode is to copy text using the keyboard, not mimicing Vim’s visual mode. I’ve found that selecting text for copying is different than selecting code for editing. Keep that in mind.

Working with text selection in webpages using code is a terrible mess full of hacks. New commands will only be added if they really are worth it.

A note on VimFx’s b and w: They work like Vim’s b and w (but a “word” is according to Firefox’s definition, not Vim’s), except when there is selected text and the caret is at the end of the selection. Then b works like Vim’s ge and w works like Vim’s e. The idea is to keep it simple and only provide two commands that do what you want, rather than many just to mimic Vim.

Ignore mode <s-f1>

Ignore mode is all about ignoring VimFx commands and sending the keys to the page instead. Sometimes, though, you might want to run some VimFx command even when in Ignore mode.

One way of doing that is to press <s-escape> to exit Ignore mode, run your command and then enter Ignore mode again using i. However, it might be inconvenient having to remember to re-enter Ignore mode, and sometimes that’s not even possible, such as if you ran the K command to get to the next tab.

Another way is to press <s-f1> followed by the Normal mode command you wanted to run. (<s-f1> is essentially the inverse of the I command, which passes the next keypress on to the page. Internally they’re called “quote” and “unquote.”) This is handy if you’d like to switch away from a blacklisted page: Just press for example <s-f1>K.

<s-f1> was chosen as the default shortcut because on a typical keyboard <f1> is located just beside <escape>, which makes it very similar to <s-escape>, which is used to exit Ignore mode. Both of those are uncommonly used by web pages, so they shouldn’t be in the way. If you ever actually do need to send any of those to the page, you can prefix them with <s-f1>, because if the key you press after <s-f1> is not part of any Normal mode command, the key is sent to the page. (Another way is for example <s-f1>I<s-escape>.)

Ex commands

Vim has something called “ex” commands. Want something similar in VimFx? True to its spirit, VimFx embraces a standard Firefox feature for this purpose: The Developer Toolbar. That link also includes instructions on how to extend it with your own commands.

In the future VimFx might even ship with a few extra “ex” commands by default. We’re open for suggestions!