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An API for dispatching on the "scientific" type of data instead of the machine type
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A light-weight Julia interface for implementing conventions about the scientific interpretation of data, and for performing type coercions enforcing those conventions.

The package makes the distinction between between machine type and scientific type:

  • the machine type is a Julia type the data is currently encoded as (for instance: Float64)
  • the scientific type is a type defined by this package which encapsulates how the data should be interpreted (for instance: Continuous or Multiclass)

The distinction is useful because the same machine type is often used to represent data with differing scientific interpretations - Int is used for product numbers (a factor) but also for a person's weight (a continuous variable) - while the same scientific type is frequently represented by different machine types - both Int and Float64 are used to represent weights, for example.

Very quick start

For more information and examples please refer to the manual.

ScientificTypes.jl has three components:

  • An interface, for articulating a convention about the scientific interpretation of data. This consists of a definition of a scientific type hierarchy, and a single function scitype with scientific types as values. Someone implementing a convention must add methods to this function, while the general user just applies it to data, as in scitype(4.5) (returning Continuous in the mlj convention).

  • A built-in convention, called mlj, active by default.

  • Convenience methods for working with scientific types, the most commonly used being:

    • schema(X), which gives an extended schema of any table X, including the column scientific types implied by the active convention. .
    • coerce(X, ...), which coerces the machine types of X to reflect a desired scientific type.
using ScientificTypes, DataFrames
X = DataFrame(
    a = randn(5),
    b = [-2.0, 1.0, 2.0, missing, 3.0],
    c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5],
    d = [0, 1, 0, 1, 0],
    e = ['M', 'F', missing, 'M', 'F'],
sch = schema(X) # schema is overloaded in Scientifictypes
for (name, scitype) in zip(sch.names, sch.scitypes)
    println(":$name  --  $scitype")

will print

:a  --  Continuous
:b  --  Union{Missing, Continuous}
:c  --  Count
:d  --  Count
:e  --  Union{Missing, Unknown}

this uses the default mlj convention to attribute a scitype (cf. docs).

Now you could want to specify that b is actually a Count, and that d and e are Multiclass; this is done with the coerce function:

Xc = coerce(X, :b=>Count, :d=>Multiclass, :e=>Multiclass)
sch = schema(Xc)
for (name, scitype) in zip(sch.names, sch.scitypes)
    println(":$name  --  $scitype")

will print

:a  --  Continuous
:b  --  Union{Missing, Count}
:c  --  Count
:d  --  Multiclass{2}
:e  --  Union{Missing, Multiclass{2}}
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