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Make Standard Library Index Types Hashable

Introduction

Key-path expressions can now include subscripts to reference individual positions in collections and other subscriptable types, but only when the subscript parameters are Hashable. To provide maximum utility, the standard library index types should all have Hashable conformance added.

Swift-evolution "thread:" [draft] Make Standard Library Index Types Hashable

Motivation

You can only use subscripts in key-path expressions when the subscript parameter type is Hashable. This means that you can use a subscript as part of a key-path expression with an array, which uses Int as its index type, but not with a string, which uses a custom index type.

let numbers = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
let firstValue = \[Int].[0]
print(numbers[keyPath: firstValue])     // 10

let string = "Helloooo!"
let firstChar = \String.[string.startIndex]
// error: subscript index of type 'String.Index' in a key path must be Hashable

Proposed solution

This proposal would add Hashable conformance to all the index types in the standard library. With that done, [Int], String, and all other standard libary collections would have the same behavior when using subscripts in key paths.

Detailed design

For index types that wrap an internal offset or other value, adding Hashable conformance will be simple. For index types that wrap another index type, such as ReversedIndex, Hashable conformance must wait until the implementation of conditional conformance is complete.

This is the breakdown of the standard library's index types:

Simple Index Types

  • Int (already Hashable)
  • Dictionary.Index
  • Set.Index
  • String.Index

Wrapping Index Types

  • ClosedRangeIndex
  • FlattenCollectionIndex
  • LazyDropWhileIndex
  • LazyFilterIndex
  • LazyPrefixWhileIndex
  • ReversedIndex

AnyIndex, which type erases any index type at run-time, would not be hashable since it might wrap a non-hashable type.

Source compatibility

This is an additive change in the behavior of standard library index types, so it should pose no source compatibility burden. Specifically, this proposal does not change the requirements for an index type in the Collection protocol, so collections and custom index types that have been written in prior versions of Swift will be unaffected.

Effect on ABI stability & API resilience

Beyond an additional conformance for the types mentioned above, this proposal has no effect on ABI stability or API resilience.

Alternatives considered

None.