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* Support connect-style middleware

* More functional API

* Test middleware that modifies response

* Test middleware that ends response

* Documentation

* Warn on `use` in lambda

* Update docs

* Remove stray log

* Spellcheck
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@flintinatux @mgreystone @kdstew

Getting started


I've written several "rest-ful" node.js server apps, all of which were based on one of the two main contenders: express or hapi, and each time I started stacking up a brand new app, I became frustrated all over again. It's easy to demonstrate why.

Both frameworks claim to be "minimalist", but both require a significant amount of boilerplate, and neither lends itself to a functional programming (FP) style. For example, express apps are built by stacking middleware functions, each of which takes a variable number of arguments. Most commonly, the middleware functions accept req and res objects, along with an optional next callback to pass execution to the next middleware.

const express = require('express')

const handler = (req, res, next) =>

  .get('/', handler)
  .listen(3000, console.error)

You start by creating an express instance, and then you wire up the middleware, which in this case is a single route. The req and res objects are proxies for the native IncomingMessage and ServerResponse objects, heavy-laden with additional helper methods. Notice also how I had to wedge-in a Promise chain: it's not handled out-of-the-box.

To build the exact same app in hapi requires even more boilerplate, and even more imperative code.

const Hapi = require('hapi')

const server = new Hapi.Server()

  host: 'localhost',
  port: 3000

  method: 'GET',
  handler: (request, reply) =>


The main pro with hapi is that you can "reply" with your Promise, but at the end of the day you are still calling a callback: not a very functional approach. And I think the configuration-over-composition interface speaks for itself.

So lets boil it down. If I had an "ideal" functional server framework, what would it look like? I can think of three basic ideas:

  1. A web server is just one big handler function: requests go in, and responses go out. Sounds functional to me.
  2. We should be able to tack on the complex bits (like routing, compression, body parsing, schema validation, authorization, etc.) with basic function composition.
  3. Request handlers should be allowed to return a Promise that eventually resolves with the response.

Over the course of a hackathon, I started with those three goals, and paperplane naturally unfolded.

Basic concepts

To start with, we'd like to build a web app made of a single handler function. Guess what: node.js already has something like that as a part of the http module. It's the createServer factory, and you use it like this:

const http = require('http')

const app = (req, res) => {
  res.statusCode = 200


Well that's pretty close to what we're looking for, but the function signature for our app is all wrong: it takes both an IncomingMessage and a ServerResponse, and it drops the return value on the floor:

(IncomingMessage, ServerResponse) -> ()

Instead we'd prefer a pure function that accepts a request-like input and returns a response-like output:

Request -> Promise Response

To help with that transformation, paperplane provides the mount function:

const http = require('http')
const { mount } = require('paperplane')

const app = req => ({
  body: null,
  headers: {},
  statusCode: 200

http.createServer(mount({ app })).listen(3000)

Before we get much further we should go over the Request and Response objects.

Request object

The Request object is the sole input to your handler function, and has the following properties:

Property Type Details
body Readable|String request body, a Readable stream by default, or a String in serverless mode
context Object requestContext from a Lambda proxy event, only present in serverless mode
cookies Object map of cookies, parsed from the cookie header
headers Object map of headers, with downcased header names as keys
method String request method, should be uppercase
original IncomingMessage reference to the original request object, not present in serverless mode, deprecated in favor of request
params Object map of named route parameters, only present if routes function used
pathname String just the path portion of the request url
protocol String https if connection is encrypted, otherwise http
query Object map of query string parameters
request IncomingMessage reference to the original request object, not present in serverless mode
response ServerResponse reference to the original response object, not present in serverless mode
route String matched route pattern, only present if routes function used
url String the full request url

Response object

Your handler function needs to return a Response object, or a Promise that resolves to one. Remember, this is functional programming, so Response is not a class. It's just a POJO with the following properties:

Property Type Details
body Buffer,Stream,String can also be falsy for an empty body
headers Object defaults to {}
statusCode Number defaults to 200

You can build the Response any way you like, either manually like in the example above, or you can use one of the helpers supplied by paperplane:

  • html - accepts a body, and sets the content-type header to text/html (useful for views)
  • json - accepts a body, and sets the content-type header to application/json (useful for json API's)
  • redirect - accepts a Location header, and sets an appropriate redirect statusCode
  • send - accepts a body, and returns a basic Response

But don't get hung up on using helper functions if you don't like them: what is important is the structure of the Response, not how you acheived it.


If your handler function either throws or rejects with an Error, paperplane will catch it and send the client a json response describing the error. If a statusCode is present on the Error, it will be used for the response. For example, your handler function might throw like this:

const app = req => {
  const err = new Error("I'm a teapot")
  err.statusCode = 418
  throw err

In that case, the client would receive a 418 response with the following body:

  "message": "I'm a teapot",
  "name": "Error"

Building fancy errors is made much easier by libraries such as boom and http-errors, and paperplane can recognize and properly format errors generated by both. So the handler below will respond with a similarly silly message:

const { ImATeapot } = require('http-errors')
const app = req => { throw new ImATeapot() }

Validation is a common source of errors, and joi is a library commonly used for validation. To keep things simple, paperplane recognizes and properly formats errors generated by joi.

const { denodeify } = require('promise')
const Joi = require('joi')

const validate = denodeify(Joi.validate)
const app = req => validate({ foo: 123 }, Joi.object({ foo: Joi.string() }))

A handler function like above will send the client a 400 response with this body:

  "details": [
      "message": "\"foo\" must be a string",
      "path": "foo",
      "type": "string.base",
      "context": {
        "value": 123,
        "key": "foo"
  "message": "child \"foo\" fails because [\"foo\" must be a string]",
  "name": "ValidationError"

Example application

Your best bet is to peruse the demo and the tests. Between the two, they cover all the basics.

What are Algebraic Data Types?

If you've been exposed to functional programming at all, it's possible that you've heard fun words like monad, monoid, or even functor tossed around in conversation. Types such as Future, Maybe, or IO are good examples of ADT's. These are tools that can make your job easier in different ways, and if you want to take advantage of them in paperplane, there is now customizable support for that.

Please note that knowledge of such arcane functional magic is not required to harness the power of paperplane. Promise-based request handlers are supported without any additional configuration, so feel free to stick with native Promises if that is where you're most comfortable.

However, if you wish to take the red pill, and see how deep the rabbit hole goes, here are some resources for further study on ADT's: