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// Copyright (c) .NET Foundation. All rights reserved.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. See License.txt in the project root for license information.
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text.Encodings.Web;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Routing;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.ViewEngines;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Caching.Memory;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Options;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Primitives;
namespace Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Razor
{
/// <summary>
/// Default implementation of <see cref="IRazorViewEngine"/>.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks>
/// For <c>ViewResults</c> returned from controllers, views should be located in
/// <see cref="RazorViewEngineOptions.ViewLocationFormats"/>
/// by default. For the controllers in an area, views should exist in
/// <see cref="RazorViewEngineOptions.AreaViewLocationFormats"/>.
/// </remarks>
public class RazorViewEngine : IRazorViewEngine
{
public static readonly string ViewExtension = ".cshtml";
private const string AreaKey = "area";
private const string ControllerKey = "controller";
private const string PageKey = "page";
private static readonly TimeSpan _cacheExpirationDuration = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(20);
private readonly IRazorPageFactoryProvider _pageFactory;
private readonly IRazorPageActivator _pageActivator;
private readonly HtmlEncoder _htmlEncoder;
private readonly ILogger _logger;
private readonly RazorViewEngineOptions _options;
private readonly DiagnosticListener _diagnosticListener;
/// <summary>
/// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="RazorViewEngine" />.
/// </summary>
public RazorViewEngine(
IRazorPageFactoryProvider pageFactory,
IRazorPageActivator pageActivator,
HtmlEncoder htmlEncoder,
IOptions<RazorViewEngineOptions> optionsAccessor,
ILoggerFactory loggerFactory,
DiagnosticListener diagnosticListener)
{
_options = optionsAccessor.Value;
if (_options.ViewLocationFormats.Count == 0)
{
throw new ArgumentException(
Resources.FormatViewLocationFormatsIsRequired(nameof(RazorViewEngineOptions.ViewLocationFormats)),
nameof(optionsAccessor));
}
if (_options.AreaViewLocationFormats.Count == 0)
{
throw new ArgumentException(
Resources.FormatViewLocationFormatsIsRequired(nameof(RazorViewEngineOptions.AreaViewLocationFormats)),
nameof(optionsAccessor));
}
_pageFactory = pageFactory;
_pageActivator = pageActivator;
_htmlEncoder = htmlEncoder;
_logger = loggerFactory.CreateLogger<RazorViewEngine>();
_diagnosticListener = diagnosticListener;
ViewLookupCache = new MemoryCache(new MemoryCacheOptions());
}
/// <summary>
/// A cache for results of view lookups.
/// </summary>
protected IMemoryCache ViewLookupCache { get; }
/// <summary>
/// Gets the case-normalized route value for the specified route <paramref name="key"/>.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="context">The <see cref="ActionContext"/>.</param>
/// <param name="key">The route key to lookup.</param>
/// <returns>The value corresponding to the key.</returns>
/// <remarks>
/// The casing of a route value in <see cref="ActionContext.RouteData"/> is determined by the client.
/// This making constructing paths for view locations in a case sensitive file system unreliable. Using the
/// <see cref="Abstractions.ActionDescriptor.RouteValues"/> to get route values
/// produces consistently cased results.
/// </remarks>
public static string GetNormalizedRouteValue(ActionContext context, string key)
=> NormalizedRouteValue.GetNormalizedRouteValue(context, key);
/// <inheritdoc />
public RazorPageResult FindPage(ActionContext context, string pageName)
{
if (context == null)
{
throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
}
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(pageName))
{
throw new ArgumentException(Resources.ArgumentCannotBeNullOrEmpty, nameof(pageName));
}
if (IsApplicationRelativePath(pageName) || IsRelativePath(pageName))
{
// A path; not a name this method can handle.
return new RazorPageResult(pageName, Enumerable.Empty<string>());
}
var cacheResult = LocatePageFromViewLocations(context, pageName, isMainPage: false);
if (cacheResult.Success)
{
var razorPage = cacheResult.ViewEntry.PageFactory();
return new RazorPageResult(pageName, razorPage);
}
else
{
return new RazorPageResult(pageName, cacheResult.SearchedLocations);
}
}
/// <inheritdoc />
public RazorPageResult GetPage(string executingFilePath, string pagePath)
{
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(pagePath))
{
throw new ArgumentException(Resources.ArgumentCannotBeNullOrEmpty, nameof(pagePath));
}
if (!(IsApplicationRelativePath(pagePath) || IsRelativePath(pagePath)))
{
// Not a path this method can handle.
return new RazorPageResult(pagePath, Enumerable.Empty<string>());
}
var cacheResult = LocatePageFromPath(executingFilePath, pagePath, isMainPage: false);
if (cacheResult.Success)
{
var razorPage = cacheResult.ViewEntry.PageFactory();
return new RazorPageResult(pagePath, razorPage);
}
else
{
return new RazorPageResult(pagePath, cacheResult.SearchedLocations);
}
}
/// <inheritdoc />
public ViewEngineResult FindView(ActionContext context, string viewName, bool isMainPage)
{
if (context == null)
{
throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(context));
}
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(viewName))
{
throw new ArgumentException(Resources.ArgumentCannotBeNullOrEmpty, nameof(viewName));
}
if (IsApplicationRelativePath(viewName) || IsRelativePath(viewName))
{
// A path; not a name this method can handle.
return ViewEngineResult.NotFound(viewName, Enumerable.Empty<string>());
}
var cacheResult = LocatePageFromViewLocations(context, viewName, isMainPage);
return CreateViewEngineResult(cacheResult, viewName);
}
/// <inheritdoc />
public ViewEngineResult GetView(string executingFilePath, string viewPath, bool isMainPage)
{
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(viewPath))
{
throw new ArgumentException(Resources.ArgumentCannotBeNullOrEmpty, nameof(viewPath));
}
if (!(IsApplicationRelativePath(viewPath) || IsRelativePath(viewPath)))
{
// Not a path this method can handle.
return ViewEngineResult.NotFound(viewPath, Enumerable.Empty<string>());
}
var cacheResult = LocatePageFromPath(executingFilePath, viewPath, isMainPage);
return CreateViewEngineResult(cacheResult, viewPath);
}
private ViewLocationCacheResult LocatePageFromPath(string executingFilePath, string pagePath, bool isMainPage)
{
var applicationRelativePath = GetAbsolutePath(executingFilePath, pagePath);
var cacheKey = new ViewLocationCacheKey(applicationRelativePath, isMainPage);
if (!ViewLookupCache.TryGetValue(cacheKey, out ViewLocationCacheResult cacheResult))
{
var expirationTokens = new HashSet<IChangeToken>();
cacheResult = CreateCacheResult(expirationTokens, applicationRelativePath, isMainPage);
var cacheEntryOptions = new MemoryCacheEntryOptions();
cacheEntryOptions.SetSlidingExpiration(_cacheExpirationDuration);
foreach (var expirationToken in expirationTokens)
{
cacheEntryOptions.AddExpirationToken(expirationToken);
}
// No views were found at the specified location. Create a not found result.
if (cacheResult == null)
{
cacheResult = new ViewLocationCacheResult(new[] { applicationRelativePath });
}
cacheResult = ViewLookupCache.Set(
cacheKey,
cacheResult,
cacheEntryOptions);
}
return cacheResult;
}
private ViewLocationCacheResult LocatePageFromViewLocations(
ActionContext actionContext,
string pageName,
bool isMainPage)
{
var controllerName = GetNormalizedRouteValue(actionContext, ControllerKey);
var areaName = GetNormalizedRouteValue(actionContext, AreaKey);
string razorPageName = null;
if (actionContext.ActionDescriptor.RouteValues.ContainsKey(PageKey))
{
// Only calculate the Razor Page name if "page" is registered in RouteValues.
razorPageName = GetNormalizedRouteValue(actionContext, PageKey);
}
var expanderContext = new ViewLocationExpanderContext(
actionContext,
pageName,
controllerName,
areaName,
razorPageName,
isMainPage);
Dictionary<string, string> expanderValues = null;
var expanders = _options.ViewLocationExpanders;
// Read interface .Count once rather than per iteration
var expandersCount = expanders.Count;
if (expandersCount > 0)
{
expanderValues = new Dictionary<string, string>(StringComparer.Ordinal);
expanderContext.Values = expanderValues;
// Perf: Avoid allocations
for (var i = 0; i < expandersCount; i++)
{
expanders[i].PopulateValues(expanderContext);
}
}
var cacheKey = new ViewLocationCacheKey(
expanderContext.ViewName,
expanderContext.ControllerName,
expanderContext.AreaName,
expanderContext.PageName,
expanderContext.IsMainPage,
expanderValues);
if (!ViewLookupCache.TryGetValue(cacheKey, out ViewLocationCacheResult cacheResult))
{
_logger.ViewLookupCacheMiss(cacheKey.ViewName, cacheKey.ControllerName);
cacheResult = OnCacheMiss(expanderContext, cacheKey);
}
else
{
_logger.ViewLookupCacheHit(cacheKey.ViewName, cacheKey.ControllerName);
}
return cacheResult;
}
/// <inheritdoc />
public string GetAbsolutePath(string executingFilePath, string pagePath)
{
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(pagePath))
{
// Path is not valid; no change required.
return pagePath;
}
if (IsApplicationRelativePath(pagePath))
{
// An absolute path already; no change required.
return pagePath;
}
if (!IsRelativePath(pagePath))
{
// A page name; no change required.
return pagePath;
}
if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(executingFilePath))
{
// Given a relative path i.e. not yet application-relative (starting with "~/" or "/"), interpret
// path relative to currently-executing view, if any.
// Not yet executing a view. Start in app root.
var absolutePath = "/" + pagePath;
return ViewEnginePath.ResolvePath(absolutePath);
}
return ViewEnginePath.CombinePath(executingFilePath, pagePath);
}
// internal for tests
internal IEnumerable<string> GetViewLocationFormats(ViewLocationExpanderContext context)
{
if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.AreaName) &&
!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.ControllerName))
{
return _options.AreaViewLocationFormats;
}
else if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.ControllerName))
{
return _options.ViewLocationFormats;
}
else if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.AreaName) &&
!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.PageName))
{
return _options.AreaPageViewLocationFormats;
}
else if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(context.PageName))
{
return _options.PageViewLocationFormats;
}
else
{
// If we don't match one of these conditions, we'll just treat it like regular controller/action
// and use those search paths. This is what we did in 1.0.0 without giving much thought to it.
return _options.ViewLocationFormats;
}
}
private ViewLocationCacheResult OnCacheMiss(
ViewLocationExpanderContext expanderContext,
ViewLocationCacheKey cacheKey)
{
var viewLocations = GetViewLocationFormats(expanderContext);
var expanders = _options.ViewLocationExpanders;
// Read interface .Count once rather than per iteration
var expandersCount = expanders.Count;
for (var i = 0; i < expandersCount; i++)
{
viewLocations = expanders[i].ExpandViewLocations(expanderContext, viewLocations);
}
ViewLocationCacheResult cacheResult = null;
var searchedLocations = new List<string>();
var expirationTokens = new HashSet<IChangeToken>();
foreach (var location in viewLocations)
{
var path = string.Format(
CultureInfo.InvariantCulture,
location,
expanderContext.ViewName,
expanderContext.ControllerName,
expanderContext.AreaName);
path = ViewEnginePath.ResolvePath(path);
cacheResult = CreateCacheResult(expirationTokens, path, expanderContext.IsMainPage);
if (cacheResult != null)
{
break;
}
searchedLocations.Add(path);
}
// No views were found at the specified location. Create a not found result.
if (cacheResult == null)
{
cacheResult = new ViewLocationCacheResult(searchedLocations);
}
var cacheEntryOptions = new MemoryCacheEntryOptions();
cacheEntryOptions.SetSlidingExpiration(_cacheExpirationDuration);
foreach (var expirationToken in expirationTokens)
{
cacheEntryOptions.AddExpirationToken(expirationToken);
}
return ViewLookupCache.Set(cacheKey, cacheResult, cacheEntryOptions);
}
// Internal for unit testing
internal ViewLocationCacheResult CreateCacheResult(
HashSet<IChangeToken> expirationTokens,
string relativePath,
bool isMainPage)
{
var factoryResult = _pageFactory.CreateFactory(relativePath);
var viewDescriptor = factoryResult.ViewDescriptor;
if (viewDescriptor?.ExpirationTokens != null)
{
var viewExpirationTokens = viewDescriptor.ExpirationTokens;
// Read interface .Count once rather than per iteration
var viewExpirationTokensCount = viewExpirationTokens.Count;
for (var i = 0; i < viewExpirationTokensCount; i++)
{
expirationTokens.Add(viewExpirationTokens[i]);
}
}
if (factoryResult.Success)
{
// Only need to lookup _ViewStarts for the main page.
var viewStartPages = isMainPage ?
GetViewStartPages(viewDescriptor.RelativePath, expirationTokens) :
Array.Empty<ViewLocationCacheItem>();
return new ViewLocationCacheResult(
new ViewLocationCacheItem(factoryResult.RazorPageFactory, relativePath),
viewStartPages);
}
return null;
}
private IReadOnlyList<ViewLocationCacheItem> GetViewStartPages(
string path,
HashSet<IChangeToken> expirationTokens)
{
var viewStartPages = new List<ViewLocationCacheItem>();
foreach (var filePath in RazorFileHierarchy.GetViewStartPaths(path))
{
var result = _pageFactory.CreateFactory(filePath);
var viewDescriptor = result.ViewDescriptor;
if (viewDescriptor?.ExpirationTokens != null)
{
for (var i = 0; i < viewDescriptor.ExpirationTokens.Count; i++)
{
expirationTokens.Add(viewDescriptor.ExpirationTokens[i]);
}
}
if (result.Success)
{
// Populate the viewStartPages list so that _ViewStarts appear in the order the need to be
// executed (closest last, furthest first). This is the reverse order in which
// ViewHierarchyUtility.GetViewStartLocations returns _ViewStarts.
viewStartPages.Insert(0, new ViewLocationCacheItem(result.RazorPageFactory, filePath));
}
}
return viewStartPages;
}
private ViewEngineResult CreateViewEngineResult(ViewLocationCacheResult result, string viewName)
{
if (!result.Success)
{
return ViewEngineResult.NotFound(viewName, result.SearchedLocations);
}
var page = result.ViewEntry.PageFactory();
var viewStarts = new IRazorPage[result.ViewStartEntries.Count];
for (var i = 0; i < viewStarts.Length; i++)
{
var viewStartItem = result.ViewStartEntries[i];
viewStarts[i] = viewStartItem.PageFactory();
}
var view = new RazorView(this, _pageActivator, viewStarts, page, _htmlEncoder, _diagnosticListener);
return ViewEngineResult.Found(viewName, view);
}
private static bool IsApplicationRelativePath(string name)
{
Debug.Assert(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(name));
return name[0] == '~' || name[0] == '/';
}
private static bool IsRelativePath(string name)
{
Debug.Assert(!string.IsNullOrEmpty(name));
// Though ./ViewName looks like a relative path, framework searches for that view using view locations.
return name.EndsWith(ViewExtension, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
}
}
}
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