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Find file Copy path
aa8d8bb Apr 26, 2017
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"""Implement just enough git to commit and push to GitHub.
Read the story here:
Released under a permissive MIT license (see LICENSE.txt).
import argparse, collections, difflib, enum, hashlib, operator, os, stat
import struct, sys, time, urllib.request, zlib
# Data for one entry in the git index (.git/index)
IndexEntry = collections.namedtuple('IndexEntry', [
'ctime_s', 'ctime_n', 'mtime_s', 'mtime_n', 'dev', 'ino', 'mode', 'uid',
'gid', 'size', 'sha1', 'flags', 'path',
class ObjectType(enum.Enum):
"""Object type enum. There are other types too, but we don't need them.
See "enum object_type" in git's source (git/cache.h).
commit = 1
tree = 2
blob = 3
def read_file(path):
"""Read contents of file at given path as bytes."""
with open(path, 'rb') as f:
def write_file(path, data):
"""Write data bytes to file at given path."""
with open(path, 'wb') as f:
def init(repo):
"""Create directory for repo and initialize .git directory."""
os.mkdir(os.path.join(repo, '.git'))
for name in ['objects', 'refs', 'refs/heads']:
os.mkdir(os.path.join(repo, '.git', name))
write_file(os.path.join(repo, '.git', 'HEAD'), b'ref: refs/heads/master')
print('initialized empty repository: {}'.format(repo))
def hash_object(data, obj_type, write=True):
"""Compute hash of object data of given type and write to object store if
"write" is True. Return SHA-1 object hash as hex string.
header = '{} {}'.format(obj_type, len(data)).encode()
full_data = header + b'\x00' + data
sha1 = hashlib.sha1(full_data).hexdigest()
if write:
path = os.path.join('.git', 'objects', sha1[:2], sha1[2:])
if not os.path.exists(path):
os.makedirs(os.path.dirname(path), exist_ok=True)
write_file(path, zlib.compress(full_data))
return sha1
def find_object(sha1_prefix):
"""Find object with given SHA-1 prefix and return path to object in object
store, or raise ValueError if there are no objects or multiple objects
with this prefix.
if len(sha1_prefix) < 2:
raise ValueError('hash prefix must be 2 or more characters')
obj_dir = os.path.join('.git', 'objects', sha1_prefix[:2])
rest = sha1_prefix[2:]
objects = [name for name in os.listdir(obj_dir) if name.startswith(rest)]
if not objects:
raise ValueError('object {!r} not found'.format(sha1_prefix))
if len(objects) >= 2:
raise ValueError('multiple objects ({}) with prefix {!r}'.format(
len(objects), sha1_prefix))
return os.path.join(obj_dir, objects[0])
def read_object(sha1_prefix):
"""Read object with given SHA-1 prefix and return tuple of
(object_type, data_bytes), or raise ValueError if not found.
path = find_object(sha1_prefix)
full_data = zlib.decompress(read_file(path))
nul_index = full_data.index(b'\x00')
header = full_data[:nul_index]
obj_type, size_str = header.decode().split()
size = int(size_str)
data = full_data[nul_index + 1:]
assert size == len(data), 'expected size {}, got {} bytes'.format(
size, len(data))
return (obj_type, data)
def cat_file(mode, sha1_prefix):
"""Write the contents of (or info about) object with given SHA-1 prefix to
stdout. If mode is 'commit', 'tree', or 'blob', print raw data bytes of
object. If mode is 'size', print the size of the object. If mode is
'type', print the type of the object. If mode is 'pretty', print a
prettified version of the object.
obj_type, data = read_object(sha1_prefix)
if mode in ['commit', 'tree', 'blob']:
if obj_type != mode:
raise ValueError('expected object type {}, got {}'.format(
mode, obj_type))
elif mode == 'size':
elif mode == 'type':
elif mode == 'pretty':
if obj_type in ['commit', 'blob']:
elif obj_type == 'tree':
for mode, path, sha1 in read_tree(data=data):
type_str = 'tree' if stat.S_ISDIR(mode) else 'blob'
print('{:06o} {} {}\t{}'.format(mode, type_str, sha1, path))
assert False, 'unhandled object type {!r}'.format(obj_type)
raise ValueError('unexpected mode {!r}'.format(mode))
def read_index():
"""Read git index file and return list of IndexEntry objects."""
data = read_file(os.path.join('.git', 'index'))
except FileNotFoundError:
return []
digest = hashlib.sha1(data[:-20]).digest()
assert digest == data[-20:], 'invalid index checksum'
signature, version, num_entries = struct.unpack('!4sLL', data[:12])
assert signature == b'DIRC', \
'invalid index signature {}'.format(signature)
assert version == 2, 'unknown index version {}'.format(version)
entry_data = data[12:-20]
entries = []
i = 0
while i + 62 < len(entry_data):
fields_end = i + 62
fields = struct.unpack('!LLLLLLLLLL20sH', entry_data[i:fields_end])
path_end = entry_data.index(b'\x00', fields_end)
path = entry_data[fields_end:path_end]
entry = IndexEntry(*(fields + (path.decode(),)))
entry_len = ((62 + len(path) + 8) // 8) * 8
i += entry_len
assert len(entries) == num_entries
return entries
def ls_files(details=False):
"""Print list of files in index (including mode, SHA-1, and stage number
if "details" is True).
for entry in read_index():
if details:
stage = (entry.flags >> 12) & 3
print('{:6o} {} {:}\t{}'.format(
entry.mode, entry.sha1.hex(), stage, entry.path))
def get_status():
"""Get status of working copy, return tuple of (changed_paths, new_paths,
paths = set()
for root, dirs, files in os.walk('.'):
dirs[:] = [d for d in dirs if d != '.git']
for file in files:
path = os.path.join(root, file)
path = path.replace('\\', '/')
if path.startswith('./'):
path = path[2:]
entries_by_path = {e.path: e for e in read_index()}
entry_paths = set(entries_by_path)
changed = {p for p in (paths & entry_paths)
if hash_object(read_file(p), 'blob', write=False) !=
new = paths - entry_paths
deleted = entry_paths - paths
return (sorted(changed), sorted(new), sorted(deleted))
def status():
"""Show status of working copy."""
changed, new, deleted = get_status()
if changed:
print('changed files:')
for path in changed:
print(' ', path)
if new:
print('new files:')
for path in new:
print(' ', path)
if deleted:
print('deleted files:')
for path in deleted:
print(' ', path)
def diff():
"""Show diff of files changed (between index and working copy)."""
changed, _, _ = get_status()
entries_by_path = {e.path: e for e in read_index()}
for i, path in enumerate(changed):
sha1 = entries_by_path[path].sha1.hex()
obj_type, data = read_object(sha1)
assert obj_type == 'blob'
index_lines = data.decode().splitlines()
working_lines = read_file(path).decode().splitlines()
diff_lines = difflib.unified_diff(
index_lines, working_lines,
'{} (index)'.format(path),
'{} (working copy)'.format(path),
for line in diff_lines:
if i < len(changed) - 1:
print('-' * 70)
def write_index(entries):
"""Write list of IndexEntry objects to git index file."""
packed_entries = []
for entry in entries:
entry_head = struct.pack('!LLLLLLLLLL20sH',
entry.ctime_s, entry.ctime_n, entry.mtime_s, entry.mtime_n,, entry.ino, entry.mode, entry.uid, entry.gid,
entry.size, entry.sha1, entry.flags)
path = entry.path.encode()
length = ((62 + len(path) + 8) // 8) * 8
packed_entry = entry_head + path + b'\x00' * (length - 62 - len(path))
header = struct.pack('!4sLL', b'DIRC', 2, len(entries))
all_data = header + b''.join(packed_entries)
digest = hashlib.sha1(all_data).digest()
write_file(os.path.join('.git', 'index'), all_data + digest)
def add(paths):
"""Add all file paths to git index."""
paths = [p.replace('\\', '/') for p in paths]
all_entries = read_index()
entries = [e for e in all_entries if e.path not in paths]
for path in paths:
sha1 = hash_object(read_file(path), 'blob')
st = os.stat(path)
flags = len(path.encode())
assert flags < (1 << 12)
entry = IndexEntry(
int(st.st_ctime), 0, int(st.st_mtime), 0, st.st_dev,
st.st_ino, st.st_mode, st.st_uid, st.st_gid, st.st_size,
bytes.fromhex(sha1), flags, path)
def write_tree():
"""Write a tree object from the current index entries."""
tree_entries = []
for entry in read_index():
assert '/' not in entry.path, \
'currently only supports a single, top-level directory'
mode_path = '{:o} {}'.format(entry.mode, entry.path).encode()
tree_entry = mode_path + b'\x00' + entry.sha1
return hash_object(b''.join(tree_entries), 'tree')
def get_local_master_hash():
"""Get current commit hash (SHA-1 string) of local master branch."""
master_path = os.path.join('.git', 'refs', 'heads', 'master')
return read_file(master_path).decode().strip()
except FileNotFoundError:
return None
def commit(message, author=None):
"""Commit the current state of the index to master with given message.
Return hash of commit object.
tree = write_tree()
parent = get_local_master_hash()
if author is None:
author = '{} <{}>'.format(
os.environ['GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'], os.environ['GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'])
timestamp = int(time.mktime(time.localtime()))
utc_offset = -time.timezone
author_time = '{} {}{:02}{:02}'.format(
'+' if utc_offset > 0 else '-',
abs(utc_offset) // 3600,
(abs(utc_offset) // 60) % 60)
lines = ['tree ' + tree]
if parent:
lines.append('parent ' + parent)
lines.append('author {} {}'.format(author, author_time))
lines.append('committer {} {}'.format(author, author_time))
data = '\n'.join(lines).encode()
sha1 = hash_object(data, 'commit')
master_path = os.path.join('.git', 'refs', 'heads', 'master')
write_file(master_path, (sha1 + '\n').encode())
print('committed to master: {:7}'.format(sha1))
return sha1
def extract_lines(data):
"""Extract list of lines from given server data."""
lines = []
i = 0
for _ in range(1000):
line_length = int(data[i:i + 4], 16)
line = data[i + 4:i + line_length]
if line_length == 0:
i += 4
i += line_length
if i >= len(data):
return lines
def build_lines_data(lines):
"""Build byte string from given lines to send to server."""
result = []
for line in lines:
result.append('{:04x}'.format(len(line) + 5).encode())
return b''.join(result)
def http_request(url, username, password, data=None):
"""Make an authenticated HTTP request to given URL (GET by default, POST
if "data" is not None).
password_manager = urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm()
password_manager.add_password(None, url, username, password)
auth_handler = urllib.request.HTTPBasicAuthHandler(password_manager)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(auth_handler)
f =, data=data)
def get_remote_master_hash(git_url, username, password):
"""Get commit hash of remote master branch, return SHA-1 hex string or
None if no remote commits.
url = git_url + '/info/refs?service=git-receive-pack'
response = http_request(url, username, password)
lines = extract_lines(response)
assert lines[0] == b'# service=git-receive-pack\n'
assert lines[1] == b''
if lines[2][:40] == b'0' * 40:
return None
master_sha1, master_ref = lines[2].split(b'\x00')[0].split()
assert master_ref == b'refs/heads/master'
assert len(master_sha1) == 40
return master_sha1.decode()
def read_tree(sha1=None, data=None):
"""Read tree object with given SHA-1 (hex string) or data, and return list
of (mode, path, sha1) tuples.
if sha1 is not None:
obj_type, data = read_object(sha1)
assert obj_type == 'tree'
elif data is None:
raise TypeError('must specify "sha1" or "data"')
i = 0
entries = []
for _ in range(1000):
end = data.find(b'\x00', i)
if end == -1:
mode_str, path = data[i:end].decode().split()
mode = int(mode_str, 8)
digest = data[end + 1:end + 21]
entries.append((mode, path, digest.hex()))
i = end + 1 + 20
return entries
def find_tree_objects(tree_sha1):
"""Return set of SHA-1 hashes of all objects in this tree (recursively),
including the hash of the tree itself.
objects = {tree_sha1}
for mode, path, sha1 in read_tree(sha1=tree_sha1):
if stat.S_ISDIR(mode):
return objects
def find_commit_objects(commit_sha1):
"""Return set of SHA-1 hashes of all objects in this commit (recursively),
its tree, its parents, and the hash of the commit itself.
objects = {commit_sha1}
obj_type, commit = read_object(commit_sha1)
assert obj_type == 'commit'
lines = commit.decode().splitlines()
tree = next(l[5:45] for l in lines if l.startswith('tree '))
parents = (l[7:47] for l in lines if l.startswith('parent '))
for parent in parents:
return objects
def find_missing_objects(local_sha1, remote_sha1):
"""Return set of SHA-1 hashes of objects in local commit that are missing
at the remote (based on the given remote commit hash).
local_objects = find_commit_objects(local_sha1)
if remote_sha1 is None:
return local_objects
remote_objects = find_commit_objects(remote_sha1)
return local_objects - remote_objects
def encode_pack_object(obj):
"""Encode a single object for a pack file and return bytes (variable-
length header followed by compressed data bytes).
obj_type, data = read_object(obj)
type_num = ObjectType[obj_type].value
size = len(data)
byte = (type_num << 4) | (size & 0x0f)
size >>= 4
header = []
while size:
header.append(byte | 0x80)
byte = size & 0x7f
size >>= 7
return bytes(header) + zlib.compress(data)
def create_pack(objects):
"""Create pack file containing all objects in given given set of SHA-1
hashes, return data bytes of full pack file.
header = struct.pack('!4sLL', b'PACK', 2, len(objects))
body = b''.join(encode_pack_object(o) for o in sorted(objects))
contents = header + body
sha1 = hashlib.sha1(contents).digest()
data = contents + sha1
return data
def push(git_url, username=None, password=None):
"""Push master branch to given git repo URL."""
if username is None:
username = os.environ['GIT_USERNAME']
if password is None:
password = os.environ['GIT_PASSWORD']
remote_sha1 = get_remote_master_hash(git_url, username, password)
local_sha1 = get_local_master_hash()
missing = find_missing_objects(local_sha1, remote_sha1)
print('updating remote master from {} to {} ({} object{})'.format(
remote_sha1 or 'no commits', local_sha1, len(missing),
'' if len(missing) == 1 else 's'))
lines = ['{} {} refs/heads/master\x00 report-status'.format(
remote_sha1 or ('0' * 40), local_sha1).encode()]
data = build_lines_data(lines) + create_pack(missing)
url = git_url + '/git-receive-pack'
response = http_request(url, username, password, data=data)
lines = extract_lines(response)
assert len(lines) >= 2, \
'expected at least 2 lines, got {}'.format(len(lines))
assert lines[0] == b'unpack ok\n', \
"expected line 1 b'unpack ok', got: {}".format(lines[0])
assert lines[1] == b'ok refs/heads/master\n', \
"expected line 2 b'ok refs/heads/master\n', got: {}".format(lines[1])
return (remote_sha1, missing)
if __name__ == '__main__':
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
sub_parsers = parser.add_subparsers(dest='command', metavar='command')
sub_parsers.required = True
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('add',
help='add file(s) to index')
sub_parser.add_argument('paths', nargs='+', metavar='path',
help='path(s) of files to add')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('cat-file',
help='display contents of object')
valid_modes = ['commit', 'tree', 'blob', 'size', 'type', 'pretty']
sub_parser.add_argument('mode', choices=valid_modes,
help='object type (commit, tree, blob) or display mode (size, '
'type, pretty)')
help='SHA-1 hash (or hash prefix) of object to display')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('commit',
help='commit current state of index to master branch')
sub_parser.add_argument('-a', '--author',
help='commit author in format "A U Thor <>" '
'(uses GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL environment '
'variables by default)')
sub_parser.add_argument('-m', '--message', required=True,
help='text of commit message')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('diff',
help='show diff of files changed (between index and working '
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('hash-object',
help='hash contents of given path (and optionally write to '
'object store)')
help='path of file to hash')
sub_parser.add_argument('-t', choices=['commit', 'tree', 'blob'],
default='blob', dest='type',
help='type of object (default %(default)r)')
sub_parser.add_argument('-w', action='store_true', dest='write',
help='write object to object store (as well as printing hash)')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('init',
help='initialize a new repo')
help='directory name for new repo')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('ls-files',
help='list files in index')
sub_parser.add_argument('-s', '--stage', action='store_true',
help='show object details (mode, hash, and stage number) in '
'addition to path')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('push',
help='push master branch to given git server URL')
help='URL of git repo, eg:')
sub_parser.add_argument('-p', '--password',
help='password to use for authentication (uses GIT_PASSWORD '
'environment variable by default)')
sub_parser.add_argument('-u', '--username',
help='username to use for authentication (uses GIT_USERNAME '
'environment variable by default)')
sub_parser = sub_parsers.add_parser('status',
help='show status of working copy')
args = parser.parse_args()
if args.command == 'add':
elif args.command == 'cat-file':
cat_file(args.mode, args.hash_prefix)
except ValueError as error:
print(error, file=sys.stderr)
elif args.command == 'commit':
elif args.command == 'diff':
elif args.command == 'hash-object':
sha1 = hash_object(read_file(args.path), args.type, write=args.write)
elif args.command == 'init':
elif args.command == 'ls-files':
elif args.command == 'push':
push(args.git_url, username=args.username, password=args.password)
elif args.command == 'status':
assert False, 'unexpected command {!r}'.format(args.command)