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Buildpack Interface Specification

This document specifies the interface between a single lifecycle and one or more buildpacks.

A lifecycle is a program that uses buildpacks to transform application source code into an OCI image containing the compiled application.

This is accomplished in four phases:

  1. Detection, where an optimal selection of compatible buildpacks is chosen.
  2. Analysis, where metadata about OCI layers generated during a previous build are made available to buildpacks.
  3. Build, where buildpacks use that metadata to generate only the OCI layers that need to be replaced.
  4. Export, where the remote layers are replaced by the generated layers.

The ENTRYPOINT of the OCI image contains logic implemented by the lifecycle that executes during the Launch phase.

Additionally, a lifecycle can use buildpacks to create a containerized environment for developing or testing application source code.

This is accomplished in two phases:

  1. Detection, where an optimal selection of compatible buildpacks is chosen.
  2. Development, where the lifecycle uses those buildpacks to create a containerized development environment.

Table of Contents

  1. Buildpack Interface
    1. Key
    2. Detection
    3. Build
    4. Development
    5. Layer Types
  2. App Interface
  3. Phase #1: Detection
  4. Phase #2: Analysis
  5. Phase #3: Build
  6. Phase #4: Export
  7. Launch
  8. Development Setup
  9. Environment
    1. Provided by the Lifecycle
    2. Provided by the Platform
    3. Provided by the Buildpacks
  10. Security Considerations
    1. Assumptions of Trust
    2. Requirements
  11. Data Format
    1. launch.toml (TOML)
    2. Build Plan (TOML)
    3. Buildpack Plan (TOML)
    4. Bill-of-Materials (TOML)
    5. Layer Content Metadata (TOML)
    6. buildpack.toml (TOML)

Buildpack Interface

The following specifies the interface implemented by executables in each buildpack. The lifecycle MUST invoke these executables as described in the Phase sections.

Key

Mark Meaning
A Single copy provided for all buildpacks
E Different copy provided for each buildpack
I Image repository for storage
C Cache for storage
R Read-only
* Buildpack-specific content
# Platform-specific content

Detection

Executable: /bin/detect <platform[AR]> <plan[E]>, Working Dir: <app[AR]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of /bin/detect executable
<platform>/env/ User-provided environment variables for build
<platform>/# Platform-specific extensions
Output Description
[exit status] Pass (0), fail (100), or error (1-99, 101+)
/dev/stdout Logs (info)
/dev/stderr Logs (warnings, errors)
<plan> Contributions to the the Build Plan (TOML)

Build

Executable: /bin/build <layers[EIC]> <platform[AR]> <plan[E]>, Working Dir: <app[AI]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of /bin/build executable
<plan> Relevant Buildpack Plan entries from detection (TOML)
<platform>/env/ User-provided environment variables for build
<platform>/# Platform-specific extensions
Output Description
[exit status] Success (0) or failure (1+)
/dev/stdout Logs (info)
/dev/stderr Logs (warnings, errors)
<plan> Refinements to the Buildpack Plan (TOML)
<layers>/launch.toml App metadata (see launch.toml)
<layers>/store.toml Persistent metadata (see store.toml)
<layers>/<layer>.toml Layer metadata (see Layer Content Metadata)
<layers>/<layer>/bin/ Binaries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/lib/ Shared libraries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/profile.d/ Scripts sourced by Bash before launch
<layers>/<layer>/include/ C/C++ headers for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/pkgconfig/ Search path for pkg-config for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env/ Env vars for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ Env vars for launch (after env, before profile.d)
<layers>/<layer>/env.build/ Env vars for subsequent buildpacks (after env)
<layers>/<layer>/* Other content for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks

Development

Executable: /bin/develop <layers[EC]> <platform[AR]> <plan[E]>, Working Dir: <app[A]>

Input Description
$0 Absolute path of /bin/detect executable
<plan> Relevant Buildpack Plan entries from detection (TOML)
<platform>/env/ User-provided environment variables for build
<platform>/# Platform-specific extensions
Output Description
[exit status] Success (0) or failure (1+)
/dev/stdout Logs (info)
/dev/stderr Logs (warnings, errors)
<plan> Refinements to the Buildpack Plan (TOML)
<layers>/launch.toml App metadata (see launch.toml)
<layers>/store.toml Persistent metadata (see store.toml)
<layers>/<layer>.toml Layer metadata (see Layer Content Metadata)
<layers>/<layer>/bin/ Binaries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/lib/ Shared libraries for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/profile.d/ Scripts sourced by Bash before launch
<layers>/<layer>/include/ C/C++ headers for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/pkgconfig/ Search path for pkg-config for subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env/ Env vars for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks
<layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ Env vars for launch (after env, before profile.d)
<layers>/<layer>/env.build/ Env vars for subsequent buildpacks (after env)
<layers>/<layer>/* Other content for launch and/or subsequent buildpacks

Layer Types

Using the Layer Content Metadata provided by a buildpack in a <layers>/<layer>.toml file, the lifecycle MUST determine:

  • Whether the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be available to the app (via the launch boolean).
  • Whether the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be available to subsequent buildpacks (via the build boolean).
  • Whether and how the layer directory in <layers>/<layer>/ should be persisted to subsequent builds of the same OCI image (via the cache boolean).

This section does not apply to the Development Setup phase, which does not generate an OCI image.

Launch Layers

A buildpack MAY specify that a <layers>/<layer>/ directory is a launch layer by placing launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml.

The lifecycle MUST make all launch layers accessible to the app as described in the Environment section.

The lifecycle MUST include each launch layer in the built OCI image. The lifecycle MUST also store the Layer Content Metadata associated with each layer so that it can be recovered using the layer Diff ID.

Before a given re-build:

  • If a launch layer is marked cache = false, the lifecycle:
    • MUST restore the entire <layers>/<layer>.toml file from the previous build to the same path and
    • MUST NOT restore the corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory from any previous build.
  • If a launch layer is marked cache = true, the lifecycle:
    • MUST either restore the entire <layers>/<layer>.toml file and corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory from the previous build to the same paths or
    • MUST restore neither the <layers>/<layer>.toml file nor corresponding <layers>/<layer>/ directory.

After a given re-build:

  • If a buildpack keeps launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml and leaves no <layers>/<layer>/ directory, the lifecycle:
    • MUST keep the corresponding layer from the previous build in the OCI image and
    • MUST replace the <layers>/<layer>.toml in the OCI image with the version present after the re-build.
  • If a buildpack keeps launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml and leaves a <layers>/<layer>/ directory, the lifecycle:
    • MUST replace the corresponding layer in the OCI image with the directory contents present after the re-build and
    • MUST replace the <layers>/<layer>.toml in the OCI image with the version present after the re-build.
  • If a buildpack removes launch = true from <layers>/<layer>.toml or deletes <layers>/<layer>.toml, then the lifecycle MUST NOT include any corresponding layer in the OCI image.

Build Layers

A buildpack MAY specify that a <layers>/<layer>/ directory is a build layer by placing build = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml.

The lifecycle MUST make all build layers accessible to subsequent buildpacks as described in the Environment section.

Before the next re-build:

  • If the layer is marked cache = true, the lifecycle MAY restore the <layers>/<layer>/ directory and Layer Content Metadata from any previous build to the same path.
  • If the layer is marked cache = false, the lifecycle MUST NOT restore the <layers>/<layer>/ directory or the Layer Content Metadata from any previous build.

Other Layers

For layers marked launch = true and build = true, the most strict requirements of each type apply.

Therefore, the lifecycle MUST consider such layers to be launch layers that are also accessible to subsequent buildpacks as described in the Environment section.

The lifecycle MUST consider layers that are marked launch = false and build = false to be build layers that are not accessible to subsequent buildpacks.

App Interface

Output Description
<app>/.profile Script sourced by bash before launch

Phase #1: Detection

Detection

Purpose

The purpose of detection is to find an ordered group of buildpacks to use during the build phase. These buildpacks must be compatible with the app.

Process

GIVEN:

  • An ordered list of buildpack groups resolved into buildpack implementations as described in Order Resolution and
  • A directory containing application source code,

For each buildpack in each group in order, the lifecycle MUST execute /bin/detect.

  1. IF the exit status of /bin/detect is non-zero and the buildpack is not marked optional,
    THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next group or fail detection completely if no more groups are present.

  2. IF the exit status of /bin/detect is zero or the buildpack is marked optional,

    1. IF the buildpack is not the last buildpack in the group,
      THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next buildpack in the group.

    2. IF the buildpack is the last buildpack in the group,

      1. IF no exit statuses from /bin/detect in the group are zero
        THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next group or fail detection completely if no more groups are present.

      2. IF at least one exit status from /bin/detect in the group is zero
        THEN the lifecycle MUST select this group and proceed to the analysis phase.

The selected group MUST be filtered to only include buildpacks with exit status zero. The order of the buildpacks in the group MUST otherwise be preserved.

The /bin/detect executable in each buildpack, when executed:

  • MAY read the app directory.
  • MAY read the detect environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MAY emit error, warning, or debug messages to stderr.
  • MAY augment the Build Plan by writing TOML to <plan>.
  • MUST set an exit status code as described in the Buildpack Interface section.

In order to make contributions to the Build Plan, a /bin/detect executable MUST write entries to <plan> in two sections: requires and provides. Additionally, these two sections MAY be repeated together inside of an or array at the top-level. Each requires and provides section MUST be a list of entries formatted as described in the Build Plan format section.

Each pairing of requires and provides sections (at the top level, or inside of an or array) is a potential Build Plan.

For a given buildpack group, a sequence of trials is generated by selecting a single potential Build Plan from each buildpack in a left-to-right, depth-first order. The group fails to detect if all trials fail to detect.

For each trial,

  • If a required buildpack provides a dependency that is not required by the same buildpack or a subsequent buildpack, the trial MUST fail to detect.
  • If a required buildpack requires a dependency that is not provided by the same buildpack or a previous buildpack, the trial MUST fail to detect.
  • If an optional buildpack provides a dependency that is not required by the same buildpack or a subsequent buildpack, the optional buildpack MUST be excluded from the build phase and its requires and provides MUST be excluded from the Build Plan.
  • If an optional buildpack requires a dependency that is not provided by the same buildpack or a previous buildpack, the optional buildpack MUST be excluded from the build phase and its requires and provides MUST be excluded from the Build Plan.
  • Multiple buildpacks MAY require or provide the same dependency.

The lifecycle MAY execute each /bin/detect within a group in parallel.

The lifecycle MUST run /bin/detect for all buildpacks in a group in a container using common stack with a common set of mixins. The lifecycle MUST fail detection if any of those buildpacks does not list that stack in buildpack.toml. The lifecycle MUST fail detection if any of those buildpacks specifies a mixin associated with that stack in buildpack.toml that is unavailable in the container.

Order Resolution

During detection, an order definition MUST be resolved into individual buildpack implementations.

The resolution process MUST follow this pattern:

Where:

  • O and P are buildpack orders.
  • A through H are buildpack implementations.

Given:


O =
\begin{bmatrix}
A, & B \\
C, & D
\end{bmatrix}


P =
\begin{bmatrix}
E, & F \\
G, & H
\end{bmatrix}

We propose:


\begin{bmatrix}
E, & O, & F
\end{bmatrix} =
\begin{bmatrix}
E, & A, & B, & F \\
E, & C, & D, & F \\
\end{bmatrix}


\begin{bmatrix}
O, & P
\end{bmatrix} =
\begin{bmatrix}
A, & B, & E, & F \\
A, & B, & G, & H \\
C, & D, & E, & F \\
C, & D, & G, & H \\
\end{bmatrix}

Note that buildpack IDs are expanded depth-first in left-to-right order.

If a buildpack order entry within a group has the parameter optional = true, then a copy of the group without the entry MUST be repeated after the original group.

Phase #2: Analysis

Analysis

Purpose

The purpose of analysis is to restore <layers>/<layer>.toml and <layers>/store.toml files that buildpacks may use to optimize the build and export phases.

Process

The lifecycle SHOULD attempt to locate a reference to an OCI image from a previous build that:

  • Was created using some version of the same application source code.
  • Is readable by the lifecycle.
  • Was created using the lifecycle.
  • Is as recent as possible.

The lifecycle MUST skip analysis and proceed to the build phase if no such image can be located.

GIVEN:

  • A reference to the previously created OCI image described above and
  • The final ordered group of buildpacks determined during the detection phase,

For each buildpack in the group,

  1. All <layers>/<layer>.toml files with cache = true and corresponding <layers>/<layer> directories from any previous build are restored to their same filesystem locations.
  2. Each <layers>/<layer>.toml file with launch = true and cache = false that was present at the end of the build of the previously created OCI image is retrieved.
  3. A given <layers>/<layer>.toml file with launch = true and cache = true and corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory are both removed if either do not match their contents in the previously created OCI image.

Finally, the contents of <layers>/store.toml from the build of the previously created OCI image are restored.

After analysis, the lifecycle MUST proceed to the build phase.

Phase #3: Build

Build

Purpose

The purpose of build is to transform application source code into runnable artifacts that can be packaged into a container.

During the build phase, typical buildpacks might:

  1. Read the Buildpack Plan in <plan> to determine what dependencies to provide.
  2. Provide the application with dependencies for launch in <layers>/<layer>.
  3. Provide subsequent buildpacks with dependencies in <layers>/<layer>.
  4. Compile the application source code into object code.
  5. Remove application source code that is not necessary for launch.
  6. Provide start command in <layers>/launch.toml.
  7. Refine the Buildpack Plan in <plan> with more exact metadata.

The purpose of separate <layers>/<layer> directories is to:

  • Minimize the execution time of the build.
  • Minimize usage of network communications.
  • Minimize persistent disk usage.

This is achieved by:

  • Reducing the number of necessary build operations during the build phase.
  • Reducing data transfer during the export phase.
  • Enabling de-duplication of stored image layers.

Process

GIVEN:

  • The final ordered group of buildpacks determined during the detection phase,
  • A directory containing application source code,
  • The Buildpack Plan,
  • Any <layers>/<layer>.toml files placed on the filesystem during the analysis phase,
  • Any locally cached <layers>/<layer> directories, and
  • Bash version 3 or greater, if needed,

For each buildpack in the group in order, the lifecycle MUST execute /bin/build.

  1. IF the exit status of /bin/build is non-zero,
    THEN the lifecycle MUST fail the build.

  2. IF the exit status of /bin/build is zero,

    1. IF there are additional buildpacks in the group,
      THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next buildpack's /bin/build.

    2. IF there are no additional buildpacks in the group,
      THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the export phase.

For each /bin/build executable in each buildpack, the lifecycle:

  • MUST provide path arguments to /bin/build as described in the Buildpack Interface section.
  • MUST configure the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MUST provide all <plan> entries that were required by any buildpack in the group during the detection phase with names matching the names that the buildpack provided.

Correspondingly, each /bin/build executable:

  • MAY read or write to the <app> directory.
  • MAY read the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MAY read the Buildpack Plan.
  • MAY augment the Buildpack Plan with more refined metadata.
  • MAY remove entries with duplicate names in the Buildpack Plan to refine the metadata.
  • MAY remove all entries of the same name from the Buildpack Plan to defer those entries to subsequent /bin/build executables.
  • MAY log output from the build process to stdout.
  • MAY emit error, warning, or debug messages to stderr.
  • MAY write a list of possible commands for launch to <layers>/launch.toml.
  • MAY write a list of sub-paths within <app> to <layers>/launch.toml.
  • MAY write values that should persist to subsequent builds in <layers>/store.toml.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY name any new <layers>/<layer> directories without restrictions except those imposed by the filesystem.
  • SHOULD NOT use the <app> directory to store provided dependencies.

Buildpack Plan Entry Refinements

A buildpack MAY refine entries in <plan> by replacing any entries of the same name with a single entry of that name. The single entry MAY include additional metadata that could not be determined during the detection phase.

A buildpack MAY add extra entries to <plan> that do not correspond to entries added during the detection phase.

The lifecycle MUST NOT allow any entries with names matching those in <plan> at the end of /bin/build to be available in subsequent buildpacks' <plan>s.

The lifecycle MUST defer any entries whose names were entirely removed from <plan> to the next buildpack that provided entries with those names during the detection phase.

When the build is complete, a BOM (Bill-of-Materials) MAY be generated for auditing purposes. If generated, this BOM MUST contain all entries in each <plan> at the end of each /bin/build execution.

Layers

A buildpack MAY create, modify, or delete <layers>/<layer>/ directories and <layers>/<layer>.toml files as specified in the Layer Types section.

To decide what layer operations are appropriate, the buildpack should consider:

  • Whether files in the <app> directory have changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the environment has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the buildpack version has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether new application dependency versions have been made available since the layer was created.

Additionally, a buildpack MAY specify sub-paths within <app> as slices in launch.toml. Separate layers MUST be created during the export phase for each slice with one or more files or directories. This minimizes data transfer when the app directory contains a known set of files.

Phase #4: Export

Export

Purpose

The purpose of export is to create a new OCI image using a combination of remote layers, local <layers>/<layer> layers, and the processed <app> directory.

Process

GIVEN:

  • The <layers> directories provided to each buildpack during the build phase,
  • The <app> directory processed by the buildpacks during the build phase,
  • The buildpack IDs associated with the buildpacks used during the build phase, in order of execution,
  • A reference to the most recent version of the run image associated with the stack and mixins,
  • A reference to the old OCI image processed during the analysis phase, if available, and
  • A tag for a new OCI image,

IF the run image, old OCI image, and new OCI image are not all present in the same image store,
THEN the lifecycle SHOULD fail the export process or inform the user that export performance is degraded.

For each <layers>/<layer>.toml file that specifies launch = true,

  1. IF a corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory is present locally,
    THEN the lifecycle MUST
    1. Convert this directory to a layer.
    2. Transfer the layer to the same image store as the old OCI image.
    3. Ensure the absolute path of <layers>/<layer> is preserved in the transferred layer.
    4. Collect a reference to the transferred layer.
  2. IF a corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory is not present locally,
    THEN the lifecycle MUST
    1. Attempt to locate the corresponding layer in the old OCI image.
    2. Collect a reference to the located layer or fail export if no such layer can be found.
  3. The lifecycle MUST store the <layers>/<layer>.toml file so that
    • It is associated with or contained within the new OCI image,
    • It is associated with the buildpack ID of the buildpack that created it, and
    • It is associated with the collected layer reference.

Next, the lifecycle MUST store <layers>/store.toml so that it is associated with or contained within the new OCI image.

Subsequently,

  1. For <app>, the lifecycle MUST
    1. Convert the directory into one or more layers using slices in each launch.toml such that slices from earlier buildpacks are processed before slices from later buildpacks.
    2. Transfer the layers to the same image store as the old OCI image.
    3. Ensure all absolute paths are preserved in the transferred layer(s).
    4. Collect references to the transferred layers.
  2. The lifecycle MUST construct the new OCI image such that the image is composed of
    • All new <layers>/<layer> filesystem layers transferred by the lifecycle,
    • All old <layers>/<layer> filesystem layers from the old OCI image,
    • All <app> filesystem layers,
    • One or more filesystem layers containing
      • The ordered buildpack IDs and
      • A combined processes list derived from all launch.toml files such that process types from later buildpacks override identical process types from earlier buildpacks,
    • The run image filesystem layers,
    • The executable component of the lifecycle that implements the launch phase, and
    • An ENTRYPOINT set to that component.

Finally, any <layers>/<layer> directories specified as cache = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MAY be preserved for the next local build. For any <layers>/<layer>.toml files specifying both cache = true and launch = true, the lifecycle SHOULD store a checksum of the corresponding <layers>/<layer> directory so that it is associated with the locally cached directory. This allows the analysis phase to efficiently compare the locally cached layer with the corresponding old OCI image layer before the next build.

Launch

Purpose

The purpose of launch is to modify the running app environment using app-provided or buildpack-provided logic and start a user-provided or buildpack-provided process.

Process

GIVEN:

  • An OCI image exported by the lifecycle,
  • An optional process type specified by CNB_PROCESS_TYPE, and
  • Bash version 3 or greater, if needed,

First, the lifecycle MUST locate a start command and choose an execution strategy.

To locate a start command,

  1. IF CMD in the container configuration is not empty, THEN the value of CMD is chosen as the start command.

  2. IF CMD in the container configuration is empty,

    1. IF the CNB_PROCESS_TYPE environment variable is set,

      1. IF the value of CNB_PROCESS_TYPE corresponds to a process in <layers>/launch.toml,
        THEN the lifecycle MUST choose the corresponding process as the start command.

      2. IF the value of CNB_PROCESS_TYPE does not correspond to a process in <layers>/launch.toml,
        THEN launch fails.

    2. IF the CNB_PROCESS_TYPE environment variable is not set,

      1. IF there is a process with a web process type in <layers>/launch.toml,
        THEN the lifecycle MUST choose the corresponding process as the start command.

      2. IF there is not a process with a web process type in <layers>/launch.toml,
        THEN launch fails.

To choose an execution strategy,

  1. IF the value of CMD is chosen as the start command,

    1. IF the first parameter of CMD is not --, THEN the lifecycle MUST invoke the value as a command using Bash with subsequent entries as arguments.

    2. IF the first parameter of CMD is -- and the length of CMD is greater than one, THEN the lifecycle MUST invoke the second entry using the execve syscall with subsequent entries as arguments.

  2. IF a buildpack-provided process type is chosen as the start command,

    1. IF the process type does not have direct set to true, THEN the lifecycle MUST invoke the value of command as a command using Bash with values of args provided as arguments.

    2. IF the process type does have direct set to true, THEN the lifecycle MUST invoke the value of command using the execve syscall with values of args provided as arguments.

Given the start command and execution strategy,

  1. The lifecycle MUST set all buildpack-provided launch environment variables as described in the Environment section.

  2. If using an execution strategy involving Bash, the lifecycle MUST use a single Bash process to

    1. source each file in each <layers>/<layer>/profile.d directory,
      1. Firstly, in order of /bin/build execution used to construct the OCI image.
      2. Secondly, in alphabetically ascending order by layer directory name.
      3. Thirdly, in alphabetically ascending order by file name.
    2. source <app>/.profile if it is present.
  3. The lifecycle MUST invoke the start command with the decided execution strategy.

When executing a process using any execution strategy, the lifecycle SHOULD replace the lifecycle process in memory without forking it. When executing a process with Bash, the lifecycle SHOULD additionally replace the Bash process in memory without forking it.

Development Setup

Purpose

The purpose of development setup is to create a containerized environment for developing or testing application source code.

During the development setup phase, typical buildpacks might:

  1. Read the Buildpack Plan to determine what dependencies to provide.
  2. Provide dependencies in <layers>/<layer> for development commands and for subsequent buildpacks.
  3. Provide a command to start a development server in <layers>/launch.toml.
  4. Provide a command to run a test suite in <layers>/launch.toml.

Process

GIVEN:

  • The final ordered group of buildpacks determined during the detection phase,
  • A directory containing application source code,
  • The Buildpack Plan,
  • The most recent local cached <layers>/<layer>/ directories from a development setup of a version of the application source code, and
  • Bash version 3 or greater,

For each buildpack in the group in order, the lifecycle MUST execute /bin/develop.

  1. IF the exit status of /bin/develop is non-zero,
    THEN the lifecycle MUST fail the development setup.

  2. IF the exit status of /bin/develop is zero,

    1. IF there are additional buildpacks in the group,
      THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to the next buildpack's /bin/develop.

    2. IF there are no additional buildpacks in the group,
      THEN the lifecycle MUST proceed to executing a process type as specified in the Launch section.

For each /bin/develop executable in each buildpack, the lifecycle:

  • MUST configure the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MUST provide path arguments to /bin/develop as described in the Buildpack Interface section.
  • MUST provide all <plan> entries that were required by any buildpack in the group during the detection phase with names matching the names that the buildpack provided.

Correspondingly, each /bin/develop executable:

  • MAY read from the app directory.
  • MAY write files to the app directory in an idempotent manner.
  • MAY read the build environment as described in the Environment section.
  • MAY read the Buildpack Plan.
  • MAY augment the Buildpack Plan with more refined metadata.
  • MAY remove entries with duplicate names in the Buildpack Plan to refine the metadata.
  • MAY remove all entries of the same name from the Buildpack Plan to defer those entries to subsequent /bin/develop executables.
  • MAY log output from the build process to stdout.
  • MAY emit error, warning, or debug messages to stderr.
  • MAY write a list of possible commands for launch to <layers>/launch.toml.
  • MAY write values that should persist to subsequent builds in <layers>/store.toml.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY modify or delete any existing <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer> directories.
  • MAY create new <layers>/<layer>.toml files.
  • MAY name any new <layers>/<layer> directories without restrictions except those imposed by the filesystem.
  • SHOULD NOT use the <app> directory to store provided dependencies.
  • SHOULD NOT specify any slices within launch.toml, as they are only used to generate OCI image layers.

Buildpack Plan Entry Refinements

A buildpack MAY refine entries in <plan> by replacing any entries of the same name with a single entry of that name. The single entry MAY include additional metadata that could not be determined during the detection phase.

A buildpack MAY add extra entries to <plan> that do not correspond to entries added during the detection phase.

The lifecycle MUST NOT allow any entries with names matching those in <plan> at the end of /bin/develop to be available in subsequent buildpacks' <plan>s.

The lifecycle MUST defer any entries whose names were entirely removed from <plan> to the next buildpack that provided entries with those names during the detection phase.

When the build is complete, a BOM (Bill-of-Materials) MAY be generated for auditing purposes. If generated, this BOM MUST contain all entries in each <plan> at the end of each /bin/develop execution.

Layers

Layers designated cache = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MAY be persisted to the next development setup. Layers not designated cache = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MUST be deleted before the next development setup. Layers designated launch = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MUST be made accessible to the development commands as described in the Environment section. Layers designated build = true in <layers>/<layer>.toml MUST be made accessible to subsequent buildpacks as described in the Environment section.

A buildpack MAY create, modify, or delete <layers>/<layer>/ directories and <layers>/<layer>.toml files.

To decide what layer operations are appropriate, the buildpack should consider:

  • Whether files in the <app> directory have changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the environment has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether the buildpack version has changed since the layer was created.
  • Whether new application dependency versions have been made available since the layer was created.

Environment

Provided by the Lifecycle

Layer Paths

The following layer path environment variables MUST be set by the lifecycle during the build and launch phases in order to make buildpack dependencies accessible.

During the build phase, each variable designated for build MUST contain absolute paths of all previous buildpacks’ <layers>/<layer>/ directories that are designated for build.

When the exported OCI image is launched, each variable designated for launch MUST contain absolute paths of all buildpacks’ <layers>/<layer>/ directories that are designated for launch.

In either case,

  • The lifecycle MUST order all <layer> paths to reflect the reversed order of the buildpack group.
  • The lifecycle MUST order all <layer> paths provided by a given buildpack alphabetically ascending.
  • The lifecycle MUST separate each path with the OS path list separator (e.g., : on Linux).
Env Variable Layer Path Contents Build Launch
PATH /bin binaries [x] [x]
LD_LIBRARY_PATH /lib shared libraries [x] [x]
LIBRARY_PATH /lib static libraries [x]
CPATH /include header files [x]
PKG_CONFIG_PATH /pkgconfig pc files [x]

Provided by the Platform

The following additional environment variables MUST NOT be overridden by the lifecycle.

Env Variable Description Detect Build Launch
CNB_STACK_ID Chosen stack ID [x] [x]
BP_* User-provided variable for buildpack [x] [x]
BPL_* User-provided variable for profile.d [x]
HOME Current user's home directory [x] [x] [x]

During the detection and build phases, the lifecycle MUST provide any user-provided environment variables as files in <platform>/env/ with file names and contents matching the environment variable names and contents.

When clear-env in buildpack.toml is set to true for a given buildpack, the lifecycle MUST NOT set user-provided environment variables in the environment of /bin/detect or /bin/build.

When clear-env in buildpack.toml is not set to true for a given buildpack, the lifecycle MUST set user-provided environment variables in the environment of /bin/detect or /bin/build such that:

  1. For layer path environment variables, user-provided values are prepended before any existing values and are delimited by the OS path list separator.
  2. For all other environment variables, user-provided values override any existing values.

Buildpacks MAY use the value of CNB_STACK_ID to modify their behavior when executed on different stacks.

The environment variable prefix CNB_ is reserved. It MUST NOT be used for environment variables that are not defined in this specification or approved extensions.

Provided by the Buildpacks

During the build phase, buildpacks MAY write environment variable files to <layers>/<layer>/env/, <layers>/<layer>/env.build/, and <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ directories.

For each <layers>/<layer>/ designated as a build layer, for each file written to <layers>/<layer>/env/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ by /bin/build, the lifecycle MUST modify an environment variable in subsequent executions of /bin/build according to the modification rules below.

For each file written to <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ by /bin/build, the lifecycle MUST modify an environment variable when the OCI image is launched according to the modification rules below.

Environment Variable Modification Rules

The lifecycle MUST consider the name of the environment variable to be the name of the file up to the first period (.) or to the end of the name if no periods are present. In all cases, file contents MUST NOT be evaluated by a shell or otherwise modified before inclusion in environment variable values.

Delimiter

If the environment variable file name ends in .delim, then the file contents MUST be used to delimit any concatenation within the same layer involving that environment variable. This delimiter MUST override the delimiters below. If multiple operations apply to the same environment variable, all operations for a given layer containing environment variable files MUST be applied before subsequent layers are considered.

Prepend

If the environment variable file name has no period-delimited suffix, then the value of the environment variable MUST be a concatenation of the file contents and the contents of other files representing that environment variable delimited by the OS path list separator. If the environment variable file name ends in .prepend, then the value of the environment variable MUST be a concatenation of the file contents and the contents of other files representing that environment variable. In either case, within that environment variable value,

  • Later buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST precede earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • Environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack MUST be sorted alphabetically descending by associated layer name.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ precede file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/.
Append

If the environment variable file name ends in .append, then the value of the environment variable MUST be a concatenation of the file contents and the contents of other files representing that environment variable. Within that environment variable value,

  • Earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST precede later buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • Environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack MUST be sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/ precede file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/.
Override

If the environment variable file name ends in .override, then the value of the environment variable MUST be the file contents. For that environment variable value,

  • Later buildpacks' environment variable file contents MUST override earlier buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • For environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack, file contents that are later (when sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name) MUST override file contents that are earlier.
  • Environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/ override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/.
Default

If the environment variable file name ends in .default, then the value of the environment variable MUST only be the file contents if the environment variable is empty. For that environment variable value,

  • Earlier buildpacks' environment default variable file contents MUST override later buildpacks' environment variable file contents.
  • For default environment variable file contents originating from the same buildpack, file contents that are earlier (when sorted alphabetically ascending by associated layer name) MUST override file contents that are later.
  • Default environment variable file contents originating in the same layer MUST be sorted such that file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env/ override file contents in <layers>/<layer>/env.build/ or <layers>/<layer>/env.launch/.

Security Considerations

A lifecycle may be used by a multi-tenant platform. On such a platform,

  • Buildpacks may potentially be provided by both operators and users.
  • OCI image storage credentials may potentially not be owned or managed by application developers.

Therefore, the following assumptions and requirements exist to prevent malicious buildpacks or applications from gaining unauthorized access to external resources.

Assumptions of Trust

Allowed:

  • The lifecycle MAY have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.
  • Buildpacks MAY have access a copy of the application source code.
  • Buildpacks MAY execute application source code during the detection and build phases.

Prohibited:

  • The application source code MUST NOT have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.
  • Buildpacks MUST NOT have access to credentials for reading and writing to OCI image stores.

Requirements

The lifecycle MUST be implemented so that the detection and build phases do not have access to OCI image store credentials used in the analysis and export phases. The lifecycle SHOULD be implemented so that each phase may run in a different container.

Data Format

launch.toml (TOML)

[[processes]]
type = "<process type>"
command = "<command>"
args = ["<arguments>"]
direct = false

[[slices]]
paths = ["<app sub-path glob>"]

The buildpack MAY specify any number of processes or slices.

For each process, the buildpack:

  • MUST specify a type that is not identical to other process types provided by the same buildpack.
  • MUST specify a command that is either:
    • A command sequence that is valid when executed using the Bash 3+ shell, if args is not specified.
    • A path to an executable or the file name of an executable in $PATH, if args is a list with zero or more elements.
  • MAY specify an args list to be passed directly to the specified executable.
  • MAY specify a direct boolean that bypasses the shell.

For each slice, buildpacks MUST specify zero or more path globs such that each path is either:

  • Relative to the root of the app directory without traversing outside of the app directory.
  • Absolute and contained within the app directory.

Path globs MUST:

  • Follow the pattern syntax defined in the Go standard library.
  • Match zero or more files or directories.

The lifecycle MUST process each slice as if all files matched in preceding slices no longer exists in the app directory.

The lifecycle MUST accept slices that do not contain any files or directory. However, the lifecycle MAY warn about such slices.

The lifecycle MUST include all unmatched files in the app directory in any number of additional layers in the OCI image.

store.toml (TOML)

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Build Plan (TOML)

[[provides]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[[requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "<dependency version>"

[requires.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

[[or]]

[[or.provides]]
name = "<dependency name>"

[[or.requires]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "<dependency version>"

[or.requires.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Buildpack Plan (TOML)

[[entries]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "<dependency version>"

[entries.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Bill-of-Materials (TOML)

[[entries]]
name = "<dependency name>"
version = "<dependency version>"

[[entries.buildpacks]]
id = "<buildpack ID>"
version = "<buildpack version>"

[entries.metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Layer Content Metadata (TOML)

launch = false
build = false
cache = false

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

For a given layer, the buildpack MAY specify:

  • Whether the layer is cached, intended for build, and/or intended for launch.
  • Metadata that describes the layer contents.

buildpack.toml (TOML)

api = "<buildpack api>"

[buildpack]
id = "<buildpack ID>"
name = "<buildpack name>"
version = "<buildpack version>"
clear-env = false

[[order]]
[[order.group]]
id = "<buildpack ID>"
version = "<buildpack version>"
optional = false

[[stacks]]
id = "<stack ID>"
mixins = ["<mixin name>"]

[metadata]
# buildpack-specific data

Buildpack authors MUST choose a globally unique ID, for example: "io.buildpacks.ruby".

The buildpack ID:

  • MUST only contain numbers, letters, and the characters ., /, and -.
  • MUST NOT be config or app.
  • MUST NOT be identical to any other buildpack ID when using a case-insensitive comparison.

If an order is specified, then stacks MUST NOT be specified.

The buildpack API:

  • MUST be in form <major>.<minor> or <major>, where <major> is equivalent to <major>.0
  • MUST describe the implemented buildpack API.
  • SHALL indicate compatibility with a given lifecycle according to the following rules:
    • When <major> is 0, the buildpack is only compatible with lifecycles implementing that exact buildpack API.
    • When <major> is greater than 0, the buildpack is only compatible with lifecycles implementing buildpack API <major>.<minor>, where <major> of the lifecycle equals <major> of the buildpack and <minor> of the lifecycle is greater than or equal to <minor> of the buildpack.

Buildpack Implementations

A buildpack descriptor that specifies stacks MUST describe a buildpack that implements the Buildpack Interface.

Stack authors MUST choose a globally unique ID, for example: "io.buildpacks.mystack".

The stack ID:

  • MUST only contain numbers, letters, and the characters ., /, and -.
  • MUST NOT be identical to any other stack ID when using a case-insensitive comparison.

Order Buildpacks

A buildpack descriptor that specifies order MUST be resolvable into an ordering of buildpacks that implement the Buildpack Interface.

A buildpack reference inside of a group MUST contain an id and version.

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