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Minetest Lua Modding API Reference 0.4.9
========================================
More information at http://www.minetest.net/
Developer Wiki: http://dev.minetest.net/

Introduction
-------------
Content and functionality can be added to Minetest 0.4 by using Lua
scripting in run-time loaded mods.

A mod is a self-contained bunch of scripts, textures and other related
things that is loaded by and interfaces with Minetest.

Mods are contained and ran solely on the server side. Definitions and media
files are automatically transferred to the client.

If you see a deficiency in the API, feel free to attempt to add the
functionality in the engine and API. You can send such improvements as
source code patches to <celeron55@gmail.com>.

Programming in Lua
-------------------
If you have any difficulty in understanding this, please read:
  http://www.lua.org/pil/

Startup
--------
Mods are loaded during server startup from the mod load paths by running
the init.lua scripts in a shared environment.

Paths
-----
RUN_IN_PLACE=1: (Windows release, local build)
 $path_user: Linux: <build directory>
              Windows: <build directory>
 $path_share: Linux: <build directory>
              Windows: <build directory>

RUN_IN_PLACE=0: (Linux release)
 $path_share: Linux: /usr/share/minetest
              Windows: <install directory>/minetest-0.4.x
 $path_user: Linux: ~/.minetest
              Windows: C:/users/<user>/AppData/minetest (maybe)

Games
-----
Games are looked up from:
  $path_share/games/gameid/
  $path_user/games/gameid/
where gameid is unique to each game.

The game directory contains the file game.conf, which contains these fields:
  name = <Human-readable full name of the game>
eg.
  name = Minetest

The game directory can contain the file minetest.conf, which will be used
to set default settings when running the particular game.

Mod load path
-------------
Generic:
  $path_share/games/gameid/mods/
  $path_share/mods/
  $path_user/games/gameid/mods/
  $path_user/mods/ <-- User-installed mods
  $worldpath/worldmods/

In a run-in-place version (eg. the distributed windows version):
  minetest-0.4.x/games/gameid/mods/
  minetest-0.4.x/mods/gameid/ <-- User-installed mods
  minetest-0.4.x/worlds/worldname/worldmods/

On an installed version on linux:
  /usr/share/minetest/games/gameid/mods/
  ~/.minetest/mods/gameid/ <-- User-installed mods
  ~/.minetest/worlds/worldname/worldmods

Mod load path for world-specific games
--------------------------------------
It is possible to include a game in a world; in this case, no mods or
games are loaded or checked from anywhere else.

This is useful for eg. adventure worlds.

This happens if the following directory exists:
  $world/game/

Mods should be then be placed in:
  $world/game/mods/

Modpack support
----------------
Mods can be put in a subdirectory, if the parent directory, which otherwise
should be a mod, contains a file named modpack.txt. This file shall be
empty, except for lines starting with #, which are comments.

Mod directory structure
------------------------
mods
|-- modname
| |-- depends.txt
| |-- screenshot.png
| |-- description.txt
| |-- init.lua
| |-- textures
| | |-- modname_stuff.png
| | `-- modname_something_else.png
| |-- sounds
| |-- media
| `-- <custom data>
`-- another

modname:
  The location of this directory can be fetched by using
  minetest.get_modpath(modname)

depends.txt:
  List of mods that have to be loaded before loading this mod.
  A single line contains a single modname.

  Optional dependencies can be defined by appending a question mark
  to a single modname. Their meaning is that if the specified mod
  is missing, that does not prevent this mod from being loaded.

screenshot.png:
  A screenshot shown in modmanager within mainmenu.

description.txt:
  File containing desctiption to be shown within mainmenu.

init.lua:
  The main Lua script. Running this script should register everything it
  wants to register. Subsequent execution depends on minetest calling the
  registered callbacks.

  minetest.setting_get(name) and minetest.setting_getbool(name) can be used
  to read custom or existing settings at load time, if necessary.

textures, sounds, media:
  Media files (textures, sounds, whatever) that will be transferred to the
  client and will be available for use by the mod.

Naming convention for registered textual names
----------------------------------------------
Registered names should generally be in this format:
  "modname:<whatever>" (<whatever> can have characters a-zA-Z0-9_)

This is to prevent conflicting names from corrupting maps and is
enforced by the mod loader.

Example: mod "experimental", ideal item/node/entity name "tnt":
         -> the name should be "experimental:tnt".

Enforcement can be overridden by prefixing the name with ":". This can
be used for overriding the registrations of some other mod.

Example: Any mod can redefine experimental:tnt by using the name
         ":experimental:tnt" when registering it.
(also that mod is required to have "experimental" as a dependency)

The ":" prefix can also be used for maintaining backwards compatibility.

Aliases
-------
Aliases can be added by using minetest.register_alias(name, convert_to)

This will make Minetest to convert things called name to things called
convert_to.

This can be used for maintaining backwards compatibility.

This can be also used for setting quick access names for things, eg. if
you have an item called epiclylongmodname:stuff, you could do
  minetest.register_alias("stuff", "epiclylongmodname:stuff")
and be able to use "/giveme stuff".

Textures
--------
Mods should generally prefix their textures with modname_, eg. given
the mod name "foomod", a texture could be called
  "foomod_foothing.png"

Textures are referred to by their complete name, or alternatively by
stripping out the file extension:
  eg. foomod_foothing.png
  eg. foomod_foothing

Sounds
-------
Only OGG files are supported.

For positional playing of sounds, only single-channel (mono) files are
supported. Otherwise OpenAL will play them non-positionally.

Mods should generally prefix their sounds with modname_, eg. given
the mod name "foomod", a sound could be called
  "foomod_foosound.ogg"

Sounds are referred to by their name with a dot, a single digit and the
file extension stripped out. When a sound is played, the actual sound file
is chosen randomly from the matching sounds.

When playing the sound "foomod_foosound", the sound is chosen randomly
from the available ones of the following files:
  foomod_foosound.ogg
  foomod_foosound.0.ogg
  foomod_foosound.1.ogg
  ...
  foomod_foosound.9.ogg

Examples of sound parameter tables:
-- Play locationless on all clients
{
    gain = 1.0, -- default
}
-- Play locationless to a player
{
    to_player = name,
    gain = 1.0, -- default
}
-- Play in a location
{
    pos = {x=1,y=2,z=3},
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    max_hear_distance = 32, -- default
}
-- Play connected to an object, looped
{
    object = <an ObjectRef>,
    gain = 1.0, -- default
    max_hear_distance = 32, -- default
    loop = true, -- only sounds connected to objects can be looped
}

SimpleSoundSpec:
eg. ""
eg. "default_place_node"
eg. {}
eg. {name="default_place_node"}
eg. {name="default_place_node", gain=1.0}

Registered definitions of stuff
--------------------------------
Anything added using certain minetest.register_* functions get added to
the global minetest.registered_* tables.

minetest.register_entity(name, prototype table)
 -> minetest.registered_entities[name]

minetest.register_node(name, node definition)
 -> minetest.registered_items[name]
 -> minetest.registered_nodes[name]

minetest.register_tool(name, item definition)
 -> minetest.registered_items[name]

minetest.register_craftitem(name, item definition)
 -> minetest.registered_items[name]

Note that in some cases you will stumble upon things that are not contained
in these tables (eg. when a mod has been removed). Always check for
existence before trying to access the fields.

Example: If you want to check the drawtype of a node, you could do:

local function get_nodedef_field(nodename, fieldname)
    if not minetest.registered_nodes[nodename] then
        return nil
    end
    return minetest.registered_nodes[nodename][fieldname]
end
local drawtype = get_nodedef_field(nodename, "drawtype")

Example: minetest.get_item_group(name, group) has been implemented as:

function minetest.get_item_group(name, group)
    if not minetest.registered_items[name] or not
            minetest.registered_items[name].groups[group] then
        return 0
    end
    return minetest.registered_items[name].groups[group]
end

Nodes
------
Nodes are the bulk data of the world: cubes and other things that take the
space of a cube. Huge amounts of them are handled efficiently, but they
are quite static.

The definition of a node is stored and can be accessed by name in
  minetest.registered_nodes[node.name]
See "Registered definitions of stuff".

Nodes are passed by value between Lua and the engine.
They are represented by a table:
  {name="name", param1=num, param2=num}

param1 and param2 are 8 bit integers. The engine uses them for certain
automated functions. If you don't use these functions, you can use them to
store arbitrary values.

The functions of param1 and param2 are determined by certain fields in the
node definition:
param1 is reserved for the engine when paramtype != "none":
  paramtype = "light"
  ^ The value stores light with and without sun in it's
    upper and lower 4 bits.
param2 is reserved for the engine when any of these are used:
  liquidtype == "flowing"
  ^ The level and some flags of the liquid is stored in param2
  drawtype == "flowingliquid"
  ^ The drawn liquid level is read from param2
  drawtype == "torchlike"
  drawtype == "signlike"
  paramtype2 == "wallmounted"
  ^ The rotation of the node is stored in param2. You can make this value
    by using minetest.dir_to_wallmounted().
  paramtype2 == "facedir"
  ^ The rotation of the node is stored in param2. Furnaces and chests are
    rotated this way. Can be made by using minetest.dir_to_facedir().
    Values range 0 - 23
    facedir modulo 4 = axisdir
    0 = y+ 1 = z+ 2 = z- 3 = x+ 4 = x- 5 = y-
    facedir's two less significant bits are rotation around the axis
  paramtype2 == "leveled"
  ^ The drawn node level is read from param2, like flowingliquid

Nodes can also contain extra data. See "Node Metadata".

Node drawtypes
---------------
There are a bunch of different looking node types. These are mostly just
copied from Minetest 0.3; more may be made in the future.

Look for examples in games/minimal or games/minetest_game.

- normal
- airlike
- liquid
- flowingliquid
- glasslike
- glasslike_framed
- allfaces
- allfaces_optional
- torchlike
- signlike
- plantlike
- fencelike
- raillike
- nodebox -- See below. EXPERIMENTAL

Node boxes
-----------
Node selection boxes are defined using "node boxes"

The "nodebox" node drawtype allows defining visual of nodes consisting of
arbitrary number of boxes. It allows defining stuff like stairs. Only the
"fixed" and "leveled" box type is supported for these.
^ Please note that this is still experimental, and may be incompatibly
  changed in the future.

A nodebox is defined as any of:
{
    -- A normal cube; the default in most things
    type = "regular"
}
{
    -- A fixed box (facedir param2 is used, if applicable)
    type = "fixed",
    fixed = box OR {box1, box2, ...}
}
{
    -- A box like the selection box for torches
    -- (wallmounted param2 is used, if applicable)
    type = "wallmounted",
    wall_top = box,
    wall_bottom = box,
    wall_side = box
}

A box is defined as:
  {x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2}
A box of a regular node would look like:
  {-0.5, -0.5, -0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5},

type = "leveled" is same as "fixed", but y2 will be automaticaly setted to level from param2

Ore types
---------------
These tell in what manner the ore is generated.
All default ores are of the uniformly-distributed scatter type.

- scatter
    Randomly chooses a location and generates a cluster of ore.
    If noise_params is specified, the ore will be placed if the 3d perlin noise at
    that point is greater than the noise_threshhold, giving the ability to create a non-equal
    distribution of ore.
- sheet
    Creates a sheet of ore in a blob shape according to the 2d perlin noise described by noise_params.
    The relative height of the sheet can be controlled by the same perlin noise as well, by specifying
    a non-zero 'scale' parameter in noise_params. IMPORTANT: The noise is not transformed by offset or
    scale when comparing against the noise threshhold, but scale is used to determine relative height.
    The height of the blob is randomly scattered, with a maximum height of clust_size.
    clust_scarcity and clust_num_ores are ignored.
    This is essentially an improved version of the so-called "stratus" ore seen in some unofficial mods.
- claylike - NOT YET IMPLEMENTED
    Places ore if there are no more than clust_scarcity number of specified nodes within a Von Neumann
    neighborhood of clust_size radius.

Ore attributes
-------------------
Currently supported flags: absheight
 - absheight
    Also produce this same ore between the height range of -height_max and -height_min.
    Useful for having ore in sky realms without having to duplicate ore entries.

Decoration types
-------------------
The varying types of decorations that can be placed.
The default value is simple, and is currently the only type supported.

- simple
    Creates a 1xHx1 column of a specified node (or a random node from a list, if a decoration
    list is specified). Can specify a certain node it must spawn next to, such as water or lava,
    for example. Can also generate a decoration of random height between a specified lower and
    upper bound. This type of decoration is intended for placement of grass, flowers, cacti,
    papyrus, and so on.
- schematic
    Copies a box of MapNodes from a specified schematic file (or raw description). Can specify a
    probability of a node randomly appearing when placed. This decoration type is intended to be used
    for multi-node sized discrete structures, such as trees, cave spikes, rocks, and so on.

Schematic specifier
--------------------
    A schematic specifier identifies a schematic by either a filename to a Minetest Schematic file (.mts)
or through raw data supplied through Lua, in the form of a table. This table must specify two fields:
 - The 'size' field is a 3d vector containing the dimensions of the provided schematic.
 - The 'data' field is a flat table of MapNodes making up the schematic, in the order of [z [y [x]]].
Important: The default value for param1 in MapNodes here is 255, which represents "always place".

In the bulk MapNode data, param1, instead of the typical light values, instead represents the
probability of that node appearing in the structure.
When passed to minetest.create_schematic, probability is an integer value ranging from 0 to 255:
 - A probability value of 0 means that node will never appear (0% chance).
 - A probability value of 255 means the node will always appear (100% chance).
 - If the probability value p is greater than 0, then there is a (p / 256 * 100)% chance that node
   will appear when the schematic is placed on the map.

Important note: Node aliases cannot be used for a raw schematic provided when registering as a decoration.

Schematic attributes
---------------------
Currently supported flags: place_center_x, place_center_y, place_center_z
 - place_center_x
    Placement of this decoration is centered along the X axis.
 - place_center_y
    Placement of this decoration is centered along the Y axis.
 - place_center_z
    Placement of this decoration is centered along the Z axis.

HUD element types
-------------------
The position field is used for all element types.
To account for differing resolutions, the position coordinates are the percentage of the screen,
ranging in value from 0 to 1.
The name field is not yet used, but should contain a description of what the HUD element represents.
The direction field is the direction in which something is drawn.
0 draws from left to right, 1 draws from right to left, 2 draws from top to bottom, and 3 draws from bottom to top.
The alignment field specifies how the item will be aligned. It ranges from -1 to 1,
with 0 being the center, -1 is moved to the left/up, and 1 is to the right/down. Fractional
values can be used.
The offset field specifies a pixel offset from the position. Contrary to position,
the offset is not scaled to screen size. This allows for some precisely-positioned
items in the HUD.
Below are the specific uses for fields in each type; fields not listed for that type are ignored.

Note: Future revisions to the HUD API may be incompatible; the HUD API is still in the experimental stages.

- image
    Displays an image on the HUD.
    - scale: The scale of the image, with 1 being the original texture size.
             Only the X coordinate scale is used (positive values)
             Negative values represent that percentage of the screen it
             should take; e.g. x=-100 means 100% (width)
    - text: The name of the texture that is displayed.
    - alignment: The alignment of the image.
    - offset: offset in pixels from position.
- text
    Displays text on the HUD.
    - scale: Defines the bounding rectangle of the text.
             A value such as {x=100, y=100} should work.
    - text: The text to be displayed in the HUD element.
    - number: An integer containing the RGB value of the color used to draw the text.
              Specify 0xFFFFFF for white text, 0xFF0000 for red, and so on.
    - alignment: The alignment of the text.
    - offset: offset in pixels from position.
- statbar
    Displays a horizontal bar made up of half-images.
    - text: The name of the texture that is used.
    - number: The number of half-textures that are displayed.
              If odd, will end with a vertically center-split texture.
    - direction
    - offset: offset in pixels from position.
- inventory
    - text: The name of the inventory list to be displayed.
    - number: Number of items in the inventory to be displayed.
    - item: Position of item that is selected.
    - direction

Representations of simple things
--------------------------------
Position/vector:
  {x=num, y=num, z=num}
For helper functions see "Vector helpers".

pointed_thing:
  {type="nothing"}
  {type="node", under=pos, above=pos}
  {type="object", ref=ObjectRef}

Items
------
Node (register_node):
  A node from the world
Tool (register_tool):
  A tool/weapon that can dig and damage things according to tool_capabilities
Craftitem (register_craftitem):
  A miscellaneous item

Items and item stacks can exist in three formats:

Serialized; This is called stackstring or itemstring:
eg. 'default:dirt 5'
eg. 'default:pick_wood 21323'
eg. 'default:apple'

Table format:
eg. {name="default:dirt", count=5, wear=0, metadata=""}
    ^ 5 dirt nodes
eg. {name="default:pick_wood", count=1, wear=21323, metadata=""}
    ^ a wooden pick about 1/3 weared out
eg. {name="default:apple", count=1, wear=0, metadata=""}
    ^ an apple.

ItemStack:
C++ native format with many helper methods. Useful for converting between
formats. See the Class reference section for details.

When an item must be passed to a function, it can usually be in any of
these formats.

Groups
-------
In a number of places, there is a group table. Groups define the
properties of a thing (item, node, armor of entity, capabilities of
tool) in such a way that the engine and other mods can can interact with
the thing without actually knowing what the thing is.

Usage:
- Groups are stored in a table, having the group names with keys and the
  group ratings as values. For example:
    groups = {crumbly=3, soil=1}
    ^ Default dirt
    groups = {crumbly=2, soil=1, level=2, outerspace=1}
    ^ A more special dirt-kind of thing
- Groups always have a rating associated with them. If there is no
  useful meaning for a rating for an enabled group, it shall be 1.
- When not defined, the rating of a group defaults to 0. Thus when you
  read groups, you must interpret nil and 0 as the same value, 0.

You can read the rating of a group for an item or a node by using
  minetest.get_item_group(itemname, groupname)

Groups of items
----------------
Groups of items can define what kind of an item it is (eg. wool).

Groups of nodes
----------------
In addition to the general item things, groups are used to define whether
a node is destroyable and how long it takes to destroy by a tool.

Groups of entities
-------------------
For entities, groups are, as of now, used only for calculating damage.
The rating is the percentage of damage caused by tools with this damage group.
See "Entity damage mechanism".

object.get_armor_groups() -> a group-rating table (eg. {fleshy=100})
object.set_armor_groups({fleshy=30, cracky=80})

Groups of tools
----------------
Groups in tools define which groups of nodes and entities they are
effective towards.

Groups in crafting recipes
---------------------------
An example: Make meat soup from any meat, any water and any bowl
{
    output = 'food:meat_soup_raw',
    recipe = {
        {'group:meat'},
        {'group:water'},
        {'group:bowl'},
    },
    -- preserve = {'group:bowl'}, -- Not implemented yet (TODO)
}
An another example: Make red wool from white wool and red dye
{
    type = 'shapeless',
    output = 'wool:red',
    recipe = {'wool:white', 'group:dye,basecolor_red'},
}

Special groups
---------------
- immortal: Disables the group damage system for an entity
- level: Can be used to give an additional sense of progression in the game.
  - A larger level will cause eg. a weapon of a lower level make much less
    damage, and get weared out much faster, or not be able to get drops
    from destroyed nodes.
  - 0 is something that is directly accessible at the start of gameplay
  - There is no upper limit
- dig_immediate: (player can always pick up node without tool wear)
  - 2: node is removed without tool wear after 0.5 seconds or so
       (rail, sign)
  - 3: node is removed without tool wear immediately (torch)
- disable_jump: Player (and possibly other things) cannot jump from node
- fall_damage_add_percent: damage speed = speed * (1 + value/100)
- bouncy: value is bounce speed in percent
- falling_node: if there is no walkable block under the node it will fall
- attached_node: if the node under it is not a walkable block the node will be
                  dropped as an item. If the node is wallmounted the
                  wallmounted direction is checked.
- soil: saplings will grow on nodes in this group
- connect_to_raillike: makes nodes of raillike drawtype connect to
                       other group members with same drawtype

Known damage and digging time defining groups
----------------------------------------------
- crumbly: dirt, sand
- cracky: tough but crackable stuff like stone.
- snappy: something that can be cut using fine tools; eg. leaves, small
          plants, wire, sheets of metal
- choppy: something that can be cut using force; eg. trees, wooden planks
- fleshy: Living things like animals and the player. This could imply
          some blood effects when hitting.
- explody: Especially prone to explosions
- oddly_breakable_by_hand:
   Can be added to nodes that shouldn't logically be breakable by the
   hand but are. Somewhat similar to dig_immediate, but times are more
   like {[1]=3.50,[2]=2.00,[3]=0.70} and this does not override the
   speed of a tool if the tool can dig at a faster speed than this
   suggests for the hand.

Examples of custom groups
--------------------------
Item groups are often used for defining, well, //groups of items//.
- meat: any meat-kind of a thing (rating might define the size or healing
  ability or be irrelevant - it is not defined as of yet)
- eatable: anything that can be eaten. Rating might define HP gain in half
  hearts.
- flammable: can be set on fire. Rating might define the intensity of the
  fire, affecting eg. the speed of the spreading of an open fire.
- wool: any wool (any origin, any color)
- metal: any metal
- weapon: any weapon
- heavy: anything considerably heavy

Digging time calculation specifics
-----------------------------------
Groups such as **crumbly**, **cracky** and **snappy** are used for this
purpose. Rating is 1, 2 or 3. A higher rating for such a group implies
faster digging time.

The **level** group is used to limit the toughness of nodes a tool can dig
and to scale the digging times / damage to a greater extent.

^ PLEASE DO UNDERSTAND THIS, otherwise you cannot use the system to it's
  full potential.

Tools define their properties by a list of parameters for groups. They
cannot dig other groups; thus it is important to use a standard bunch of
groups to enable interaction with tools.

**Tools define:**
  * Full punch interval
  * Maximum drop level
  * For an arbitrary list of groups:
    * Uses (until the tool breaks)
    * Maximum level (usually 0, 1, 2 or 3)
    * Digging times
    * Damage groups

**Full punch interval**:
When used as a weapon, the tool will do full damage if this time is spent
between punches. If eg. half the time is spent, the tool will do half
damage.

**Maximum drop level**
Suggests the maximum level of node, when dug with the tool, that will drop
it's useful item. (eg. iron ore to drop a lump of iron).
- This is not automated; it is the responsibility of the node definition
  to implement this

**Uses**
Determines how many uses the tool has when it is used for digging a node,
of this group, of the maximum level. For lower leveled nodes, the use count
is multiplied by 3^leveldiff.
- uses=10, leveldiff=0 -> actual uses: 10
- uses=10, leveldiff=1 -> actual uses: 30
- uses=10, leveldiff=2 -> actual uses: 90

**Maximum level**
Tells what is the maximum level of a node of this group that the tool will
be able to dig.

**Digging times**
List of digging times for different ratings of the group, for nodes of the
maximum level.
  * For example, as a lua table, ''times={2=2.00, 3=0.70}''. This would
    result in the tool to be able to dig nodes that have a rating of 2 or 3
    for this group, and unable to dig the rating 1, which is the toughest.
    Unless there is a matching group that enables digging otherwise.

**Damage groups**
List of damage for groups of entities. See "Entity damage mechanism".

Example definition of the capabilities of a tool
-------------------------------------------------
tool_capabilities = {
    full_punch_interval=1.5,
    max_drop_level=1,
    groupcaps={
        crumbly={maxlevel=2, uses=20, times={[1]=1.60, [2]=1.20, [3]=0.80}}
    }
    damage_groups = {fleshy=2},
}

This makes the tool be able to dig nodes that fullfill both of these:
- Have the **crumbly** group
- Have a **level** group less or equal to 2

Table of resulting digging times:
crumbly 0 1 2 3 4 <- level
     -> 0 - - - - -
         1 0.80 1.60 1.60 - -
         2 0.60 1.20 1.20 - -
         3 0.40 0.80 0.80 - -

level diff: 2 1 0 -1 -2

Table of resulting tool uses:
     -> 0 - - - - -
         1 180 60 20 - -
         2 180 60 20 - -
         3 180 60 20 - -

Notes:
- At crumbly=0, the node is not diggable.
- At crumbly=3, the level difference digging time divider kicks in and makes
  easy nodes to be quickly breakable.
- At level > 2, the node is not diggable, because it's level > maxlevel

Entity damage mechanism
------------------------
Damage calculation:
damage = 0
foreach group in cap.damage_groups:
    damage += cap.damage_groups[group] * limit(actual_interval / cap.full_punch_interval, 0.0, 1.0)
        * (object.armor_groups[group] / 100.0)
        -- Where object.armor_groups[group] is 0 for inexisting values
return damage

Client predicts damage based on damage groups. Because of this, it is able to
give an immediate response when an entity is damaged or dies; the response is
pre-defined somehow (eg. by defining a sprite animation) (not implemented;
TODO).
- Currently a smoke puff will appear when an entity dies.

The group **immortal** completely disables normal damage.

Entities can define a special armor group, which is **punch_operable**. This
group disables the regular damage mechanism for players punching it by hand or
a non-tool item, so that it can do something else than take damage.

On the Lua side, every punch calls ''entity:on_punch(puncher,
time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction)''. This should never be
called directly, because damage is usually not handled by the entity itself.
  * ''puncher'' is the object performing the punch. Can be nil. Should never be
    accessed unless absolutely required, to encourage interoperability.
  * ''time_from_last_punch'' is time from last punch (by puncher) or nil.
  * ''tool_capabilities'' can be nil.
  * ''direction'' is a unit vector, pointing from the source of the punch to
    the punched object.

To punch an entity/object in Lua, call ''object:punch(puncher,
time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction)''.
  * Return value is tool wear.
  * Parameters are equal to the above callback.
  * If ''direction'' is nil and ''puncher'' is not nil, ''direction'' will be
    automatically filled in based on the location of ''puncher''.

Node Metadata
-------------
The instance of a node in the world normally only contains the three values
mentioned in "Nodes". However, it is possible to insert extra data into a
node. It is called "node metadata"; See "NodeMetaRef".

Metadata contains two things:
- A key-value store
- An inventory

Some of the values in the key-value store are handled specially:
- formspec: Defines a right-click inventory menu. See "Formspec".
- infotext: Text shown on the screen when the node is pointed at

Example stuff:

local meta = minetest.get_meta(pos)
meta:set_string("formspec",
        "invsize[8,9;]"..
        "list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]"..
        "list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]")
meta:set_string("infotext", "Chest");
local inv = meta:get_inventory()
inv:set_size("main", 8*4)
print(dump(meta:to_table()))
meta:from_table({
    inventory = {
        main = {[1] = "default:dirt", [2] = "", [3] = "", [4] = "", [5] = "", [6] = "", [7] = "", [8] = "", [9] = "", [10] = "", [11] = "", [12] = "", [13] = "", [14] = "default:cobble", [15] = "", [16] = "", [17] = "", [18] = "", [19] = "", [20] = "default:cobble", [21] = "", [22] = "", [23] = "", [24] = "", [25] = "", [26] = "", [27] = "", [28] = "", [29] = "", [30] = "", [31] = "", [32] = ""}
    },
    fields = {
        formspec = "invsize[8,9;]list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]",
        infotext = "Chest"
    }
})

Formspec
--------
Formspec defines a menu. Currently not much else than inventories are
supported. It is a string, with a somewhat strange format.

Spaces and newlines can be inserted between the blocks, as is used in the
examples.

Examples:
- Chest:
    invsize[8,9;]
    list[context;main;0,0;8,4;]
    list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]
- Furnace:
    invsize[8,9;]
    list[context;fuel;2,3;1,1;]
    list[context;src;2,1;1,1;]
    list[context;dst;5,1;2,2;]
    list[current_player;main;0,5;8,4;]
- Minecraft-like player inventory
    invsize[8,7.5;]
    image[1,0.6;1,2;player.png]
    list[current_player;main;0,3.5;8,4;]
    list[current_player;craft;3,0;3,3;]
    list[current_player;craftpreview;7,1;1,1;]

Elements:

size[<W>,<H>]
^ Define the size of the menu in inventory slots
^ deprecated: invsize[<W>,<H>;]

list[<inventory location>;<list name>;<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;]
list[<inventory location>;<list name>;<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<starting item index>]
^ Show an inventory list

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>]
^ Sets background color of slots in HEX-Color format
^ Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>;<slot_border>]
^ Sets background color of slots in HEX-Color format
^ Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering
^ Sets color of slots border

listcolors[<slot_bg_normal>;<slot_bg_hover>;<slot_border>;<tooltip_bgcolor>;<tooltip_fontcolor>]
^ Sets background color of slots in HEX-Color format
^ Sets background color of slots on mouse hovering
^ Sets color of slots border
^ Sets background color of tooltips
^ Sets font color of tooltips

image[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>]
^ Show an image
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

item_image[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<item name>]
^ Show an inventory image of registered item/node
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

bgcolor[<color>;<fullscreen>]
^ Sets background color of formspec in HEX-Color format
^ If true the background color is drawn fullscreen (does not effect the size of the formspec)

background[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>]
^ Use a background. Inventory rectangles are not drawn then.
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ Example for formspec 8x4 in 16x resolution: image shall be sized 8*16px x 4*16px

background[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<auto_clip>]
^ Use a background. Inventory rectangles are not drawn then.
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ Example for formspec 8x4 in 16x resolution: image shall be sized 8*16px x 4*16px
^ If true the background is clipped to formspec size (x and y are used as offset values, w and h are ignored)

pwdfield[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]
^ Textual password style field; will be sent to server when a button is clicked
^ x and y position the field relative to the top left of the menu
^ w and h are the size of the field
^ fields are a set height, but will be vertically centred on h
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ name is the name of the field as returned in fields to on_receive_fields
^ label, if not blank, will be text printed on the top left above the field

field[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>;<default>]
^ Textual field; will be sent to server when a button is clicked
^ x and y position the field relative to the top left of the menu
^ w and h are the size of the field
^ fields are a set height, but will be vertically centred on h
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ name is the name of the field as returned in fields to on_receive_fields
^ label, if not blank, will be text printed on the top left above the field
^ default is the default value of the field
  ^ default may contain variable references such as '${text}' which
    will fill the value from the metadata value 'text'
    ^ Note: no extra text or more than a single variable is supported ATM.

field[<name>;<label>;<default>]
^ as above but without position/size units
^ special field for creating simple forms, such as sign text input
^ must be used without a size[] element
^ a 'Proceed' button will be added automatically

textarea[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>;<default>]
^ same as fields above, but with multi-line input

label[<X>,<Y>;<label>]
^ x and y work as per field
^ label is the text on the label
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

vertlabel[<X>,<Y>;<label>]
^ Textual label drawn verticaly
^ x and y work as per field
^ label is the text on the label
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]
^ Clickable button. When clicked, fields will be sent.
^ x, y and name work as per field
^ w and h are the size of the button
^ label is the text on the button
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>]
^ x, y, w, h, and name work as per button
^ texture name is the filename of an image
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>;<noclip>;<drawborder>]
^ x, y, w, h, and name work as per button
^ texture name is the filename of an image
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ noclip true meand imagebutton doesn't need to be within specified formsize
^ drawborder draw button bodrer or not

image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>;<noclip>;<drawborder>;<pressed texture name>]
^ x, y, w, h, and name work as per button
^ texture name is the filename of an image
^ Position and size units are inventory slots
^ noclip true meand imagebutton doesn't need to be within specified formsize
^ drawborder draw button bodrer or not
^ pressed texture name is the filename of an image on pressed state

item_image_button[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<item name>;<name>;<label>]
^ x, y, w, h, name and label work as per button
^ item name is the registered name of an item/node,
  tooltip will be made out of its descritption
^ Position and size units are inventory slots

button_exit[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<label>]
^ When clicked, fields will be sent and the form will quit.

image_button_exit[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<texture name>;<name>;<label>]
^ When clicked, fields will be sent and the form will quit.

textlist[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<listelem 1>,<listelem 2>,...,<listelem n>]
^Scrollabel itemlist showing arbitrary text elements
^ x and y position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
^ w and h are the size of the itemlist
^ name fieldname sent to server on doubleclick value is current selected element
^ listelements can be prepended by #color in hexadecimal format RRGGBB (only),
^ if you want a listelement to start with # write ##

textlist[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<name>;<listelem 1>,<listelem 2>,...,<listelem n>;<selected idx>;<transparent>]
^Scrollabel itemlist showing arbitrary text elements
^ x and y position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
^ w and h are the size of the itemlist
^ name fieldname sent to server on doubleclick value is current selected element
^ listelements can be prepended by #RRGGBB (only) in hexadecimal format
^ if you want a listelement to start with # write ##
^ index to be selected within textlist
^ true/false draw transparent background

tabheader[<X>,<Y>;<name>;<caption 1>,<caption 2>,...,<caption n>;<current_tab>;<transparent>;<draw_border>]
^ show a tabHEADER at specific position (ignores formsize)
^ x and y position the itemlist relative to the top left of the menu
^ name fieldname data is transfered to lua
^ caption 1... name shown on top of tab
^ current_tab index of selected tab 1...
^ transparent (optional) show transparent
^ draw_border (optional) draw border

box[<X>,<Y>;<W>,<H>;<color>]
^ simple colored semitransparent box
^ x and y position the box relative to the top left of the menu
^ w and h are the size of box
^ color in HEX-Color format

dropdown[<X>,<Y>;<W>;<name>;<item 1>,<item 2>, ...,<item n>;<selected idx>]
^ show a dropdown field
^ x and y position of dropdown
^ width of dropdown
^ fieldname data is transfered to lua
^ items to be shown in dropdown
^ index of currently selected dropdown item
^ color in hexadecimal format RRGGBB (only)

checkbox[<X>,<Y>;<name>;<label>;<selected>]
^ show a checkbox
^ x and y position of checkbox
^ name fieldname data is transfered to lua
^ label to be shown left of checkbox
^ selected (optional) true/false

Note: do NOT use a element name starting with "key_" those names are reserved to
pass key press events to formspec!

Inventory location:

- "context": Selected node metadata (deprecated: "current_name")
- "current_player": Player to whom the menu is shown
- "player:<name>": Any player
- "nodemeta:<X>,<Y>,<Z>": Any node metadata
- "detached:<name>": A detached inventory

HEX-Color
---------
#RGB
^ defines a color in hexadecimal format
#RGBA
^ defines a color in hexadecimal format and alpha channel
#RRGGBB
^ defines a color in hexadecimal format
#RRGGBBAA
^ defines a color in hexadecimal format and alpha channel

Vector helpers
---------------
vector.new([x[, y, z]]) -> vector
 ^ x is a table or the x position.
vector.direction(p1, p2) -> vector
vector.distance(p1, p2) -> number
vector.length(v) -> number
vector.normalize(v) -> vector
vector.round(v) -> vector
vector.equals(v1, v2) -> bool
For the folowing x can be either a vector or a number.
vector.add(v, x) -> vector
vector.subtract(v, x) -> vector
vector.multiply(v, x) -> vector
vector.divide(v, x) -> vector

Helper functions
-----------------
dump2(obj, name="_", dumped={})
^ Return object serialized as a string, handles reference loops
dump(obj, dumped={})
^ Return object serialized as a string
math.hypot(x, y)
^ Get the hypotenuse of a triangle with legs x and y.
  Usefull for distance calculation.
string:split(separator)
^ eg. string:split("a,b", ",") == {"a","b"}
string:trim()
^ eg. string.trim("\n \t\tfoo bar\t ") == "foo bar"
minetest.pos_to_string({x=X,y=Y,z=Z}) -> "(X,Y,Z)"
^ Convert position to a printable string
minetest.string_to_pos(string) -> position
^ Same but in reverse
minetest.formspec_escape(string) -> string
^ escapes characters [ ] \ , ; that can not be used in formspecs
minetest.is_yes(arg)
^ returns whether arg can be interpreted as yes

minetest namespace reference
-----------------------------
Utilities:
minetest.get_current_modname() -> string
minetest.get_modpath(modname) -> eg. "/home/user/.minetest/usermods/modname"
^ Useful for loading additional .lua modules or static data from mod
minetest.get_modnames() -> list of installed mods
^ Return a list of installed mods, sorted alphabetically
minetest.get_worldpath() -> eg. "/home/user/.minetest/world"
^ Useful for storing custom data
minetest.is_singleplayer()
minetest.features
^ table containing API feature flags: {foo=true, bar=true}
minetest.has_feature(arg) -> bool, missing_features
^ arg: string or table in format {foo=true, bar=true}
^ missing_features: {foo=true, bar=true}

Logging:
minetest.debug(line)
^ Always printed to stderr and logfile (print() is redirected here)
minetest.log(line)
minetest.log(loglevel, line)
^ loglevel one of "error", "action", "info", "verbose"

Registration functions: (Call these only at load time)
minetest.register_entity(name, prototype table)
minetest.register_abm(abm definition)
minetest.register_node(name, node definition)
minetest.register_tool(name, item definition)
minetest.register_craftitem(name, item definition)
minetest.register_alias(name, convert_to)
minetest.register_craft(recipe)
minetest.register_ore(ore definition)
minetest.register_decoration(decoration definition)

Global callback registration functions: (Call these only at load time)
minetest.register_globalstep(func(dtime))
^ Called every server step, usually interval of 0.1s
minetest.register_on_shutdown(func())
^ Called before server shutdown
^ WARNING: If the server terminates abnormally (i.e. crashes), the registered
           callbacks WILL LIKELY NOT BE RUN. Data should be saved at
           semi-frequent intervals as well as on server shutdown.
minetest.register_on_placenode(func(pos, newnode, placer, oldnode, itemstack))
^ Called when a node has been placed
^ If return true no item is taken from itemstack
^ Not recommended; use on_construct or after_place_node in node definition
^ whenever possible
minetest.register_on_dignode(func(pos, oldnode, digger))
^ Called when a node has been dug.
^ Not recommended: Use on_destruct or after_dig_node in node definition
^ whenever possible
minetest.register_on_punchnode(func(pos, node, puncher))
^ Called when a node is punched
minetest.register_on_generated(func(minp, maxp, blockseed))
^ Called after generating a piece of world. Modifying nodes inside the area
  is a bit faster than usually.
minetest.register_on_newplayer(func(ObjectRef))
^ Called after a new player has been created
minetest.register_on_dieplayer(func(ObjectRef))
^ Called when a player dies
minetest.register_on_respawnplayer(func(ObjectRef))
^ Called when player is to be respawned
^ Called _before_ repositioning of player occurs
^ return true in func to disable regular player placement
minetest.register_on_prejoinplayer(func(name, ip))
^ Called before a player joins the game
^ If it returns a string, the player is disconnected with that string as reason
minetest.register_on_joinplayer(func(ObjectRef))
^ Called when a player joins the game
minetest.register_on_leaveplayer(func(ObjectRef))
^ Called when a player leaves the game
minetest.register_on_cheat(func(ObjectRef, cheat))
^ Called when a player cheats
^ cheat: {type="moved_too_fast"/"interacted_too_far"/"finished_unknown_dig"/"dug_unbreakable"/"dug_too_fast"}
minetest.register_on_chat_message(func(name, message))
^ Called always when a player says something
minetest.register_on_player_receive_fields(func(player, formname, fields))
^ Called when a button is pressed in player's inventory form
^ Newest functions are called first
^ If function returns true, remaining functions are not called
minetest.register_on_mapgen_init(func(MapgenParams))
^ Called just before the map generator is initialized but before the environment is initialized
^ MapgenParams consists of a table with the fields mgname, seed, water_level, and flags
minetest.register_on_craft(func(itemstack, player, old_craft_grid, craft_inv))
^ Called when player crafts something
^ itemstack is the output
^ old_craft_grid contains the recipe (Note: the one in the inventory is cleared)
^ craft_inv is the inventory with the crafting grid
^ Return either an ItemStack, to replace the output, or nil, to not modify it
minetest.register_craft_predict(func(itemstack, player, old_craft_grid, craft_inv))
^ The same as before, except that it is called before the player crafts, to make
^ craft prediction, and it should not change anything.
minetest.register_on_protection_violation(func(pos, name))
^ Called by builtin and mods when a player violates protection at a position
  (eg, digs a node or punches a protected entity).
^ The registered functions can be called using minetest.record_protection_violation
^ The provided function should check that the position is protected by the mod
  calling this function before it prints a message, if it does, to allow for
  multiple protection mods.

Other registration functions:
minetest.register_chatcommand(cmd, chatcommand definition)
minetest.register_privilege(name, definition)
^ definition: "description text"
^ definition: {
      description = "description text",
      give_to_singleplayer = boolean, -- default: true
  }
minetest.register_authentication_handler(handler)
^ See minetest.builtin_auth_handler in builtin.lua for reference

Setting-related:
minetest.setting_set(name, value)
minetest.setting_get(name) -> string or nil
minetest.setting_setbool(name, value)
minetest.setting_getbool(name) -> boolean value or nil
minetest.setting_get_pos(name) -> position or nil
minetest.setting_save() -> nil, save all settings to config file

Authentication:
minetest.notify_authentication_modified(name)
^ Should be called by the authentication handler if privileges change.
^ To report everybody, set name=nil.
minetest.get_password_hash(name, raw_password)
^ Convert a name-password pair to a password hash that minetest can use
minetest.string_to_privs(str) -> {priv1=true,...}
minetest.privs_to_string(privs) -> "priv1,priv2,..."
^ Convert between two privilege representations
minetest.set_player_password(name, password_hash)
minetest.set_player_privs(name, {priv1=true,...})
minetest.get_player_privs(name) -> {priv1=true,...}
minetest.auth_reload()
^ These call the authentication handler
minetest.check_player_privs(name, {priv1=true,...}) -> bool, missing_privs
^ A quickhand for checking privileges
minetest.get_player_ip(name) -> IP address string

Chat:
minetest.chat_send_all(text)
minetest.chat_send_player(name, text, prepend)
^ prepend: optional, if it is set to false "Server -!- " will not be prepended to the message

Environment access:

minetest.set_node(pos, node)
minetest.add_node(pos, node): alias set_node(pos, node)
^ Set node at position (node = {name="foo", param1=0, param2=0})
minetest.swap_node(pos, node)
^ Set node at position, but don't remove metadata
minetest.remove_node(pos)
^ Equivalent to set_node(pos, "air")
minetest.get_node(pos)
^ Returns {name="ignore", ...} for unloaded area
minetest.get_node_or_nil(pos)
^ Returns nil for unloaded area
minetest.get_node_light(pos, timeofday) -> 0...15 or nil
^ timeofday: nil = current time, 0 = night, 0.5 = day

minetest.place_node(pos, node)
^ Place node with the same effects that a player would cause
minetest.dig_node(pos)
^ Dig node with the same effects that a player would cause
minetest.punch_node(pos)
^ Punch node with the same effects that a player would cause
  
minetest.get_meta(pos) -- Get a NodeMetaRef at that position
minetest.get_node_timer(pos) -- Get NodeTimerRef

minetest.add_entity(pos, name): Spawn Lua-defined entity at position
^ Returns ObjectRef, or nil if failed
minetest.add_item(pos, item): Spawn item
^ Returns ObjectRef, or nil if failed
minetest.get_player_by_name(name) -- Get an ObjectRef to a player
minetest.get_objects_inside_radius(pos, radius)
minetest.set_timeofday(val): val: 0...1; 0 = midnight, 0.5 = midday
minetest.get_timeofday()
minetest.get_gametime(): returns the time, in seconds, since the world was created
minetest.find_node_near(pos, radius, nodenames) -> pos or nil
^ nodenames: eg. {"ignore", "group:tree"} or "default:dirt"
minetest.find_nodes_in_area(minp, maxp, nodenames) -> list of positions
^ nodenames: eg. {"ignore", "group:tree"} or "default:dirt"
minetest.get_perlin(seeddiff, octaves, persistence, scale)
^ Return world-specific perlin noise (int(worldseed)+seeddiff)
minetest.get_voxel_manip()
^ Return voxel manipulator object
minetest.set_gen_notify(flags)
^ Set the types of on-generate notifications that should be collected
^ flags is a comma-delimited combination of:
^ dungeon, temple, cave_begin, cave_end, large_cave_begin, large_cave_end
minetest.get_mapgen_object(objectname)
^ Return requested mapgen object if available (see Mapgen objects)
minetest.set_mapgen_params(MapgenParams)
^ Set map generation parameters
^ Function cannot be called after the registration period; only initialization and on_mapgen_init
^ Takes a table as an argument with the fields mgname, seed, water_level, flags, and flagmask.
^ Leave field unset to leave that parameter unchanged
^ flagmask field must be set to all mapgen flags that are being modified
^ flags contains only the flags that are being set
^ flags and flagmask are in the same format and have the same options as 'mgflags' in minetest.conf
minetest.clear_objects()
^ clear all objects in the environments
minetest.line_of_sight(pos1, pos2, stepsize) -> true/false, pos
^ Check if there is a direct line of sight between pos1 and pos2
^ Returns the position of the blocking node when false
^ pos1 First position
^ pos2 Second position
^ stepsize smaller gives more accurate results but requires more computing
             time. Default is 1.
minetest.find_path(pos1,pos2,searchdistance,max_jump,max_drop,algorithm)
^ -> table containing path
^ returns a table of 3d points representing a path from pos1 to pos2 or nil
^ pos1: start position
^ pos2: end position
^ searchdistance: number of blocks to search in each direction
^ max_jump: maximum height difference to consider walkable
^ max_drop: maximum height difference to consider droppable
^ algorithm: A*_noprefetch(default), A*, Dijkstra
minetest.spawn_tree (pos, {treedef})
^ spawns L-System tree at given pos with definition in treedef table
minetest.transforming_liquid_add(pos)
^ add node to liquid update queue
minetest.get_node_max_level(pos)
^ get max available level for leveled node
minetest.get_node_level(pos)
^ get level of leveled node (water, snow)
minetest.set_node_level(pos, level)
^ set level of leveled node, default level = 1, if totallevel > maxlevel returns rest (total-max).
minetest.add_node_level(pos, level)
^ increase level of leveled node by level, default level = 1, if totallevel > maxlevel returns rest (total-max). can be negative for decreasing
minetest.get_heat(pos)
^ heat at pos
minetest.get_humidity(pos)
^ humidity at pos

Inventory:
minetest.get_inventory(location) -> InvRef
^ location = eg. {type="player", name="celeron55"}
                 {type="node", pos={x=, y=, z=}}
                 {type="detached", name="creative"}
minetest.create_detached_inventory(name, callbacks) -> InvRef
^ callbacks: See "Detached inventory callbacks"
^ Creates a detached inventory. If it already exists, it is cleared.
minetest.show_formspec(playername, formname, formspec)
^ playername: name of player to show formspec
^ formname: name passed to on_player_receive_fields callbacks
^ should follow "modname:<whatever>" naming convention
^ formspec: formspec to display

Item handling:
minetest.inventorycube(img1, img2, img3)
^ Returns a string for making an image of a cube (useful as an item image)
minetest.get_pointed_thing_position(pointed_thing, above)
^ Get position of a pointed_thing (that you can get from somewhere)
minetest.dir_to_facedir(dir, is6d)
^ Convert a vector to a facedir value, used in param2 for paramtype2="facedir"; passing something non-nil/false for the optional second parameter causes it to take the y component into account
minetest.facedir_to_dir(facedir)
^ Convert a facedir back into a vector aimed directly out the "back" of a node
minetest.dir_to_wallmounted(dir)
^ Convert a vector to a wallmounted value, used for paramtype2="wallmounted"
minetest.get_node_drops(nodename, toolname)
^ Returns list of item names.
^ Note: This will be removed or modified in a future version.
minetest.get_craft_result(input) -> output, decremented_input
^ input.method = 'normal' or 'cooking' or 'fuel'
^ input.width = for example 3
^ input.items = for example { stack 1, stack 2, stack 3, stack 4,
                              stack 5, stack 6, stack 7, stack 8, stack 9 }
^ output.item = ItemStack, if unsuccessful: empty ItemStack
^ output.time = number, if unsuccessful: 0
^ decremented_input = like input
minetest.get_craft_recipe(output) -> input
^ returns last registered recipe for output item (node)
^ output is a node or item type such as 'default:torch'
^ input.method = 'normal' or 'cooking' or 'fuel'
^ input.width = for example 3
^ input.items = for example { stack 1, stack 2, stack 3, stack 4,
                              stack 5, stack 6, stack 7, stack 8, stack 9 }
^ input.items = nil if no recipe found
minetest.get_all_craft_recipes(query item) -> table or nil
^ returns indexed table with all registered recipes for query item (node)
  or nil if no recipe was found
  recipe entry table:
  {
   method = 'normal' or 'cooking' or 'fuel'
   width = 0-3, 0 means shapeless recipe
   items = indexed [1-9] table with recipe items
   output = string with item name and quantity
  }
  Example query for default:gold_ingot will return table:
  {
   1={type = "cooking", width = 3, output = "default:gold_ingot",
    items = {1 = "default:gold_lump"}},
   2={type = "normal", width = 1, output = "default:gold_ingot 9",
    items = {1 = "default:goldblock"}}
  }
minetest.handle_node_drops(pos, drops, digger)
^ drops: list of itemstrings
^ Handles drops from nodes after digging: Default action is to put them into
  digger's inventory
^ Can be overridden to get different functionality (eg. dropping items on
  ground)

Rollback:
minetest.rollback_get_node_actions(pos, range, seconds, limit) -> {{actor, pos, time, oldnode, newnode}, ...}
^ Find who has done something to a node, or near a node
^ actor: "player:<name>", also "liquid".
minetest.rollback_revert_actions_by(actor, seconds) -> bool, log messages
^ Revert latest actions of someone
^ actor: "player:<name>", also "liquid".

Defaults for the on_* item definition functions:
(These return the leftover itemstack)
minetest.item_place_node(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, param2)
^ Place item as a node
^ param2 overrides facedir and wallmounted param2
^ returns itemstack, success
minetest.item_place_object(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing)
^ Place item as-is
minetest.item_place(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, param2)
^ Use one of the above based on what the item is.
^ Calls on_rightclick of pointed_thing.under if defined instead
^ Note: is not called when wielded item overrides on_place
^ param2 overrides facedir and wallmounted param2
^ returns itemstack, success
minetest.item_drop(itemstack, dropper, pos)
^ Drop the item
minetest.item_eat(hp_change, replace_with_item)
^ Eat the item. replace_with_item can be nil.

Defaults for the on_punch and on_dig node definition callbacks:
minetest.node_punch(pos, node, puncher)
^ Calls functions registered by minetest.register_on_punchnode()
minetest.node_dig(pos, node, digger)
^ Checks if node can be dug, puts item into inventory, removes node
^ Calls functions registered by minetest.registered_on_dignodes()

Sounds:
minetest.sound_play(spec, parameters) -> handle
^ spec = SimpleSoundSpec
^ parameters = sound parameter table
minetest.sound_stop(handle)

Timing:
minetest.after(time, func, ...)
^ Call function after time seconds
^ Optional: Variable number of arguments that are passed to func

Server:
minetest.request_shutdown() -> request for server shutdown
minetest.get_server_status() -> server status string

Bans:
minetest.get_ban_list() -> ban list (same as minetest.get_ban_description(""))
minetest.get_ban_description(ip_or_name) -> ban description (string)
minetest.ban_player(name) -> ban a player
minetest.unban_player_or_ip(name) -> unban player or IP address

Particles:
minetest.add_particle(pos, velocity, acceleration, expirationtime,
    size, collisiondetection, texture, playername)
^ Spawn particle at pos with velocity and acceleration
^ Disappears after expirationtime seconds
^ collisiondetection: if true collides with physical objects
^ Uses texture (string)
^ Playername is optional, if specified spawns particle only on the player's client

minetest.add_particlespawner(amount, time,
    minpos, maxpos,
    minvel, maxvel,
    minacc, maxacc,
    minexptime, maxexptime,
    minsize, maxsize,
    collisiondetection, texture, playername)
^ Add a particlespawner, an object that spawns an amount of particles over time seconds
^ The particle's properties are random values in between the boundings:
^ minpos/maxpos, minvel/maxvel (velocity), minacc/maxacc (acceleration),
^ minsize/maxsize, minexptime/maxexptime (expirationtime)
^ collisiondetection: if true uses collisiondetection
^ Uses texture (string)
^ Playername is optional, if specified spawns particle only on the player's client
^ If time is 0 has infinite lifespan and spawns the amount on a per-second base
^ Returns and id

minetest.delete_particlespawner(id, player)
^ Delete ParticleSpawner with id (return value from add_particlespawner)
^ If playername is specified, only deletes on the player's client,
^ otherwise on all clients

Schematics:
minetest.create_schematic(p1, p2, probability_list, filename, slice_prob_list)
^ Create a schematic from the volume of map specified by the box formed by p1 and p2.
^ Apply the specified probability values to the specified nodes in probability_list.
   ^ probability_list is an array of tables containing two fields, pos and prob.
   ^ pos is the 3d vector specifying the absolute coordinates of the node being modified,
   ^ and prob is the integer value from 0 to 255 of the probability (see: Schematic specifier).
   ^ If there are two or more entries with the same pos value, the last occuring in the array is used.
   ^ If pos is not inside the box formed by p1 and p2, it is ignored.
   ^ If probability_list is nil, no probabilities are applied.
   ^ Slice probability works in the same manner, except takes a field called ypos instead which indicates
   ^ the y position of the slice with a probability applied.
   ^ If slice probability list is nil, no slice probabilities are applied.
^ Saves schematic in the Minetest Schematic format to filename.

minetest.place_schematic(pos, schematic, rotation, replacements)
^ Place the schematic specified by schematic (see: Schematic specifier) at pos.
^ Rotation can be "0", "90", "180", "270", or "random".
^ If the rotation parameter is omitted, the schematic is not rotated.
^ replacements = {{"oldname", "convert_to"}, ...}

Random:
minetest.get_connected_players() -> list of ObjectRefs
minetest.hash_node_position({x=,y=,z=}) -> 48-bit integer
^ Gives a unique hash number for a node position (16+16+16=48bit)
minetest.get_item_group(name, group) -> rating
^ Get rating of a group of an item. (0 = not in group)
minetest.get_node_group(name, group) -> rating
^ Deprecated: An alias for the former.
minetest.get_content_id(name) -> integer
^ Gets the internal content ID of name
minetest.get_name_from_content_id(content_id) -> string
^ Gets the name of the content with that content ID
minetest.parse_json(string[, nullvalue]) -> something
^ Convert a string containing JSON data into the Lua equivalent
^ nullvalue: returned in place of the JSON null; defaults to nil
^ On success returns a table, a string, a number, a boolean or nullvalue
^ On failure outputs an error message and returns nil
^ Example: parse_json("[10, {\"a\":false}]") -> {10, {a = false}}
minetest.write_json(data[, styled]) -> string or nil and error message
^ Convert a Lua table into a JSON string
^ styled: Outputs in a human-readable format if this is set, defaults to false
^ Un-serializable things like functions and userdata are saved as null.
^ Warning: JSON is more strict than the Lua table format.
    1. You can only use strings and positive integers of at least one as keys.
    2. You can not mix string and integer keys.
    This is due to the fact that Javascript has two distinct array and object values.
^ Example: write_json({10, {a = false}}) -> "[10, {\"a\": false}]"
minetest.serialize(table) -> string
^ Convert a table containing tables, strings, numbers, booleans and nils
  into string form readable by minetest.deserialize
^ Example: serialize({foo='bar'}) -> 'return { ["foo"] = "bar" }'
minetest.deserialize(string) -> table
^ Convert a string returned by minetest.deserialize into a table
^ String is loaded in an empty sandbox environment.
^ Will load functions, but they cannot access the global environment.
^ Example: deserialize('return { ["foo"] = "bar" }') -> {foo='bar'}
^ Example: deserialize('print("foo")') -> nil (function call fails)
  ^ error:[string "print("foo")"]:1: attempt to call global 'print' (a nil value)
minetest.is_protected(pos, name) -> bool
^ This function should be overriden by protection mods and should be used to
  check if a player can interact at a position.
^ This function should call the old version of itself if the position is not
  protected by the mod.
^ Example:
local old_is_protected = minetest.is_protected
function minetest.is_protected(pos, name)
if mymod:position_protected_from(pos, name) then
return true
end
return old_is_protected(pos, name)
end
minetest.record_protection_violation(pos, name)
^ This function calls functions registered with
  minetest.register_on_protection_violation.
minetest.rotate_and_place(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing, infinitestacks, orient_flags)
^ Attempt to predict the desired orientation of the facedir-capable node
  defined by itemstack, and place it accordingly (on-wall, on the floor, or
  hanging from the ceiling). Stacks are handled normally if the infinitestacks
  field is false or omitted (else, the itemstack is not changed). orient_flags
  is an optional table containing extra tweaks to the placement code:
  invert_wall: if true, place wall-orientation on the ground and ground-
orientation on the wall.
  force_wall: if true, always place the node in wall orientation.
  force_ceiling: if true, always place on the ceiling.
  force_floor: if true, always place the node on the floor.

  The above four options are mutually-exclusive; the last in the list takes
  precedence over the first.

  force_facedir: if true, forcably reset the facedir to north when placing on
the floor or ceiling

minetest.rotate_node(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing)
^ calls rotate_and_place() with infinitestacks set according to the state of
  the creative mode setting, and checks for "sneak" to set the invert_wall
  parameter.

Global objects:
minetest.env - EnvRef of the server environment and world.
^ Any function in the minetest namespace can be called using the syntax
    minetest.env:somefunction(somearguments)
  instead of
    minetest.somefunction(somearguments)
^ Deprecated, but support is not to be dropped soon

Global tables:
minetest.registered_items
^ List of registered items, indexed by name
minetest.registered_nodes
^ List of registered node definitions, indexed by name
minetest.registered_craftitems
^ List of registered craft item definitions, indexed by name
minetest.registered_tools
^ List of registered tool definitions, indexed by name
minetest.registered_entities
^ List of registered entity prototypes, indexed by name
minetest.object_refs
^ List of object references, indexed by active object id
minetest.luaentities
^ List of lua entities, indexed by active object id

Class reference
----------------
NodeMetaRef: Node metadata - reference extra data and functionality stored
             in a node
- Can be gotten via minetest.get_nodemeta(pos)
methods:
- set_string(name, value)
- get_string(name)
- set_int(name, value)
- get_int(name)
- set_float(name, value)
- get_float(name)
- get_inventory() -> InvRef
- to_table() -> nil or {fields = {...}, inventory = {list1 = {}, ...}}
- from_table(nil or {})
  ^ See "Node Metadata"
  
NodeTimerRef: Node Timers - a high resolution persistent per-node timer
- Can be gotten via minetest.get_node_timer(pos)
methods:
- set(timeout,elapsed)
  ^ set a timer's state
  ^ timeout is in seconds, and supports fractional values (0.1 etc)
  ^ elapsed is in seconds, and supports fractional values (0.1 etc)
  ^ will trigger the node's on_timer function after timeout-elapsed seconds
- start(timeout)
  ^ start a timer
  ^ equivelent to set(timeout,0)
- stop()
  ^ stops the timer
- get_timeout() -> current timeout in seconds
  ^ if timeout is 0, timer is inactive
- get_elapsed() -> current elapsed time in seconds
  ^ the node's on_timer function will be called after timeout-elapsed seconds
- is_started() -> boolean state of timer
  ^ returns true if timer is started, otherwise false

ObjectRef: Moving things in the game are generally these
(basically reference to a C++ ServerActiveObject)
methods:
- remove(): remove object (after returning from Lua)
- getpos() -> {x=num, y=num, z=num}
- setpos(pos); pos={x=num, y=num, z=num}
- moveto(pos, continuous=false): interpolated move
- punch(puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, direction)
  ^ puncher = an another ObjectRef,
  ^ time_from_last_punch = time since last punch action of the puncher
  ^ direction: can be nil
- right_click(clicker); clicker = an another ObjectRef
- get_hp(): returns number of hitpoints (2 * number of hearts)
- set_hp(hp): set number of hitpoints (2 * number of hearts)
- get_inventory() -> InvRef
- get_wield_list(): returns the name of the inventory list the wielded item is in
- get_wield_index(): returns the index of the wielded item
- get_wielded_item() -> ItemStack
- set_wielded_item(item): replaces the wielded item, returns true if successful
- set_armor_groups({group1=rating, group2=rating, ...})
- set_animation({x=1,y=1}, frame_speed=15, frame_blend=0)
- set_attach(parent, bone, position, rotation)
  ^ bone = string
  ^ position = {x=num, y=num, z=num} (relative)
  ^ rotation = {x=num, y=num, z=num}
- set_detach()
- set_bone_position(bone, position, rotation)
  ^ bone = string
  ^ position = {x=num, y=num, z=num} (relative)
  ^ rotation = {x=num, y=num, z=num}
- set_properties(object property table)
LuaEntitySAO-only: (no-op for other objects)
- setvelocity({x=num, y=num, z=num})
- getvelocity() -> {x=num, y=num, z=num}
- setacceleration({x=num, y=num, z=num})
- getacceleration() -> {x=num, y=num, z=num}
- setyaw(radians)
- getyaw() -> radians
- settexturemod(mod)
- setsprite(p={x=0,y=0}, num_frames=1, framelength=0.2,
- select_horiz_by_yawpitch=false)
  ^ Select sprite from spritesheet with optional animation and DM-style
    texture selection based on yaw relative to camera
- get_entity_name() (DEPRECATED: Will be removed in a future version)
- get_luaentity()
Player-only: (no-op for other objects)
- is_player(): true for players, false for others
- get_player_name(): returns "" if is not a player
- get_look_dir(): get camera direction as a unit vector
- get_look_pitch(): pitch in radians
- get_look_yaw(): yaw in radians (wraps around pretty randomly as of now)
- set_look_pitch(radians): sets look pitch
- set_look_yaw(radians): sets look yaw
- get_breath() : returns players breath
- set_breath(value) : sets players breath
    values: 0 player is drowning,
            1-10 number of bubbles remain,
            11 bubbles bar is not shown
- set_inventory_formspec(formspec)
  ^ Redefine player's inventory form
  ^ Should usually be called in on_joinplayer
- get_inventory_formspec() -> formspec string
- get_player_control(): returns table with player pressed keys
    {jump=bool,right=bool,left=bool,LMB=bool,RMB=bool,sneak=bool,aux1=bool,down=bool,up=bool}
- get_player_control_bits(): returns integer with bit packed player pressed keys
    bit nr/meaning: 0/up ,1/down ,2/left ,3/right ,4/jump ,5/aux1 ,6/sneak ,7/LMB ,8/RMB
- set_physics_override({
    speed = 1.0, -- multiplier to default value
    jump = 1.0, -- multiplier to default value
    gravity = 1.0, -- multiplier to default value
    sneak = true, -- whether player can sneak
    sneak_glitch = true, -- whether player can use the sneak glitch
  })
- hud_add(hud definition): add a HUD element described by HUD def, returns ID number on success
- hud_remove(id): remove the HUD element of the specified id
- hud_change(id, stat, value): change a value of a previously added HUD element
  ^ element stat values: position, name, scale, text, number, item, dir
- hud_get(id): gets the HUD element definition structure of the specified ID
- hud_set_flags(flags): sets specified HUD flags to true/false
  ^ flags: (is visible) hotbar, healthbar, crosshair, wielditem
  ^ pass a table containing a true/false value of each flag to be set or unset
  ^ if a flag is nil, the flag is not modified
- hud_set_hotbar_itemcount(count): sets number of items in builtin hotbar
  ^ count: number of items, must be between 1 and 23
- hud_set_hotbar_image(texturename)
  ^ sets background image for hotbar
- hud_set_hotbar_selected_image(texturename)
  ^ sets image for selected item of hotbar

InvRef: Reference to an inventory
methods:
- is_empty(listname): return true if list is empty
- get_size(listname): get size of a list
- set_size(listname, size): set size of a list
  ^ returns false on error (e.g. invalid listname or listsize)
- get_width(listname): get width of a list
- set_width(listname, width): set width of list; currently used for crafting
- get_stack(listname, i): get a copy of stack index i in list
- set_stack(listname, i, stack): copy stack to index i in list
- get_list(listname): return full list
- set_list(listname, list): set full list (size will not change)
- add_item(listname, stack): add item somewhere in list, returns leftover ItemStack
- room_for_item(listname, stack): returns true if the stack of items
    can be fully added to the list
- contains_item(listname, stack): returns true if the stack of items
    can be fully taken from the list
  remove_item(listname, stack): take as many items as specified from the list,
    returns the items that were actually removed (as an ItemStack)
- get_location() -> location compatible to minetest.get_inventory(location)
                 -> {type="undefined"} in case location is not known

ItemStack: A stack of items.
- Can be created via ItemStack(itemstack or itemstring or table or nil)
methods:
- is_empty(): return true if stack is empty
- get_name(): returns item name (e.g. "default:stone")
- set_name(itemname)
- get_count(): returns number of items on the stack
- set_count(count)
- get_wear(): returns tool wear (0-65535), 0 for non-tools
- set_wear(wear)
- get_metadata(): returns metadata (a string attached to an item stack)
- set_metadata(metadata)
- clear(): removes all items from the stack, making it empty
- replace(item): replace the contents of this stack (item can also
    be an itemstring or table)
- to_string(): returns the stack in itemstring form
- to_table(): returns the stack in Lua table form
- get_stack_max(): returns the maximum size of the stack (depends on the item)
- get_free_space(): returns get_stack_max() - get_count()
- is_known(): returns true if the item name refers to a defined item type
- get_definition(): returns the item definition table
- get_tool_capabilities(): returns the digging properties of the item,
  ^ or those of the hand if none are defined for this item type
- add_wear(amount): increases wear by amount if the item is a tool
- add_item(item): put some item or stack onto this stack,
  ^ returns leftover ItemStack
- item_fits(item): returns true if item or stack can be fully added to this one
- take_item(n): take (and remove) up to n items from this stack
  ^ returns taken ItemStack
  ^ if n is omitted, n=1 is used
- peek_item(n): copy (don't remove) up to n items from this stack
  ^ returns copied ItemStack
  ^ if n is omitted, n=1 is used

PseudoRandom: A pseudorandom number generator
- Can be created via PseudoRandom(seed)
methods:
- next(): return next integer random number [0...32767]
- next(min, max): return next integer random number [min...max]
                  (max - min) must be 32767 or <= 6553 due to the simple
                  implementation making bad distribution otherwise.

PerlinNoise: A perlin noise generator
- Can be created via PerlinNoise(seed, octaves, persistence, scale)
- Also minetest.get_perlin(seeddiff, octaves, persistence, scale)
methods:
- get2d(pos) -> 2d noise value at pos={x=,y=}
- get3d(pos) -> 3d noise value at pos={x=,y=,z=}

PerlinNoiseMap: A fast, bulk perlin noise generator
- Can be created via PerlinNoiseMap(noiseparams, size)
- Also minetest.get_perlin_map(noiseparams, size)
methods:
- get2dMap(pos) -> <size.x>X<size.y> 2d array of 2d noise values starting at pos={x=,y=}
- get3dMap(pos) -> <size.x>X<size.y>X<size.z> 3d array of 3d noise values starting at pos={x=,y=,z=}
- get2dMap_flat(pos) -> Flat <size.x * size.y> element array of 2d noise values starting at pos={x=,y=}
- get3dMap_flat(pos) -> Same as get2dMap_flat, but 3d noise

VoxelManip: An interface to the MapVoxelManipulator for Lua
- Can be created via VoxelManip()
- Also minetest.get_voxel_manip()
methods:
- read_from_map(p1, p2): Reads a chunk of map from the map containing the region formed by p1 and p2.
  ^ returns actual emerged pmin, actual emerged pmax
- write_to_map(): Writes the data loaded from the VoxelManip back to the map.
  ^ important: data must be set using VoxelManip:set_data before calling this
- get_data(): Gets the data read into the VoxelManip object
  ^ returns raw node data is in the form of an array of node content ids
- set_data(data): Sets the data contents of the VoxelManip object
- update_map(): Update map after writing chunk back to map.
  ^ To be used only by VoxelManip objects created by the mod itself; not a VoxelManip that was
  ^ retrieved from minetest.get_mapgen_object
- set_lighting(light, p1, p2): Set the lighting within the VoxelManip to a uniform value
  ^ light is a table, {day=<0...15>, night=<0...15>}
  ^ To be used only by a VoxelManip object from minetest.get_mapgen_object
  ^ (p1, p2) is the area in which lighting is set; defaults to the whole area if left out
- get_light_data(): Gets the light data read into the VoxelManip object
  ^ Returns an array (indicies 1 to volume) of integers ranging from 0 to 255
  ^ Each value is the bitwise combination of day and night light values (0..15 each)
  ^ light = day + (night * 16)
- set_light_data(light_data): Sets the param1 (light) contents of each node in the VoxelManip
  ^ expects lighting data in the same format that get_light_data() returns
- calc_lighting(p1, p2): Calculate lighting within the VoxelManip
  ^ To be used only by a VoxelManip object from minetest.get_mapgen_object
  ^ (p1, p2) is the area in which lighting is set; defaults to the whole area if left out
- update_liquids(): Update liquid flow

VoxelArea: A helper class for voxel areas
- Can be created via VoxelArea:new{MinEdge=pmin, MaxEdge=pmax}
- Coordinates are *inclusive*, like most other things in Minetest
methods:
- getExtent(): returns a 3d vector containing the size of the area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge
- getVolume(): returns the volume of the area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge
- index(x, y, z): returns the index of an absolute position in a flat array starting at 1
  ^ useful for things like VoxelManip, raw Schematic specifiers, PerlinNoiseMap:get2d/3dMap, and so on
- indexp(p): same as above, except takes a vector
- position(i): returns the absolute position vector corresponding to index i
- contains(x, y, z): check if (x,y,z) is inside area formed by MinEdge and MaxEdge
- containsp(p): same as above, except takes a vector
- containsi(i): same as above, except takes an index
- iter(minx, miny, minz, maxx, maxy, maxz): returns an iterator that returns indices
  ^ from (minx,miny,minz) to (maxx,maxy,maxz) in the order of [z [y [x]]]
- iterp(minp, maxp): same as above, except takes a vector

Settings: An interface to read config files in the format of minetest.conf
- Can be created via Settings(filename)
methods:
- get(key) -> value
- get_bool(key) -> boolean
- set(key, value)
- remove(key) -> success
- get_names() -> {key1,...}
- write() -> success
  ^ write changes to file
- to_table() -> {[key1]=value1,...}

Mapgen objects
---------------
A mapgen object is a construct used in map generation. Mapgen objects can be used by an on_generate
callback to speed up operations by avoiding unnecessary recalculations; these can be retrieved using the
minetest.get_mapgen_object() function. If the requested Mapgen object is unavailable, or
get_mapgen_object() was called outside of an on_generate() callback, nil is returned.

The following Mapgen objects are currently available:

- voxelmanip
    This returns three values; the VoxelManip object to be used, minimum and maximum emerged position, in that
order. All mapgens support this object.

- heightmap
    Returns an array containing the y coordinates of the ground levels of nodes in the most recently
generated chunk by the current mapgen.

- biomemap
    Returns an array containing the biome IDs of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the
current mapgen.

- heatmap
    Returns an array containing the temperature values of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by
the current mapgen.

- humiditymap
    Returns an array containing the humidity values of nodes in the most recently generated chunk by the
current mapgen.

- gennotify
    Returns a table mapping requested generation notification types to arrays of positions at which the
corresponding generated structures are located at within the current chunk. To set the capture of positions
of interest to be recorded on generate, use minetest.set_gen_notify().
Possible fields of the table returned are: dungeon, temple, cave_begin, cave_end, large_cave_begin, large_cave_end

Registered entities
--------------------
- Functions receive a "luaentity" as self:
  - It has the member .name, which is the registered name ("mod:thing")
  - It has the member .object, which is an ObjectRef pointing to the object
  - The original prototype stuff is visible directly via a metatable
- Callbacks:
  - on_activate(self, staticdata)
    ^ Called when the object is instantiated.
  - on_step(self, dtime)
    ^ Called on every server tick (dtime is usually 0.1 seconds)
  - on_punch(self, puncher, time_from_last_punch, tool_capabilities, dir)
    ^ Called when somebody punches the object.
    ^ Note that you probably want to handle most punches using the
      automatic armor group system.
    ^ puncher: ObjectRef (can be nil)
    ^ time_from_last_punch: Meant for disallowing spamming of clicks (can be nil)
    ^ tool_capabilities: capability table of used tool (can be nil)
    ^ dir: unit vector of direction of punch. Always defined. Points from
           the puncher to the punched.
  - on_rightclick(self, clicker)
  - get_staticdata(self)
    ^ Should return a string that will be passed to on_activate when
      the object is instantiated the next time.

L-system trees
---------------
treedef={
  axiom, - string initial tree axiom
  rules_a, - string rules set A
  rules_b, - string rules set B
  rules_c, - string rules set C
  rules_d, - string rules set D
  trunk, - string trunk node name
  leaves, - string leaves node name
  leaves2, - string secondary leaves node name
  leaves2_chance,- num chance (0-100) to replace leaves with leaves2
  angle, - num angle in deg
  iterations, - num max # of iterations, usually 2 -5
  random_level, - num factor to lower nr of iterations, usually 0 - 3
  trunk_type, - string single/double/crossed) type of trunk: 1 node, 2x2 nodes or 3x3 in cross shape
  thin_branches, - boolean true -> use thin (1 node) branches
  fruit, - string fruit node name
  fruit_chance, - num chance (0-100) to replace leaves with fruit node
  seed, - num random seed
  }

Key for Special L-System Symbols used in Axioms
  G - move forward one unit with the pen up
  F - move forward one unit with the pen down drawing trunks and branches
  f - move forward one unit with the pen down drawing leaves (100% chance)
  T - move forward one unit with the pen down drawing trunks only
  R - move forward one unit with the pen down placing fruit
  A - replace with rules set A
  B - replace with rules set B
  C - replace with rules set C
  D - replace with rules set D
  a - replace with rules set A, chance 90%
  b - replace with rules set B, chance 80%
  c - replace with rules set C, chance 70%
  d - replace with rules set D, chance 60%
  + - yaw the turtle right by angle parameter
  - - yaw the turtle left by angle parameter
  & - pitch the turtle down by angle parameter
  ^ - pitch the turtle up by angle parameter
  / - roll the turtle to the right by angle parameter
  * - roll the turtle to the left by angle parameter
  [ - save in stack current state info
  ] - recover from stack state info

Example usage: spawn small apple tree
apple_tree={
  axiom="FFFFFAFFBF",
  rules_a="[&&&FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&++++FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&----FFFFF&&FFFF]",
  rules_b="[&&&++FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&--FFFFF&&FFFF][&&&------FFFFF&&FFFF]",
  trunk="default:tree",
  leaves="default:leaves",
  angle=30,
  iterations=2,
  random_level=0,
  trunk_type="single",
  thin_branches=true,
  fruit_chance=10,
  fruit="default:apple"
  }
minetest.spawn_tree(pos,apple_tree)

Definition tables
------------------

Object Properties
{
    hp_max = 1,
    physical = true,
    collide_with_objects = true, -- collide with other objects if physical=true
    weight = 5,
    collisionbox = {-0.5,-0.5,-0.5, 0.5,0.5,0.5},
    visual = "cube"/"sprite"/"upright_sprite"/"mesh",
    visual_size = {x=1, y=1},
    mesh = "model",
    textures = {}, -- number of required textures depends on visual
    colors = {}, -- number of required colors depends on visual
    spritediv = {x=1, y=1},
    initial_sprite_basepos = {x=0, y=0},
    is_visible = true,
    makes_footstep_sound = false,
    automatic_rotate = false,
    stepheight = 0,
    automatic_face_movement_dir = 0.0,
    ^ automatically set yaw to movement direction; offset in degrees; false to disable
}

Entity definition (register_entity)
{
    (Deprecated: Everything in object properties is read directly from here)
    
    initial_properties = <initial object properties>,

    on_activate = function(self, staticdata, dtime_s),
    on_step = function(self, dtime),
    on_punch = function(self, hitter),
    on_rightclick = function(self, clicker),
    get_staticdata = function(self),
    ^ Called sometimes; the string returned is passed to on_activate when
      the entity is re-activated from static state
    
    # Also you can define arbitrary member variables here
    myvariable = whatever,
}

ABM (ActiveBlockModifier) definition (register_abm)
{
    -- In the following two fields, also group:groupname will work.
    nodenames = {"default:lava_source"},
    neighbors = {"default:water_source", "default:water_flowing"}, -- (any of these)
     ^ If left out or empty, any neighbor will do
    interval = 1.0, -- (operation interval)
    chance = 1, -- (chance of trigger is 1.0/this)
    action = func(pos, node, active_object_count, active_object_count_wider),
}

Item definition (register_node, register_craftitem, register_tool)
{
    description = "Steel Axe",
    groups = {}, -- key=name, value=rating; rating=1..3.
                    if rating not applicable, use 1.
                    eg. {wool=1, fluffy=3}
                        {soil=2, outerspace=1, crumbly=1}
                        {bendy=2, snappy=1},
                        {hard=1, metal=1, spikes=1}
    inventory_image = "default_tool_steelaxe.png",
    wield_image = "",
    wield_scale = {x=1,y=1,z=1},
    stack_max = 99,
    range = 4.0,
    liquids_pointable = false,
    tool_capabilities = {
        full_punch_interval = 1.0,
        max_drop_level=0,
        groupcaps={
            -- For example:
            snappy={times={[2]=0.80, [3]=0.40}, maxwear=0.05, maxlevel=1},
            choppy={times={[3]=0.90}, maxwear=0.05, maxlevel=0}
        },
        damage_groups = {groupname=damage},
    }
    node_placement_prediction = nil,
    ^ If nil and item is node, prediction is made automatically
    ^ If nil and item is not a node, no prediction is made
    ^ If "" and item is anything, no prediction is made
    ^ Otherwise should be name of node which the client immediately places
      on ground when the player places the item. Server will always update
      actual result to client in a short moment.
    sound = {
        place = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
    }

    on_place = func(itemstack, placer, pointed_thing),
    ^ Shall place item and return the leftover itemstack
    ^ default: minetest.item_place
    on_drop = func(itemstack, dropper, pos),
    ^ Shall drop item and return the leftover itemstack
    ^ default: minetest.item_drop
    on_use = func(itemstack, user, pointed_thing),
    ^ default: nil
    ^ Function must return either nil if no item shall be removed from
      inventory, or an itemstack to replace the original itemstack.
        eg. itemstack:take_item(); return itemstack
    ^ Otherwise, the function is free to do what it wants.
    ^ The default functions handle regular use cases.
    after_use = func(itemstack, user, node, digparams),
    ^ default: nil
    ^ If defined, should return an itemstack and will be called instead of
      wearing out the tool. If returns nil, does nothing.
      If after_use doesn't exist, it is the same as:
        function(itemstack, user, node, digparams)
          itemstack:add_wear(digparams.wear)
          return itemstack
        end
}

Tile definition:
- "image.png"
- {name="image.png", animation={Tile Animation definition}}
- {name="image.png", backface_culling=bool}
  ^ backface culling only supported in special tiles
- deprecated still supported field names:
  - image -> name

Tile animation definition:
- {type="vertical_frames", aspect_w=16, aspect_h=16, length=3.0}

Node definition (register_node)
{
    <all fields allowed in item definitions>,

    drawtype = "normal", -- See "Node drawtypes"
    visual_scale = 1.0,
    ^ Supported for drawtypes "plantlike", "signlike", "torchlike".
    ^ For plantlike, the image will start at the bottom of the node; for the
    ^ other drawtypes, the image will be centered on the node.
    ^ Note that positioning for "torchlike" may still change.
    tiles = {tile definition 1, def2, def3, def4, def5, def6},
    ^ Textures of node; +Y, -Y, +X, -X, +Z, -Z (old field name: tile_images)
    ^ List can be shortened to needed length
    special_tiles = {tile definition 1, Tile definition 2},
    ^ Special textures of node; used rarely (old field name: special_materials)
    ^ List can be shortened to needed length
    alpha = 255,
    use_texture_alpha = false, -- Use texture's alpha channel
    post_effect_color = {a=0, r=0, g=0, b=0}, -- If player is inside node
    paramtype = "none", -- See "Nodes"
    paramtype2 = "none", -- See "Nodes"
    is_ground_content = false, -- Currently not used for anything
    sunlight_propagates = false, -- If true, sunlight will go infinitely through this
    walkable = true, -- If true, objects collide with node
    pointable = true, -- If true, can be pointed at
    diggable = true, -- If false, can never be dug
    climbable = false, -- If true, can be climbed on (ladder)
    buildable_to = false, -- If true, placed nodes can replace this node
    drop = "", -- alternatively drop = { max_items = ..., items = { ... } }
    liquidtype = "none", -- "none"/"source"/"flowing"
    liquid_alternative_flowing = "", -- Flowing version of source liquid
    liquid_alternative_source = "", -- Source version of flowing liquid
    liquid_viscosity = 0, -- Higher viscosity = slower flow (max. 7)
    liquid_renewable = true, -- Can new liquid source be created by placing two or more sources nearby?
    freezemelt = "", -- water for snow/ice, ice/snow for water
    leveled = 0, -- Block contain level in param2. value - default level, used for snow. Dont forget use "leveled" type nodebox
    liquid_range = 8, -- number of flowing nodes arround source (max. 8)
    drowning = 0, -- Player will take this amount of damage if no bubbles are left
    light_source = 0, -- Amount of light emitted by node
    damage_per_second = 0, -- If player is inside node, this damage is caused
    node_box = {type="regular"}, -- See "Node boxes"
    selection_box = {type="regular"}, -- See "Node boxes"
    ^ If drawtype "nodebox" is used and selection_box is nil, then node_box is used
    legacy_facedir_simple = false, -- Support maps made in and before January 2012
    legacy_wallmounted = false, -- Support maps made in and before January 2012
    sounds = {
        footstep = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
        dig = <SimpleSoundSpec>, -- "__group" = group-based sound (default)
        dug = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
        place = <SimpleSoundSpec>,
    },

    on_construct = func(pos),
    ^ Node constructor; always called after adding node
    ^ Can set up metadata and stuff like that
    ^ default: nil
    on_destruct = func(pos),
    ^ Node destructor; always called before removing node
    ^ default: nil
    after_destruct = func(pos, oldnode),
    ^ Node destructor; always called after removing node
    ^ default: nil

    after_place_node = func(pos, placer, itemstack),
    ^ Called after constructing node when node was placed using
      minetest.item_place_node / minetest.place_node
    ^ If return true no item is taken from itemstack
    ^ default: nil
    after_dig_node = func(pos, oldnode, oldmetadata, digger),
    ^ oldmetadata is in table format
    ^ Called after destructing node when node was dug using
      minetest.node_dig / minetest.dig_node
    ^ default: nil
    can_dig = function(pos,player)
    ^ returns true if node can be dug, or false if not
    ^ default: nil
    
    on_punch = func(pos, node, puncher),
    ^ default: minetest.node_punch
    ^ By default: does nothing
    on_rightclick = func(pos, node, clicker, itemstack),
    ^ default: nil
    ^ if defined, itemstack will hold clicker's wielded item
      Shall return the leftover itemstack
    on_dig = func(pos, node, digger),
    ^ default: minetest.node_dig
    ^ By default: checks privileges, wears out tool and removes node
    
    on_timer = function(pos,elapsed),
    ^ default: nil
    ^ called by NodeTimers, see minetest.get_node_timer and NodeTimerRef
    ^ elapsed is the total time passed since the timer was started
    ^ return true to run the timer for another cycle with the same timeout value

    on_receive_fields = func(pos, formname, fields, sender),
    ^ fields = {name1 = value1, name2 = value2, ...}
    ^ Called when an UI form (eg. sign text input) returns data
    ^ default: nil

    allow_metadata_inventory_move = func(pos, from_list, from_index,
            to_list, to_index, count, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to move items inside the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to move
    
    allow_metadata_inventory_put = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to put something into the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to put
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory
  
    allow_metadata_inventory_take = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to take something out of the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to take
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory

    on_metadata_inventory_move = func(pos, from_list, from_index,
            to_list, to_index, count, player),
    on_metadata_inventory_put = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    on_metadata_inventory_take = func(pos, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called after the actual action has happened, according to what was allowed.
    ^ No return value
    
    on_blast = func(pos, intensity),
    ^ intensity: 1.0 = mid range of regular TNT
    ^ If defined, called when an explosion touches the node, instead of
      removing the node
}

Recipe for register_craft: (shaped)
{
    output = 'default:pick_stone',
    recipe = {
        {'default:cobble', 'default:cobble', 'default:cobble'},
        {'', 'default:stick', ''},
        {'', 'default:stick', ''}, -- Also groups; eg. 'group:crumbly'
    },
    replacements = <optional list of item pairs,
                    replace one input item with another item on crafting>
}

Recipe for register_craft (shapeless)
{
    type = "shapeless",
    output = 'mushrooms:mushroom_stew',
    recipe = {
        "mushrooms:bowl",
        "mushrooms:mushroom_brown",
        "mushrooms:mushroom_red",
    },
    replacements = <optional list of item pairs,
                    replace one input item with another item on crafting>
}

Recipe for register_craft (tool repair)
{
    type = "toolrepair",
    additional_wear = -0.02,
}

Recipe for register_craft (cooking)
{
    type = "cooking",
    output = "default:glass",
    recipe = "default:sand",
    cooktime = 3,
}

Recipe for register_craft (furnace fuel)
{
    type = "fuel",
    recipe = "default:leaves",
    burntime = 1,
}

Ore definition (register_ore)
{
    ore_type = "scatter", -- See "Ore types"
    ore = "default:stone_with_coal",
    wherein = "default:stone",
    ^ a list of nodenames is supported too
    clust_scarcity = 8*8*8,
    ^ Ore has a 1 out of clust_scarcity chance of spawning in a node
    ^ This value should be *MUCH* higher than your intuition might tell you!
    clust_num_ores = 8,
    ^ Number of ores in a cluster
    clust_size = 3,
    ^ Size of the bounding box of the cluster
    ^ In this example, there is a 3x3x3 cluster where 8 out of the 27 nodes are coal ore
    height_min = -31000,
    height_max = 64,
    flags = "",
    ^ Attributes for this ore generation
    noise_threshhold = 0.5,
    ^ If noise is above this threshhold, ore is placed. Not needed for a uniform distribution
    noise_params = {offset=0, scale=1, spread={x=100, y=100, z=100}, seed=23, octaves=3, persist=0.70}
    ^ NoiseParams structure describing the perlin noise used for ore distribution.
    ^ Needed for sheet ore_type. Omit from scatter ore_type for a uniform ore distribution
}

Decoration definition (register_decoration)
{
    deco_type = "simple", -- See "Decoration types"
    place_on = "default:dirt_with_grass",
    ^ Node that decoration can be placed on
    sidelen = 8,
    ^ Size of divisions made in the chunk being generated.
    ^ If the chunk size is not evenly divisible by sidelen, sidelen is made equal to the chunk size.
    fill_ratio = 0.02,
    ^ Ratio of the area to be uniformly filled by the decoration.
    ^ Used only if noise_params is not specified.
    noise_params = {offset=0, scale=.45, spread={x=100, y=100, z=100}, seed=354, octaves=3, persist=0.7},
    ^ NoiseParams structure describing the perlin noise used for decoration distribution.
    ^ The result of this is multiplied by the 2d area of the division being decorated.
    biomes = {"Oceanside", "Hills", "Plains"},
    ^ List of biomes in which this decoration occurs. Occurs in all biomes if this is omitted,
    ^ and ignored if the Mapgen being used does not support biomes.

    ----- Simple-type parameters
    decoration = "default:grass",
    ^ The node name used as the decoration.
    ^ If instead a list of strings, a randomly selected node from the list is placed as the decoration.
    height = 1,
    ^ Number of nodes high the decoration is made.
    ^ If height_max is not 0, this is the lower bound of the randomly selected height.
    height_max = 0,
    ^ Number of nodes the decoration can be at maximum.
    ^ If absent, the parameter 'height' is used as a constant.
    spawn_by = "default:water",
    ^ Node that the decoration only spawns next to, in a 1-node square radius.
    num_spawn_by = 1,
    ^ Number of spawn_by nodes that must be surrounding the decoration position to occur.
    ^ If absent or -1, decorations occur next to any nodes.

    ----- Schematic-type parameters
    schematic = "foobar.mts",
    ^ If schematic is a string, it is the filepath relative to the current working directory of the
    ^ specified Minetest schematic file.
    ^ - OR -, could instead be a table containing two fields, size and data:
    schematic = {
        size = {x=4, y=6, z=4},
        data = {
            {name="cobble", param1=255, param2=0},
            {name="dirt_with_grass", param1=255, param2=0},
             ...
        }
    },
    ^ See 'Schematic specifier' for details.
    replacements = {{"oldname", "convert_to"}, ...},
    flags = "place_center_x, place_center_z",
    ^ Flags for schematic decorations. See 'Schematic attributes'.
    rotation = "90" --rotate schematic 90 degrees on placement
    ^ Rotation can be "0", "90", "180", "270", or "random".
}

Chatcommand definition (register_chatcommand)
{
    params = "<name> <privilege>", -- short parameter description
    description = "Remove privilege from player", -- full description
    privs = {privs=true}, -- require the "privs" privilege to run
    func = function(name, param), -- called when command is run
}

Detached inventory callbacks
{
    allow_move = func(inv, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to move items inside the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to move
    
    allow_put = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to put something into the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to put
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory
   
    allow_take = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called when a player wants to take something out of the inventory
    ^ Return value: number of items allowed to take
    ^ Return value: -1: Allow and don't modify item count in inventory
    
    on_move = func(inv, from_list, from_index, to_list, to_index, count, player),
    on_put = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
    on_take = func(inv, listname, index, stack, player),
    ^ Called after the actual action has happened, according to what was allowed.
    ^ No return value
}

HUD Definition (hud_add, hud_get)
{
    hud_elem_type = "image", -- see HUD element types
    ^ type of HUD element, can be either of "image", "text", "statbar", or "inventory"
    position = {x=0.5, y=0.5},
    ^ Left corner position of element
    name = "<name>",
    scale = {x=2, y=2},
    text = "<text>",
    number = 2,
    item = 3,
    ^ Selected item in inventory. 0 for no item selected.
    direction = 0,
    ^ Direction: 0: left-right, 1: right-left, 2: top-bottom, 3: bottom-top
    alignment = {x=0, y=0},
    ^ See "HUD Element Types"
    offset = {x=0, y=0},
    ^ See "HUD Element Types"
}
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