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"""
Syndication feed generation library -- used for generating RSS, etc.
Sample usage:
>>> from django.utils import feedgenerator
>>> feed = feedgenerator.Rss201rev2Feed(
... title="Poynter E-Media Tidbits",
... link="http://www.poynter.org/column.asp?id=31",
... description="A group Weblog by the sharpest minds in online media/journalism/publishing.",
... language="en",
... )
>>> feed.add_item(
... title="Hello",
... link="http://www.holovaty.com/test/",
... description="Testing."
... )
>>> with open('test.rss', 'w') as fp:
... feed.write(fp, 'utf-8')
For definitions of the different versions of RSS, see:
http://web.archive.org/web/20110718035220/http://diveintomark.org/archives/2004/02/04/incompatible-rss
"""
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import datetime
import warnings
from django.utils import datetime_safe, six
from django.utils.deprecation import RemovedInDjango20Warning
from django.utils.encoding import force_text, iri_to_uri
from django.utils.six import StringIO
from django.utils.six.moves.urllib.parse import urlparse
from django.utils.timezone import utc
from django.utils.xmlutils import SimplerXMLGenerator
def rfc2822_date(date):
# We can't use strftime() because it produces locale-dependent results, so
# we have to map english month and day names manually
months = ('Jan', 'Feb', 'Mar', 'Apr', 'May', 'Jun', 'Jul', 'Aug', 'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', 'Dec',)
days = ('Mon', 'Tue', 'Wed', 'Thu', 'Fri', 'Sat', 'Sun')
# Support datetime objects older than 1900
date = datetime_safe.new_datetime(date)
# We do this ourselves to be timezone aware, email.Utils is not tz aware.
dow = days[date.weekday()]
month = months[date.month - 1]
time_str = date.strftime('%s, %%d %s %%Y %%H:%%M:%%S ' % (dow, month))
if six.PY2: # strftime returns a byte string in Python 2
time_str = time_str.decode('utf-8')
offset = date.utcoffset()
# Historically, this function assumes that naive datetimes are in UTC.
if offset is None:
return time_str + '-0000'
else:
timezone = (offset.days * 24 * 60) + (offset.seconds // 60)
hour, minute = divmod(timezone, 60)
return time_str + '%+03d%02d' % (hour, minute)
def rfc3339_date(date):
# Support datetime objects older than 1900
date = datetime_safe.new_datetime(date)
time_str = date.strftime('%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S')
if six.PY2: # strftime returns a byte string in Python 2
time_str = time_str.decode('utf-8')
offset = date.utcoffset()
# Historically, this function assumes that naive datetimes are in UTC.
if offset is None:
return time_str + 'Z'
else:
timezone = (offset.days * 24 * 60) + (offset.seconds // 60)
hour, minute = divmod(timezone, 60)
return time_str + '%+03d:%02d' % (hour, minute)
def get_tag_uri(url, date):
"""
Creates a TagURI.
See http://web.archive.org/web/20110514113830/http://diveintomark.org/archives/2004/05/28/howto-atom-id
"""
bits = urlparse(url)
d = ''
if date is not None:
d = ',%s' % datetime_safe.new_datetime(date).strftime('%Y-%m-%d')
return 'tag:%s%s:%s/%s' % (bits.hostname, d, bits.path, bits.fragment)
class SyndicationFeed(object):
"Base class for all syndication feeds. Subclasses should provide write()"
def __init__(self, title, link, description, language=None, author_email=None,
author_name=None, author_link=None, subtitle=None, categories=None,
feed_url=None, feed_copyright=None, feed_guid=None, ttl=None, **kwargs):
def to_unicode(s):
return force_text(s, strings_only=True)
if categories:
categories = [force_text(c) for c in categories]
if ttl is not None:
# Force ints to unicode
ttl = force_text(ttl)
self.feed = {
'title': to_unicode(title),
'link': iri_to_uri(link),
'description': to_unicode(description),
'language': to_unicode(language),
'author_email': to_unicode(author_email),
'author_name': to_unicode(author_name),
'author_link': iri_to_uri(author_link),
'subtitle': to_unicode(subtitle),
'categories': categories or (),
'feed_url': iri_to_uri(feed_url),
'feed_copyright': to_unicode(feed_copyright),
'id': feed_guid or link,
'ttl': ttl,
}
self.feed.update(kwargs)
self.items = []
def add_item(self, title, link, description, author_email=None,
author_name=None, author_link=None, pubdate=None, comments=None,
unique_id=None, unique_id_is_permalink=None, enclosure=None,
categories=(), item_copyright=None, ttl=None, updateddate=None,
enclosures=None, **kwargs):
"""
Adds an item to the feed. All args are expected to be Python Unicode
objects except pubdate and updateddate, which are datetime.datetime
objects, and enclosures, which is an iterable of instances of the
Enclosure class.
"""
def to_unicode(s):
return force_text(s, strings_only=True)
if categories:
categories = [to_unicode(c) for c in categories]
if ttl is not None:
# Force ints to unicode
ttl = force_text(ttl)
if enclosure is None:
enclosures = [] if enclosures is None else enclosures
else:
warnings.warn(
"The enclosure keyword argument is deprecated, "
"use enclosures instead.",
RemovedInDjango20Warning,
stacklevel=2,
)
enclosures = [enclosure]
item = {
'title': to_unicode(title),
'link': iri_to_uri(link),
'description': to_unicode(description),
'author_email': to_unicode(author_email),
'author_name': to_unicode(author_name),
'author_link': iri_to_uri(author_link),
'pubdate': pubdate,
'updateddate': updateddate,
'comments': to_unicode(comments),
'unique_id': to_unicode(unique_id),
'unique_id_is_permalink': unique_id_is_permalink,
'enclosures': enclosures,
'categories': categories or (),
'item_copyright': to_unicode(item_copyright),
'ttl': ttl,
}
item.update(kwargs)
self.items.append(item)
def num_items(self):
return len(self.items)
def root_attributes(self):
"""
Return extra attributes to place on the root (i.e. feed/channel) element.
Called from write().
"""
return {}
def add_root_elements(self, handler):
"""
Add elements in the root (i.e. feed/channel) element. Called
from write().
"""
pass
def item_attributes(self, item):
"""
Return extra attributes to place on each item (i.e. item/entry) element.
"""
return {}
def add_item_elements(self, handler, item):
"""
Add elements on each item (i.e. item/entry) element.
"""
pass
def write(self, outfile, encoding):
"""
Outputs the feed in the given encoding to outfile, which is a file-like
object. Subclasses should override this.
"""
raise NotImplementedError('subclasses of SyndicationFeed must provide a write() method')
def writeString(self, encoding):
"""
Returns the feed in the given encoding as a string.
"""
s = StringIO()
self.write(s, encoding)
return s.getvalue()
def latest_post_date(self):
"""
Returns the latest item's pubdate or updateddate. If no items
have either of these attributes this returns the current UTC date/time.
"""
latest_date = None
date_keys = ('updateddate', 'pubdate')
for item in self.items:
for date_key in date_keys:
item_date = item.get(date_key)
if item_date:
if latest_date is None or item_date > latest_date:
latest_date = item_date
# datetime.now(tz=utc) is slower, as documented in django.utils.timezone.now
return latest_date or datetime.datetime.utcnow().replace(tzinfo=utc)
class Enclosure(object):
"Represents an RSS enclosure"
def __init__(self, url, length, mime_type):
"All args are expected to be Python Unicode objects"
self.length, self.mime_type = length, mime_type
self.url = iri_to_uri(url)
class RssFeed(SyndicationFeed):
content_type = 'application/rss+xml; charset=utf-8'
def write(self, outfile, encoding):
handler = SimplerXMLGenerator(outfile, encoding)
handler.startDocument()
handler.startElement("rss", self.rss_attributes())
handler.startElement("channel", self.root_attributes())
self.add_root_elements(handler)
self.write_items(handler)
self.endChannelElement(handler)
handler.endElement("rss")
def rss_attributes(self):
return {"version": self._version,
"xmlns:atom": "http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"}
def write_items(self, handler):
for item in self.items:
handler.startElement('item', self.item_attributes(item))
self.add_item_elements(handler, item)
handler.endElement("item")
def add_root_elements(self, handler):
handler.addQuickElement("title", self.feed['title'])
handler.addQuickElement("link", self.feed['link'])
handler.addQuickElement("description", self.feed['description'])
if self.feed['feed_url'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("atom:link", None, {"rel": "self", "href": self.feed['feed_url']})
if self.feed['language'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("language", self.feed['language'])
for cat in self.feed['categories']:
handler.addQuickElement("category", cat)
if self.feed['feed_copyright'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("copyright", self.feed['feed_copyright'])
handler.addQuickElement("lastBuildDate", rfc2822_date(self.latest_post_date()))
if self.feed['ttl'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("ttl", self.feed['ttl'])
def endChannelElement(self, handler):
handler.endElement("channel")
@property
def mime_type(self):
warnings.warn(
'The mime_type attribute of RssFeed is deprecated. '
'Use content_type instead.',
RemovedInDjango20Warning, stacklevel=2
)
return self.content_type
class RssUserland091Feed(RssFeed):
_version = "0.91"
def add_item_elements(self, handler, item):
handler.addQuickElement("title", item['title'])
handler.addQuickElement("link", item['link'])
if item['description'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("description", item['description'])
class Rss201rev2Feed(RssFeed):
# Spec: http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss
_version = "2.0"
def add_item_elements(self, handler, item):
handler.addQuickElement("title", item['title'])
handler.addQuickElement("link", item['link'])
if item['description'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("description", item['description'])
# Author information.
if item["author_name"] and item["author_email"]:
handler.addQuickElement("author", "%s (%s)" % (item['author_email'], item['author_name']))
elif item["author_email"]:
handler.addQuickElement("author", item["author_email"])
elif item["author_name"]:
handler.addQuickElement(
"dc:creator", item["author_name"], {"xmlns:dc": "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"}
)
if item['pubdate'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("pubDate", rfc2822_date(item['pubdate']))
if item['comments'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("comments", item['comments'])
if item['unique_id'] is not None:
guid_attrs = {}
if isinstance(item.get('unique_id_is_permalink'), bool):
guid_attrs['isPermaLink'] = str(item['unique_id_is_permalink']).lower()
handler.addQuickElement("guid", item['unique_id'], guid_attrs)
if item['ttl'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("ttl", item['ttl'])
# Enclosure.
if item['enclosures']:
enclosures = list(item['enclosures'])
if len(enclosures) > 1:
raise ValueError(
"RSS feed items may only have one enclosure, see "
"http://www.rssboard.org/rss-profile#element-channel-item-enclosure"
)
enclosure = enclosures[0]
handler.addQuickElement('enclosure', '', {
'url': enclosure.url,
'length': enclosure.length,
'type': enclosure.mime_type,
})
# Categories.
for cat in item['categories']:
handler.addQuickElement("category", cat)
class Atom1Feed(SyndicationFeed):
# Spec: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287
content_type = 'application/atom+xml; charset=utf-8'
ns = "http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"
def write(self, outfile, encoding):
handler = SimplerXMLGenerator(outfile, encoding)
handler.startDocument()
handler.startElement('feed', self.root_attributes())
self.add_root_elements(handler)
self.write_items(handler)
handler.endElement("feed")
def root_attributes(self):
if self.feed['language'] is not None:
return {"xmlns": self.ns, "xml:lang": self.feed['language']}
else:
return {"xmlns": self.ns}
def add_root_elements(self, handler):
handler.addQuickElement("title", self.feed['title'])
handler.addQuickElement("link", "", {"rel": "alternate", "href": self.feed['link']})
if self.feed['feed_url'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("link", "", {"rel": "self", "href": self.feed['feed_url']})
handler.addQuickElement("id", self.feed['id'])
handler.addQuickElement("updated", rfc3339_date(self.latest_post_date()))
if self.feed['author_name'] is not None:
handler.startElement("author", {})
handler.addQuickElement("name", self.feed['author_name'])
if self.feed['author_email'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("email", self.feed['author_email'])
if self.feed['author_link'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("uri", self.feed['author_link'])
handler.endElement("author")
if self.feed['subtitle'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("subtitle", self.feed['subtitle'])
for cat in self.feed['categories']:
handler.addQuickElement("category", "", {"term": cat})
if self.feed['feed_copyright'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("rights", self.feed['feed_copyright'])
def write_items(self, handler):
for item in self.items:
handler.startElement("entry", self.item_attributes(item))
self.add_item_elements(handler, item)
handler.endElement("entry")
def add_item_elements(self, handler, item):
handler.addQuickElement("title", item['title'])
handler.addQuickElement("link", "", {"href": item['link'], "rel": "alternate"})
if item['pubdate'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement('published', rfc3339_date(item['pubdate']))
if item['updateddate'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement('updated', rfc3339_date(item['updateddate']))
# Author information.
if item['author_name'] is not None:
handler.startElement("author", {})
handler.addQuickElement("name", item['author_name'])
if item['author_email'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("email", item['author_email'])
if item['author_link'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("uri", item['author_link'])
handler.endElement("author")
# Unique ID.
if item['unique_id'] is not None:
unique_id = item['unique_id']
else:
unique_id = get_tag_uri(item['link'], item['pubdate'])
handler.addQuickElement("id", unique_id)
# Summary.
if item['description'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("summary", item['description'], {"type": "html"})
# Enclosures.
for enclosure in item['enclosures']:
handler.addQuickElement('link', '', {
'rel': 'enclosure',
'href': enclosure.url,
'length': enclosure.length,
'type': enclosure.mime_type,
})
# Categories.
for cat in item['categories']:
handler.addQuickElement("category", "", {"term": cat})
# Rights.
if item['item_copyright'] is not None:
handler.addQuickElement("rights", item['item_copyright'])
@property
def mime_type(self):
warnings.warn(
'The mime_type attribute of Atom1Feed is deprecated. '
'Use content_type instead.',
RemovedInDjango20Warning, stacklevel=2
)
return self.content_type
# This isolates the decision of what the system default is, so calling code can
# do "feedgenerator.DefaultFeed" instead of "feedgenerator.Rss201rev2Feed".
DefaultFeed = Rss201rev2Feed