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Upgrading to 0.18

Like always, not that much has really changed. To make the process as smooth as possible, this document outlines all the things you will want to do to use 0.18.

A lot of this can be done automatically with elm-upgrade, so check it out after reading through this document!

Update elm-package.json

So the first thing you want to do is update your elm-package.json file. The only tricky thing is that the HTTP package moved:

From there, here is an elm-package.json that has been properly updated:

{
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "summary": "let people do a cool thing in a fun way",
    "repository": "https://github.com/user/project.git",
    "license": "BSD3",
    "source-directories": [
        "src"
    ],
    "exposed-modules": [],
    "dependencies": {
        "elm-lang/core": "5.0.0 <= v < 6.0.0",
        "elm-lang/html": "2.0.0 <= v < 3.0.0",
        "elm-lang/http": "1.0.0 <= v < 2.0.0",
        "evancz/elm-markdown": "3.0.1 <= v < 4.0.0"
    },
    "elm-version": "0.18.0 <= v < 0.19.0"
}

The only changes should be in the dependencies and elm-version fields where you need to update constraints.

The easiest way to get this all set up is to use elm-upgrade, but you can also:

  • Update elm-version by hand.
  • Remove everything from dependencies by hand.
  • Install what you need with elm-package install elm-lang/core one-by-one.

List Ranges

The [1..5] syntax has been removed.

So replace any occurance of [1..9] with List.range 1 9.

No More Primes

You are not allowed to have primes in variable names, so things like type' are renamed to type_.

Backticks and andThen

Elm used to let you take normal functions and use them as infix operators. This is most notable in the case of andThen which is pretty much the only function that used this feature. You will want to make the following updates to your code:

-- old

andThenIn17 : Result String Int
andThenIn17 =
  String.toInt "1234"
    `Result.andThen` \year -> isValidYear year

-- andThen : Result x a -> (a -> Result x b) -> Result x b


-- new

andThenIn18 : Result String Int
andThenIn18 =
  String.toInt "1234"
    |> Result.andThen (\year -> isValidYear year)

-- andThen : (a -> Result x b) -> Result x a -> Result x b

Notice that the backtick style is replaced by pipelining. The onError function has been flipped in the same way, so if you are working with tasks you may say something like this in 0.18:

type Msg = NewText String | DidNotLoad

tasksIn18 : Task x Msg
tasksIn18 =
  Http.toTask (Http.getString "http://example.com/war-and-peace")
    |> Task.andThen (\fullText -> Task.succeed (NewText fullText))
    |> Task.onError (\error -> Task.succeed DidNotLoad)

This also means that andThen and onError group together much better than in the infix style.

This change should be happening across the entire Elm ecosystem as package authors upgrade to 0.18.

Renamed Functions in Core

A couple functions have been removed or renamed.

  • Json.Decode

    • objectN becomes mapN (Note: object1 becomes map)
    • tupleN becomes mapN with index
    • (:=) becomes field
    • andThen args flip
  • Bitwise

    • shiftLeft becomes shiftLeftBy and args flip
    • shiftRight becomes shiftRightBy and args flip
    • shiftRightLogical becomes shiftRightZfBy and args flip
  • Task

    • andThen args flip
    • onError args flip
    • Removed perform : (x -> msg) -> (a -> msg) -> Task x a -> Cmd msg
    • Added perform : (a -> msg) -> Task Never a -> Cmd msg
    • Added attempt : (Result x a -> msg) -> Task x a -> Cmd msg
    • Removed toMaybe and toResult in favor of using onError directly
  • Result

    • Renamed formatError to mapError to match names in Task
    • andThen args flip
  • Maybe

    • andThen args flip
    • Removed oneOf
  • Random

    • andThen args flip
  • Tuple

    • Basics.fst becomes Tuple.first
    • Basics.snd becomes Tuple.second

Package Changes

The following packages have changed a little bit:

  • elm-lang/html collapsed Html.App into Html. So you need to remove any import Html.App imports and refer to Html.program instead.

  • elm-lang/http was redone to be easier and have more features. It now supports tracking progress and rate-limiting HTTP requests. It should be pretty easy to upgrade to the new stuff, but if you have a complex Task that chains many requests, you will want to use the Http.toTask function to keep that code working the same.

  • elm-lang/navigation no longer has its own concept of a Parser. You just turn a Navigation.Location into a message and it is fed into your normal update function. This means Navigation.program is now much closer to Html.program so this should simplify things a bit.

  • evancz/url-parser is pretty much the same, but works better and is friendlier. New things include:

    • You can use <?> to parse query parameters.
    • Some bugs about parsing leading and trailing slashes are fixed.
    • The parser backtracks, always finding a valid parse of the URL if one exists.
    • You can use parsePath to parse a Navigation.Location directly.

In all cases, the packages have become simpler and easier to use. The actual changes did not seem to be too serious as I upgraded elm-lang.org and package.elm-lang.org and all the examples I control.