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How to Run

This is a step-by-step guide how to run the example:


  • Install minikube. Minikube is a Kubernetes environment in a virtual machine that is easy to use and install. It is not meant for production but to test Kubernetes or for developer environments.

  • Install kubectl. This is the command line interface for Kubernetes.

Build the Docker images (optional)

This step is optional. There are Docker images on the public Docker Hub that are used if you do not build your own.

  • The example is implemented in Java. See . The examples need to be compiled so you need to install a JDK (Java Development Kit). A JRE (Java Runtime Environment) is not sufficient. After the installation you should be able to execute java and javac on the command line.

  • The example run in Docker Containers. You need to install Docker Community Edition, see . You should be able to run docker after the installation.

Change to the directory microservice-kubernetes-demo and run ./mvnw clean package or mvnw.cmd clean package (Windows). This will take a while:

[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]./mvnw clean package
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.6:jar (default-jar) @ microservice-kubernetes-demo-order ---
[INFO] Building jar: /Users/wolff/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo/microservice-kubernetes-demo-order/target/microservice-kubernetes-demo-order-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:1.4.5.RELEASE:repackage (default) @ microservice-kubernetes-demo-order ---
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Reactor Summary:
[INFO] microservice-kubernetes-demo ....................... SUCCESS [  0.986 s]
[INFO] microservice-kubernetes-demo-customer .............. SUCCESS [ 16.953 s]
[INFO] microservice-kubernetes-demo-catalog ............... SUCCESS [ 18.016 s]
[INFO] microservice-kubernetes-demo-order ................. SUCCESS [ 18.512 s]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 57.633 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2017-09-08T09:36:32+02:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 56M/420M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

If this does not work:

  • Ensure that settings.xml in the directory .m2 in your home directory contains no configuration for a specific Maven repo. If in doubt: delete the file.

  • The tests use some ports on the local machine. Make sure that no server runs in the background.

  • Skip the tests: ./mvnw clean package -Dmaven.test.skip=true or mvnw.cmd clean package -Dmaven.test.skip=true (Windows).

  • In rare cases dependencies might not be downloaded correctly. In that case: Remove the directory repository in the directory .m2 in your home directory. Note that this means all dependencies will be downloaded again.

Now the Java code has been compiles. The next step is to create Docker images and upload them to the public Docker Hub:

  • Create an account at the public Docker Hub.

  • Log in to your Docker Hub account by entering docker login on the command line.

  • Set the environment variable DOCKER_ACCOUNT to the name of the account.

  • Run in the directory microservice-kubernetes-demo. It builds the images and uploads them to the Docker Hub using your account. Of course uploading the images takes some time:

[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]export DOCKER_ACCOUNT=ewolff
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]echo $DOCKER_ACCOUNT
Removing intermediate container 36e9b0c2ac0e
Successfully built b76261d1e4ee
f4ffcb9c643d: Pushed 
14c5bfa09694: Mounted from ewolff/microservice-kubernetes-demo-order 
41a5c76632fc: Mounted from ewolff/microservice-kubernetes-demo-order 
5bef08742407: Mounted from ewolff/microservice-kubernetes-demo-order 
latest: digest: sha256:36d87ea5c8628da9a6677c1eafb9009c8f99310f5376872e7b9a1edace37d1a0 size: 1163

Run the containers

  • Create a Minikube instance with minikube start --memory=4000. This will set the memory of the Kubernetes VM to 4.000 MB - which should be enough for most experiments:
[~/microservice-kubernetes]minikube start --memory=4000
Starting local Kubernetes v1.7.5 cluster...
Starting VM...
Getting VM IP address...
Moving files into cluster...
Setting up certs...
Connecting to cluster...
Setting up kubeconfig...
Starting cluster components...
Kubectl is now configured to use the cluster.
  • If you created your own Docker images: Ensure that the environment variable DOCKER_ACCOUNT is set to the name of the account on Docker Hub you created.

  • Run in the directory microservice-kubernetes-demo :

deployment "apache" created
service "apache" exposed
deployment "catalog" created
service "catalog" exposed
deployment "customer" created
service "customer" exposed
deployment "order" created
service "order" exposed

An alternative is to use the command kubectl apply -f microservices.yaml . This command takes the description of the services and deployments from the file microservices.yaml and creates them if they do not already exist. The YAML uses the images from the Docker Hub account ewolff. You will need to modify the YAML if you want to use different images.

That deploys the images. It creates Pods. Pods might contain one or many Docker containers. In this case each Pod contains just one Docker container.

Also services are created. Services have a clusterwide unique IP adress and a DNS entry. Service can use many Pods to do load balancing. To actually view the services:

  • Run kubectl get services to see all services:
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl get services
NAME                CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
apache        <pending>     80:31214/TCP     46s
catalog      <pending>     8080:30161/TCP   46s
customer     <pending>     8080:30620/TCP   45s
kubernetes     <none>        443/TCP          3m
order         <pending>     8080:30616/TCP   45s
  • Run kubectl describe services for more details. This also works for pods (kubectl describe pods) and deployments (kubectl describe deployments).
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl describe services

Name:			order
Namespace:		default
Labels:			run=order
Annotations:		<none>
Selector:		run=order
Type:			LoadBalancer
Port:			<unset>	8080/TCP
NodePort:		<unset>	30616/TCP
Session Affinity:	None
Events:			<none>
  • You can also get a list of the pods:
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl get pods
NAME                                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
apache-3412280829-k5z5p             1/1       Running   0          2m
catalog-269679894-60dr0             1/1       Running   0          2m
customer-1984516559-1ffjk           1/1       Running   0          2m
order-2204540131-nks5s              1/1       Running   0          2m
  • ...and you can see the logs of a pod:
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl logs catalog-269679894-60dr0 

  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v1.4.5.RELEASE)
2017-09-08 08:11:06.128  INFO 7 --- [           main] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter        : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
2017-09-08 08:11:06.158  INFO 7 --- [           main]  : Starting beans in phase 0
2017-09-08 08:11:06.746  INFO 7 --- [           main] s.b.c.e.t.TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http)
2017-09-08 08:11:06.803  INFO 7 --- [           main] c.e.microservice.catalog.CatalogApp      : Started CatalogApp in 53.532 seconds (JVM running for 54.296)
  • You can also run commands in a pod:
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl exec catalog-269679894-60dr0  /bin/ls
  • You can even open a shell in a pod:
[~/microservice-kubernetes/microservice-kubernetes-demo]kubectl exec catalog-269679894-60dr0  -it /bin/sh
/ # ls
bin                                                      proc
dev                                                      root
etc                                                      run
home                                                     sbin
lib                                                      srv
lib64                                                    sys
media                                                    tmp
microservice-kubernetes-demo-catalog-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar  usr
mnt                                                      var
/ # 
  • Run kubectl port-forward deployment/apache 8081:80 to create a proxy to the Apache httpd server on your local machine. Then open http://localhost:8081 to see the web page of the Apache httpd server in the web browser.

  • To remove all services and deployments run

service "apache" deleted
service "catalog" deleted
service "customer" deleted
service "order" deleted
deployment "apache" deleted
deployment "catalog" deleted
deployment "customer" deleted
deployment "order" deleted

This skript must be executed before a new version of the pods can be deployed.