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The information in this page/The code in this project (for GitHub) is based on the USENIX ‘GSMem’ paper [1] by Mordechai Guri et al (see reference below). RAMEAR is a project from PennApps Spring 2016. RAMEAR uses the RF signals created from exciting the data bus between memory and CPU to transmit data off an air-gapped computer. When the data bus is excited with random data, the data bus transmit an above-average RF signal (due to power). The project utilizes this fact to transmit binary signals.

During the hackathon, we were able to transmit the signal from as far as 20cm at a rate of 2 bits/second. Although realistically this isn't fast enough to transmit plain text / metadata, it takes around 20 minutes to transmit an 2048-bit RSA key and around 2 minutes to transmit a 256-bit AES key, which are reasonable amounts of time.

The program has a low CPU process consumption and memory footprint, making it hard to detect. It is also worth mentioning that this 'attack' / 'hack' does not require root (aka sudo) access.


Live Demo - Pennapps Spring 2016 Presentation

Project at devpost

Code Structure

On the machine transmitting signals

  • main.c The main process, queries for a string and sends it as a binary signal
  • transmitter.c Functions to send bytes / bits
  • transmitter.h Header files for the transmitter

On the machine receiving signals

  • The code to decode parse the signals on the machine

BladeRF Configuration

We used a bladeRF as our receiver. These are our configurations:

  • samplerate 100000
  • frequency 513M
  • bandwidth 1.5M

We ran our experiments on a old Dell desktop booted with Ubuntu 14.04. Unfortunately, we do not know the name of the model and the exact specs, other than the RAM being 667 MHz. The configurations above might be different depending on the specs of the computer.

In our implementation, we run the following:

$ mkfifo FIFOSamples.csv
$ bladerf-cli
bladerf > rx start
bladerf > rx config file=sample.fifo n=0 format=csv
# Then start the python script
$ python

## ON THE MACHINE Transmitting signal
$ cd RAMEAR && ./main

It is possible to script this in python / bash.


  1. Guri, M., Kachlon, A., Hasson, O., Kedma, G., Mirsky, Y. and Elovici, Y., 2015. GSMem: data exfiltration from air-gapped computers over GSM frequencies. In 24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15) (pp. 849-864).




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