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import unittest
from test import test_support
import subprocess
import sys
import signal
import os
import errno
import tempfile
import time
import re
import sysconfig
try:
import resource
except ImportError:
resource = None
mswindows = (sys.platform == "win32")
#
# Depends on the following external programs: Python
#
if mswindows:
SETBINARY = ('import msvcrt; msvcrt.setmode(sys.stdout.fileno(), '
'os.O_BINARY);')
else:
SETBINARY = ''
try:
mkstemp = tempfile.mkstemp
except AttributeError:
# tempfile.mkstemp is not available
def mkstemp():
"""Replacement for mkstemp, calling mktemp."""
fname = tempfile.mktemp()
return os.open(fname, os.O_RDWR|os.O_CREAT), fname
class BaseTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
# Try to minimize the number of children we have so this test
# doesn't crash on some buildbots (Alphas in particular).
test_support.reap_children()
def tearDown(self):
for inst in subprocess._active:
inst.wait()
subprocess._cleanup()
self.assertFalse(subprocess._active, "subprocess._active not empty")
def assertStderrEqual(self, stderr, expected, msg=None):
# In a debug build, stuff like "[6580 refs]" is printed to stderr at
# shutdown time. That frustrates tests trying to check stderr produced
# from a spawned Python process.
actual = re.sub(r"\[\d+ refs\]\r?\n?$", "", stderr)
self.assertEqual(actual, expected, msg)
class PopenTestException(Exception):
pass
class PopenExecuteChildRaises(subprocess.Popen):
"""Popen subclass for testing cleanup of subprocess.PIPE filehandles when
_execute_child fails.
"""
def _execute_child(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise PopenTestException("Forced Exception for Test")
class ProcessTestCase(BaseTestCase):
def test_call_seq(self):
# call() function with sequence argument
rc = subprocess.call([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"])
self.assertEqual(rc, 47)
def test_check_call_zero(self):
# check_call() function with zero return code
rc = subprocess.check_call([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(0)"])
self.assertEqual(rc, 0)
def test_check_call_nonzero(self):
# check_call() function with non-zero return code
with self.assertRaises(subprocess.CalledProcessError) as c:
subprocess.check_call([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"])
self.assertEqual(c.exception.returncode, 47)
def test_check_output(self):
# check_output() function with zero return code
output = subprocess.check_output(
[sys.executable, "-c", "print 'BDFL'"])
self.assertIn('BDFL', output)
def test_check_output_nonzero(self):
# check_call() function with non-zero return code
with self.assertRaises(subprocess.CalledProcessError) as c:
subprocess.check_output(
[sys.executable, "-c", "import sys; sys.exit(5)"])
self.assertEqual(c.exception.returncode, 5)
def test_check_output_stderr(self):
# check_output() function stderr redirected to stdout
output = subprocess.check_output(
[sys.executable, "-c", "import sys; sys.stderr.write('BDFL')"],
stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
self.assertIn('BDFL', output)
def test_check_output_stdout_arg(self):
# check_output() function stderr redirected to stdout
with self.assertRaises(ValueError) as c:
output = subprocess.check_output(
[sys.executable, "-c", "print 'will not be run'"],
stdout=sys.stdout)
self.fail("Expected ValueError when stdout arg supplied.")
self.assertIn('stdout', c.exception.args[0])
def test_call_kwargs(self):
# call() function with keyword args
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "banana"
rc = subprocess.call([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys, os;'
'sys.exit(os.getenv("FRUIT")=="banana")'],
env=newenv)
self.assertEqual(rc, 1)
def test_invalid_args(self):
# Popen() called with invalid arguments should raise TypeError
# but Popen.__del__ should not complain (issue #12085)
with test_support.captured_stderr() as s:
self.assertRaises(TypeError, subprocess.Popen, invalid_arg_name=1)
argcount = subprocess.Popen.__init__.__code__.co_argcount
too_many_args = [0] * (argcount + 1)
self.assertRaises(TypeError, subprocess.Popen, *too_many_args)
self.assertEqual(s.getvalue(), '')
def test_stdin_none(self):
# .stdin is None when not redirected
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", 'print "banana"'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.stdin, None)
def test_stdout_none(self):
# .stdout is None when not redirected, and the child's stdout will
# be inherited from the parent. In order to test this we run a
# subprocess in a subprocess:
# this_test
# \-- subprocess created by this test (parent)
# \-- subprocess created by the parent subprocess (child)
# The parent doesn't specify stdout, so the child will use the
# parent's stdout. This test checks that the message printed by the
# child goes to the parent stdout. The parent also checks that the
# child's stdout is None. See #11963.
code = ('import sys; from subprocess import Popen, PIPE;'
'p = Popen([sys.executable, "-c", "print \'test_stdout_none\'"],'
' stdin=PIPE, stderr=PIPE);'
'p.wait(); assert p.stdout is None;')
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", code],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
out, err = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 0, err)
self.assertEqual(out.rstrip(), 'test_stdout_none')
def test_stderr_none(self):
# .stderr is None when not redirected
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", 'print "banana"'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.stderr, None)
def test_executable_with_cwd(self):
python_dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(sys.executable))
p = subprocess.Popen(["somethingyoudonthave", "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
executable=sys.executable, cwd=python_dir)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 47)
@unittest.skipIf(sysconfig.is_python_build(),
"need an installed Python. See #7774")
def test_executable_without_cwd(self):
# For a normal installation, it should work without 'cwd'
# argument. For test runs in the build directory, see #7774.
p = subprocess.Popen(["somethingyoudonthave", "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
executable=sys.executable)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 47)
def test_stdin_pipe(self):
# stdin redirection
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.exit(sys.stdin.read() == "pear")'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE)
p.stdin.write("pear")
p.stdin.close()
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 1)
def test_stdin_filedes(self):
# stdin is set to open file descriptor
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
d = tf.fileno()
os.write(d, "pear")
os.lseek(d, 0, 0)
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.exit(sys.stdin.read() == "pear")'],
stdin=d)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 1)
def test_stdin_fileobj(self):
# stdin is set to open file object
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
tf.write("pear")
tf.seek(0)
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.exit(sys.stdin.read() == "pear")'],
stdin=tf)
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 1)
def test_stdout_pipe(self):
# stdout redirection
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stdout.write("orange")'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read(), "orange")
def test_stdout_filedes(self):
# stdout is set to open file descriptor
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
d = tf.fileno()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stdout.write("orange")'],
stdout=d)
p.wait()
os.lseek(d, 0, 0)
self.assertEqual(os.read(d, 1024), "orange")
def test_stdout_fileobj(self):
# stdout is set to open file object
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stdout.write("orange")'],
stdout=tf)
p.wait()
tf.seek(0)
self.assertEqual(tf.read(), "orange")
def test_stderr_pipe(self):
# stderr redirection
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stderr.write("strawberry")'],
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.assertStderrEqual(p.stderr.read(), "strawberry")
def test_stderr_filedes(self):
# stderr is set to open file descriptor
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
d = tf.fileno()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stderr.write("strawberry")'],
stderr=d)
p.wait()
os.lseek(d, 0, 0)
self.assertStderrEqual(os.read(d, 1024), "strawberry")
def test_stderr_fileobj(self):
# stderr is set to open file object
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stderr.write("strawberry")'],
stderr=tf)
p.wait()
tf.seek(0)
self.assertStderrEqual(tf.read(), "strawberry")
def test_stdout_stderr_pipe(self):
# capture stdout and stderr to the same pipe
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys;'
'sys.stdout.write("apple");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stderr.write("orange")'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertStderrEqual(p.stdout.read(), "appleorange")
def test_stdout_stderr_file(self):
# capture stdout and stderr to the same open file
tf = tempfile.TemporaryFile()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys;'
'sys.stdout.write("apple");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stderr.write("orange")'],
stdout=tf,
stderr=tf)
p.wait()
tf.seek(0)
self.assertStderrEqual(tf.read(), "appleorange")
def test_stdout_filedes_of_stdout(self):
# stdout is set to 1 (#1531862).
# To avoid printing the text on stdout, we do something similar to
# test_stdout_none (see above). The parent subprocess calls the child
# subprocess passing stdout=1, and this test uses stdout=PIPE in
# order to capture and check the output of the parent. See #11963.
code = ('import sys, subprocess; '
'rc = subprocess.call([sys.executable, "-c", '
' "import os, sys; sys.exit(os.write(sys.stdout.fileno(), '
'\'test with stdout=1\'))"], stdout=1); '
'assert rc == 18')
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", code],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
out, err = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 0, err)
self.assertEqual(out.rstrip(), 'test with stdout=1')
def test_cwd(self):
tmpdir = tempfile.gettempdir()
# We cannot use os.path.realpath to canonicalize the path,
# since it doesn't expand Tru64 {memb} strings. See bug 1063571.
cwd = os.getcwd()
os.chdir(tmpdir)
tmpdir = os.getcwd()
os.chdir(cwd)
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;'
'sys.stdout.write(os.getcwd())'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
cwd=tmpdir)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
normcase = os.path.normcase
self.assertEqual(normcase(p.stdout.read()), normcase(tmpdir))
def test_env(self):
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "orange"
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;'
'sys.stdout.write(os.getenv("FRUIT"))'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
env=newenv)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read(), "orange")
def test_communicate_stdin(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys;'
'sys.exit(sys.stdin.read() == "pear")'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE)
p.communicate("pear")
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 1)
def test_communicate_stdout(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stdout.write("pineapple")'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(stdout, "pineapple")
self.assertEqual(stderr, None)
def test_communicate_stderr(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; sys.stderr.write("pineapple")'],
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(stdout, None)
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, "pineapple")
def test_communicate(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;'
'sys.stderr.write("pineapple");'
'sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate("banana")
self.assertEqual(stdout, "banana")
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, "pineapple")
# This test is Linux specific for simplicity to at least have
# some coverage. It is not a platform specific bug.
@unittest.skipUnless(os.path.isdir('/proc/%d/fd' % os.getpid()),
"Linux specific")
# Test for the fd leak reported in http://bugs.python.org/issue2791.
def test_communicate_pipe_fd_leak(self):
fd_directory = '/proc/%d/fd' % os.getpid()
num_fds_before_popen = len(os.listdir(fd_directory))
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", "print()"],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
p.communicate()
num_fds_after_communicate = len(os.listdir(fd_directory))
del p
num_fds_after_destruction = len(os.listdir(fd_directory))
self.assertEqual(num_fds_before_popen, num_fds_after_destruction)
self.assertEqual(num_fds_before_popen, num_fds_after_communicate)
def test_communicate_returns(self):
# communicate() should return None if no redirection is active
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"])
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(stdout, None)
self.assertEqual(stderr, None)
def test_communicate_pipe_buf(self):
# communicate() with writes larger than pipe_buf
# This test will probably deadlock rather than fail, if
# communicate() does not work properly.
x, y = os.pipe()
if mswindows:
pipe_buf = 512
else:
pipe_buf = os.fpathconf(x, "PC_PIPE_BUF")
os.close(x)
os.close(y)
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;'
'sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read(47));'
'sys.stderr.write("xyz"*%d);'
'sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())' % pipe_buf],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
string_to_write = "abc"*pipe_buf
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate(string_to_write)
self.assertEqual(stdout, string_to_write)
def test_writes_before_communicate(self):
# stdin.write before communicate()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;'
'sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
p.stdin.write("banana")
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate("split")
self.assertEqual(stdout, "bananasplit")
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, "")
def test_universal_newlines(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;' + SETBINARY +
'sys.stdout.write("line1\\n");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line2\\r");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line3\\r\\n");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line4\\r");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("\\nline5");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("\\nline6");'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
universal_newlines=1)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
stdout = p.stdout.read()
if hasattr(file, 'newlines'):
# Interpreter with universal newline support
self.assertEqual(stdout,
"line1\nline2\nline3\nline4\nline5\nline6")
else:
# Interpreter without universal newline support
self.assertEqual(stdout,
"line1\nline2\rline3\r\nline4\r\nline5\nline6")
def test_universal_newlines_communicate(self):
# universal newlines through communicate()
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys,os;' + SETBINARY +
'sys.stdout.write("line1\\n");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line2\\r");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line3\\r\\n");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("line4\\r");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("\\nline5");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stdout.write("\\nline6");'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
universal_newlines=1)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
(stdout, stderr) = p.communicate()
if hasattr(file, 'newlines'):
# Interpreter with universal newline support
self.assertEqual(stdout,
"line1\nline2\nline3\nline4\nline5\nline6")
else:
# Interpreter without universal newline support
self.assertEqual(stdout,
"line1\nline2\rline3\r\nline4\r\nline5\nline6")
def test_no_leaking(self):
# Make sure we leak no resources
if not mswindows:
max_handles = 1026 # too much for most UNIX systems
else:
max_handles = 2050 # too much for (at least some) Windows setups
handles = []
try:
for i in range(max_handles):
try:
handles.append(os.open(test_support.TESTFN,
os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT))
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.EMFILE:
raise
break
else:
self.skipTest("failed to reach the file descriptor limit "
"(tried %d)" % max_handles)
# Close a couple of them (should be enough for a subprocess)
for i in range(10):
os.close(handles.pop())
# Loop creating some subprocesses. If one of them leaks some fds,
# the next loop iteration will fail by reaching the max fd limit.
for i in range(15):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys;"
"sys.stdout.write(sys.stdin.read())"],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
data = p.communicate(b"lime")[0]
self.assertEqual(data, b"lime")
finally:
for h in handles:
os.close(h)
test_support.unlink(test_support.TESTFN)
def test_list2cmdline(self):
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['a b c', 'd', 'e']),
'"a b c" d e')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['ab"c', '\\', 'd']),
'ab\\"c \\ d')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['ab"c', ' \\', 'd']),
'ab\\"c " \\\\" d')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['a\\\\\\b', 'de fg', 'h']),
'a\\\\\\b "de fg" h')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['a\\"b', 'c', 'd']),
'a\\\\\\"b c d')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['a\\\\b c', 'd', 'e']),
'"a\\\\b c" d e')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['a\\\\b\\ c', 'd', 'e']),
'"a\\\\b\\ c" d e')
self.assertEqual(subprocess.list2cmdline(['ab', '']),
'ab ""')
def test_poll(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable,
"-c", "import time; time.sleep(1)"])
count = 0
while p.poll() is None:
time.sleep(0.1)
count += 1
# We expect that the poll loop probably went around about 10 times,
# but, based on system scheduling we can't control, it's possible
# poll() never returned None. It "should be" very rare that it
# didn't go around at least twice.
self.assertGreaterEqual(count, 2)
# Subsequent invocations should just return the returncode
self.assertEqual(p.poll(), 0)
def test_wait(self):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable,
"-c", "import time; time.sleep(2)"])
self.assertEqual(p.wait(), 0)
# Subsequent invocations should just return the returncode
self.assertEqual(p.wait(), 0)
def test_invalid_bufsize(self):
# an invalid type of the bufsize argument should raise
# TypeError.
with self.assertRaises(TypeError):
subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", "pass"], "orange")
def test_leaking_fds_on_error(self):
# see bug #5179: Popen leaks file descriptors to PIPEs if
# the child fails to execute; this will eventually exhaust
# the maximum number of open fds. 1024 seems a very common
# value for that limit, but Windows has 2048, so we loop
# 1024 times (each call leaked two fds).
for i in range(1024):
# Windows raises IOError. Others raise OSError.
with self.assertRaises(EnvironmentError) as c:
subprocess.Popen(['nonexisting_i_hope'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
# ignore errors that indicate the command was not found
if c.exception.errno not in (errno.ENOENT, errno.EACCES):
raise c.exception
def test_handles_closed_on_exception(self):
# If CreateProcess exits with an error, ensure the
# duplicate output handles are released
ifhandle, ifname = mkstemp()
ofhandle, ofname = mkstemp()
efhandle, efname = mkstemp()
try:
subprocess.Popen (["*"], stdin=ifhandle, stdout=ofhandle,
stderr=efhandle)
except OSError:
os.close(ifhandle)
os.remove(ifname)
os.close(ofhandle)
os.remove(ofname)
os.close(efhandle)
os.remove(efname)
self.assertFalse(os.path.exists(ifname))
self.assertFalse(os.path.exists(ofname))
self.assertFalse(os.path.exists(efname))
def test_communicate_epipe(self):
# Issue 10963: communicate() should hide EPIPE
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", 'pass'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
p.communicate("x" * 2**20)
def test_communicate_epipe_only_stdin(self):
# Issue 10963: communicate() should hide EPIPE
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", 'pass'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
time.sleep(2)
p.communicate("x" * 2**20)
# This test is Linux-ish specific for simplicity to at least have
# some coverage. It is not a platform specific bug.
@unittest.skipUnless(os.path.isdir('/proc/%d/fd' % os.getpid()),
"Linux specific")
def test_failed_child_execute_fd_leak(self):
"""Test for the fork() failure fd leak reported in issue16327."""
fd_directory = '/proc/%d/fd' % os.getpid()
fds_before_popen = os.listdir(fd_directory)
with self.assertRaises(PopenTestException):
PopenExecuteChildRaises(
[sys.executable, '-c', 'pass'], stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
# NOTE: This test doesn't verify that the real _execute_child
# does not close the file descriptors itself on the way out
# during an exception. Code inspection has confirmed that.
fds_after_exception = os.listdir(fd_directory)
self.assertEqual(fds_before_popen, fds_after_exception)
# context manager
class _SuppressCoreFiles(object):
"""Try to prevent core files from being created."""
old_limit = None
def __enter__(self):
"""Try to save previous ulimit, then set it to (0, 0)."""
if resource is not None:
try:
self.old_limit = resource.getrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_CORE)
resource.setrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_CORE, (0, 0))
except (ValueError, resource.error):
pass
if sys.platform == 'darwin':
# Check if the 'Crash Reporter' on OSX was configured
# in 'Developer' mode and warn that it will get triggered
# when it is.
#
# This assumes that this context manager is used in tests
# that might trigger the next manager.
value = subprocess.Popen(['/usr/bin/defaults', 'read',
'com.apple.CrashReporter', 'DialogType'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE).communicate()[0]
if value.strip() == b'developer':
print "this tests triggers the Crash Reporter, that is intentional"
sys.stdout.flush()
def __exit__(self, *args):
"""Return core file behavior to default."""
if self.old_limit is None:
return
if resource is not None:
try:
resource.setrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_CORE, self.old_limit)
except (ValueError, resource.error):
pass
@unittest.skipUnless(hasattr(signal, 'SIGALRM'),
"Requires signal.SIGALRM")
def test_communicate_eintr(self):
# Issue #12493: communicate() should handle EINTR
def handler(signum, frame):
pass
old_handler = signal.signal(signal.SIGALRM, handler)
self.addCleanup(signal.signal, signal.SIGALRM, old_handler)
# the process is running for 2 seconds
args = [sys.executable, "-c", 'import time; time.sleep(2)']
for stream in ('stdout', 'stderr'):
kw = {stream: subprocess.PIPE}
with subprocess.Popen(args, **kw) as process:
signal.alarm(1)
# communicate() will be interrupted by SIGALRM
process.communicate()
@unittest.skipIf(mswindows, "POSIX specific tests")
class POSIXProcessTestCase(BaseTestCase):
def test_exceptions(self):
# caught & re-raised exceptions
with self.assertRaises(OSError) as c:
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", ""],
cwd="/this/path/does/not/exist")
# The attribute child_traceback should contain "os.chdir" somewhere.
self.assertIn("os.chdir", c.exception.child_traceback)
def test_run_abort(self):
# returncode handles signal termination
with _SuppressCoreFiles():
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
"import os; os.abort()"])
p.wait()
self.assertEqual(-p.returncode, signal.SIGABRT)
def test_preexec(self):
# preexec function
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys, os;"
"sys.stdout.write(os.getenv('FRUIT'))"],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
preexec_fn=lambda: os.putenv("FRUIT", "apple"))
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read(), "apple")
class _TestExecuteChildPopen(subprocess.Popen):
"""Used to test behavior at the end of _execute_child."""
def __init__(self, testcase, *args, **kwargs):
self._testcase = testcase
subprocess.Popen.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
def _execute_child(
self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds, cwd, env,
universal_newlines, startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
p2cread, p2cwrite,
c2pread, c2pwrite,
errread, errwrite):
try:
subprocess.Popen._execute_child(
self, args, executable, preexec_fn, close_fds,
cwd, env, universal_newlines,
startupinfo, creationflags, shell,
p2cread, p2cwrite,
c2pread, c2pwrite,
errread, errwrite)
finally:
# Open a bunch of file descriptors and verify that
# none of them are the same as the ones the Popen
# instance is using for stdin/stdout/stderr.
devzero_fds = [os.open("/dev/zero", os.O_RDONLY)
for _ in range(8)]
try:
for fd in devzero_fds:
self._testcase.assertNotIn(
fd, (p2cwrite, c2pread, errread))
finally:
map(os.close, devzero_fds)
@unittest.skipIf(not os.path.exists("/dev/zero"), "/dev/zero required.")
def test_preexec_errpipe_does_not_double_close_pipes(self):
"""Issue16140: Don't double close pipes on preexec error."""
def raise_it():
raise RuntimeError("force the _execute_child() errpipe_data path.")
with self.assertRaises(RuntimeError):
self._TestExecuteChildPopen(
self, [sys.executable, "-c", "pass"],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE, preexec_fn=raise_it)
def test_args_string(self):
# args is a string
f, fname = mkstemp()
os.write(f, "#!/bin/sh\n")
os.write(f, "exec '%s' -c 'import sys; sys.exit(47)'\n" %
sys.executable)
os.close(f)
os.chmod(fname, 0o700)
p = subprocess.Popen(fname)
p.wait()
os.remove(fname)
self.assertEqual(p.returncode, 47)
def test_invalid_args(self):
# invalid arguments should raise ValueError
self.assertRaises(ValueError, subprocess.call,
[sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
startupinfo=47)
self.assertRaises(ValueError, subprocess.call,
[sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
creationflags=47)
def test_shell_sequence(self):
# Run command through the shell (sequence)
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "apple"
p = subprocess.Popen(["echo $FRUIT"], shell=1,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
env=newenv)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read().strip(), "apple")
def test_shell_string(self):
# Run command through the shell (string)
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "apple"
p = subprocess.Popen("echo $FRUIT", shell=1,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
env=newenv)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read().strip(), "apple")
def test_call_string(self):
# call() function with string argument on UNIX
f, fname = mkstemp()
os.write(f, "#!/bin/sh\n")
os.write(f, "exec '%s' -c 'import sys; sys.exit(47)'\n" %
sys.executable)
os.close(f)
os.chmod(fname, 0700)
rc = subprocess.call(fname)
os.remove(fname)
self.assertEqual(rc, 47)
def test_specific_shell(self):
# Issue #9265: Incorrect name passed as arg[0].
shells = []
for prefix in ['/bin', '/usr/bin/', '/usr/local/bin']:
for name in ['bash', 'ksh']:
sh = os.path.join(prefix, name)
if os.path.isfile(sh):
shells.append(sh)
if not shells: # Will probably work for any shell but csh.
self.skipTest("bash or ksh required for this test")
sh = '/bin/sh'
if os.path.isfile(sh) and not os.path.islink(sh):
# Test will fail if /bin/sh is a symlink to csh.
shells.append(sh)
for sh in shells:
p = subprocess.Popen("echo $0", executable=sh, shell=True,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(p.stdout.read().strip(), sh)
def _kill_process(self, method, *args):
# Do not inherit file handles from the parent.
# It should fix failures on some platforms.
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", """if 1:
import sys, time
sys.stdout.write('x\\n')
sys.stdout.flush()
time.sleep(30)
"""],
close_fds=True,
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
# Wait for the interpreter to be completely initialized before
# sending any signal.
p.stdout.read(1)
getattr(p, method)(*args)
return p
@unittest.skipIf(sys.platform.startswith(('netbsd', 'openbsd')),
"Due to known OS bug (issue #16762)")
def _kill_dead_process(self, method, *args):
# Do not inherit file handles from the parent.
# It should fix failures on some platforms.
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", """if 1:
import sys, time
sys.stdout.write('x\\n')
sys.stdout.flush()
"""],
close_fds=True,
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
# Wait for the interpreter to be completely initialized before
# sending any signal.
p.stdout.read(1)
# The process should end after this
time.sleep(1)
# This shouldn't raise even though the child is now dead
getattr(p, method)(*args)
p.communicate()
def test_send_signal(self):
p = self._kill_process('send_signal', signal.SIGINT)
_, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertIn('KeyboardInterrupt', stderr)
self.assertNotEqual(p.wait(), 0)
def test_kill(self):
p = self._kill_process('kill')
_, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, '')
self.assertEqual(p.wait(), -signal.SIGKILL)
def test_terminate(self):
p = self._kill_process('terminate')
_, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, '')
self.assertEqual(p.wait(), -signal.SIGTERM)
def test_send_signal_dead(self):
# Sending a signal to a dead process
self._kill_dead_process('send_signal', signal.SIGINT)
def test_kill_dead(self):
# Killing a dead process
self._kill_dead_process('kill')
def test_terminate_dead(self):
# Terminating a dead process
self._kill_dead_process('terminate')
def check_close_std_fds(self, fds):
# Issue #9905: test that subprocess pipes still work properly with
# some standard fds closed
stdin = 0
newfds = []
for a in fds:
b = os.dup(a)
newfds.append(b)
if a == 0:
stdin = b
try:
for fd in fds:
os.close(fd)
out, err = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys;'
'sys.stdout.write("apple");'
'sys.stdout.flush();'
'sys.stderr.write("orange")'],
stdin=stdin,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE).communicate()
err = test_support.strip_python_stderr(err)
self.assertEqual((out, err), (b'apple', b'orange'))
finally:
for b, a in zip(newfds, fds):
os.dup2(b, a)
for b in newfds:
os.close(b)
def test_close_fd_0(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([0])
def test_close_fd_1(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([1])
def test_close_fd_2(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([2])
def test_close_fds_0_1(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([0, 1])
def test_close_fds_0_2(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([0, 2])
def test_close_fds_1_2(self):
self.check_close_std_fds([1, 2])
def test_close_fds_0_1_2(self):
# Issue #10806: test that subprocess pipes still work properly with
# all standard fds closed.
self.check_close_std_fds([0, 1, 2])
def check_swap_fds(self, stdin_no, stdout_no, stderr_no):
# open up some temporary files
temps = [mkstemp() for i in range(3)]
temp_fds = [fd for fd, fname in temps]
try:
# unlink the files -- we won't need to reopen them
for fd, fname in temps:
os.unlink(fname)
# save a copy of the standard file descriptors
saved_fds = [os.dup(fd) for fd in range(3)]
try:
# duplicate the temp files over the standard fd's 0, 1, 2
for fd, temp_fd in enumerate(temp_fds):
os.dup2(temp_fd, fd)
# write some data to what will become stdin, and rewind
os.write(stdin_no, b"STDIN")
os.lseek(stdin_no, 0, 0)
# now use those files in the given order, so that subprocess
# has to rearrange them in the child
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys; got = sys.stdin.read();'
'sys.stdout.write("got %s"%got); sys.stderr.write("err")'],
stdin=stdin_no,
stdout=stdout_no,
stderr=stderr_no)
p.wait()
for fd in temp_fds:
os.lseek(fd, 0, 0)
out = os.read(stdout_no, 1024)
err = test_support.strip_python_stderr(os.read(stderr_no, 1024))
finally:
for std, saved in enumerate(saved_fds):
os.dup2(saved, std)
os.close(saved)
self.assertEqual(out, b"got STDIN")
self.assertEqual(err, b"err")
finally:
for fd in temp_fds:
os.close(fd)
# When duping fds, if there arises a situation where one of the fds is
# either 0, 1 or 2, it is possible that it is overwritten (#12607).
# This tests all combinations of this.
def test_swap_fds(self):
self.check_swap_fds(0, 1, 2)
self.check_swap_fds(0, 2, 1)
self.check_swap_fds(1, 0, 2)
self.check_swap_fds(1, 2, 0)
self.check_swap_fds(2, 0, 1)
self.check_swap_fds(2, 1, 0)
def test_wait_when_sigchild_ignored(self):
# NOTE: sigchild_ignore.py may not be an effective test on all OSes.
sigchild_ignore = test_support.findfile("sigchild_ignore.py",
subdir="subprocessdata")
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, sigchild_ignore],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertEqual(0, p.returncode, "sigchild_ignore.py exited"
" non-zero with this error:\n%s" % stderr)
def test_zombie_fast_process_del(self):
# Issue #12650: on Unix, if Popen.__del__() was called before the
# process exited, it wouldn't be added to subprocess._active, and would
# remain a zombie.
# spawn a Popen, and delete its reference before it exits
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import sys, time;'
'time.sleep(0.2)'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
ident = id(p)
pid = p.pid
del p
# check that p is in the active processes list
self.assertIn(ident, [id(o) for o in subprocess._active])
def test_leak_fast_process_del_killed(self):
# Issue #12650: on Unix, if Popen.__del__() was called before the
# process exited, and the process got killed by a signal, it would never
# be removed from subprocess._active, which triggered a FD and memory
# leak.
# spawn a Popen, delete its reference and kill it
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import time;'
'time.sleep(3)'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
ident = id(p)
pid = p.pid
del p
os.kill(pid, signal.SIGKILL)
# check that p is in the active processes list
self.assertIn(ident, [id(o) for o in subprocess._active])
# let some time for the process to exit, and create a new Popen: this
# should trigger the wait() of p
time.sleep(0.2)
with self.assertRaises(EnvironmentError) as c:
with subprocess.Popen(['nonexisting_i_hope'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE) as proc:
pass
# p should have been wait()ed on, and removed from the _active list
self.assertRaises(OSError, os.waitpid, pid, 0)
self.assertNotIn(ident, [id(o) for o in subprocess._active])
def test_pipe_cloexec(self):
# Issue 12786: check that the communication pipes' FDs are set CLOEXEC,
# and are not inherited by another child process.
p1 = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c",
'import os;'
'os.read(0, 1)'
],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
p2 = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", """if True:
import os, errno, sys
for fd in %r:
try:
os.close(fd)
except OSError as e:
if e.errno != errno.EBADF:
raise
else:
sys.exit(1)
sys.exit(0)
""" % [f.fileno() for f in (p1.stdin, p1.stdout,
p1.stderr)]
],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=False)
p1.communicate('foo')
_, stderr = p2.communicate()
self.assertEqual(p2.returncode, 0, "Unexpected error: " + repr(stderr))
@unittest.skipUnless(mswindows, "Windows specific tests")
class Win32ProcessTestCase(BaseTestCase):
def test_startupinfo(self):
# startupinfo argument
# We uses hardcoded constants, because we do not want to
# depend on win32all.
STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW = 1
SW_MAXIMIZE = 3
startupinfo = subprocess.STARTUPINFO()
startupinfo.dwFlags = STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW
startupinfo.wShowWindow = SW_MAXIMIZE
# Since Python is a console process, it won't be affected
# by wShowWindow, but the argument should be silently
# ignored
subprocess.call([sys.executable, "-c", "import sys; sys.exit(0)"],
startupinfo=startupinfo)
def test_creationflags(self):
# creationflags argument
CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE = 16
sys.stderr.write(" a DOS box should flash briefly ...\n")
subprocess.call(sys.executable +
' -c "import time; time.sleep(0.25)"',
creationflags=CREATE_NEW_CONSOLE)
def test_invalid_args(self):
# invalid arguments should raise ValueError
self.assertRaises(ValueError, subprocess.call,
[sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
preexec_fn=lambda: 1)
self.assertRaises(ValueError, subprocess.call,
[sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
close_fds=True)
def test_close_fds(self):
# close file descriptors
rc = subprocess.call([sys.executable, "-c",
"import sys; sys.exit(47)"],
close_fds=True)
self.assertEqual(rc, 47)
def test_shell_sequence(self):
# Run command through the shell (sequence)
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "physalis"
p = subprocess.Popen(["set"], shell=1,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
env=newenv)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertIn("physalis", p.stdout.read())
def test_shell_string(self):
# Run command through the shell (string)
newenv = os.environ.copy()
newenv["FRUIT"] = "physalis"
p = subprocess.Popen("set", shell=1,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
env=newenv)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertIn("physalis", p.stdout.read())
def test_call_string(self):
# call() function with string argument on Windows
rc = subprocess.call(sys.executable +
' -c "import sys; sys.exit(47)"')
self.assertEqual(rc, 47)
def _kill_process(self, method, *args):
# Some win32 buildbot raises EOFError if stdin is inherited
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", """if 1:
import sys, time
sys.stdout.write('x\\n')
sys.stdout.flush()
time.sleep(30)
"""],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
# Wait for the interpreter to be completely initialized before
# sending any signal.
p.stdout.read(1)
getattr(p, method)(*args)
_, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, '')
returncode = p.wait()
self.assertNotEqual(returncode, 0)
def _kill_dead_process(self, method, *args):
p = subprocess.Popen([sys.executable, "-c", """if 1:
import sys, time
sys.stdout.write('x\\n')
sys.stdout.flush()
sys.exit(42)
"""],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stderr.close)
self.addCleanup(p.stdin.close)
# Wait for the interpreter to be completely initialized before
# sending any signal.
p.stdout.read(1)
# The process should end after this
time.sleep(1)
# This shouldn't raise even though the child is now dead
getattr(p, method)(*args)
_, stderr = p.communicate()
self.assertStderrEqual(stderr, b'')
rc = p.wait()
self.assertEqual(rc, 42)
def test_send_signal(self):
self._kill_process('send_signal', signal.SIGTERM)
def test_kill(self):
self._kill_process('kill')
def test_terminate(self):
self._kill_process('terminate')
def test_send_signal_dead(self):
self._kill_dead_process('send_signal', signal.SIGTERM)
def test_kill_dead(self):
self._kill_dead_process('kill')
def test_terminate_dead(self):
self._kill_dead_process('terminate')
@unittest.skipUnless(getattr(subprocess, '_has_poll', False),
"poll system call not supported")
class ProcessTestCaseNoPoll(ProcessTestCase):
def setUp(self):
subprocess._has_poll = False
ProcessTestCase.setUp(self)
def tearDown(self):
subprocess._has_poll = True
ProcessTestCase.tearDown(self)
class HelperFunctionTests(unittest.TestCase):
@unittest.skipIf(mswindows, "errno and EINTR make no sense on windows")
def test_eintr_retry_call(self):
record_calls = []
def fake_os_func(*args):
record_calls.append(args)
if len(record_calls) == 2:
raise OSError(errno.EINTR, "fake interrupted system call")
return tuple(reversed(args))
self.assertEqual((999, 256),
subprocess._eintr_retry_call(fake_os_func, 256, 999))
self.assertEqual([(256, 999)], record_calls)
# This time there will be an EINTR so it will loop once.
self.assertEqual((666,),
subprocess._eintr_retry_call(fake_os_func, 666))
self.assertEqual([(256, 999), (666,), (666,)], record_calls)
@unittest.skipUnless(mswindows, "mswindows only")
class CommandsWithSpaces (BaseTestCase):
def setUp(self):
super(CommandsWithSpaces, self).setUp()
f, fname = mkstemp(".py", "te st")
self.fname = fname.lower ()
os.write(f, b"import sys;"
b"sys.stdout.write('%d %s' % (len(sys.argv), [a.lower () for a in sys.argv]))"
)
os.close(f)
def tearDown(self):
os.remove(self.fname)
super(CommandsWithSpaces, self).tearDown()
def with_spaces(self, *args, **kwargs):
kwargs['stdout'] = subprocess.PIPE
p = subprocess.Popen(*args, **kwargs)
self.addCleanup(p.stdout.close)
self.assertEqual(
p.stdout.read ().decode("mbcs"),
"2 [%r, 'ab cd']" % self.fname
)
def test_shell_string_with_spaces(self):
# call() function with string argument with spaces on Windows
self.with_spaces('"%s" "%s" "%s"' % (sys.executable, self.fname,
"ab cd"), shell=1)
def test_shell_sequence_with_spaces(self):
# call() function with sequence argument with spaces on Windows
self.with_spaces([sys.executable, self.fname, "ab cd"], shell=1)
def test_noshell_string_with_spaces(self):
# call() function with string argument with spaces on Windows
self.with_spaces('"%s" "%s" "%s"' % (sys.executable, self.fname,
"ab cd"))
def test_noshell_sequence_with_spaces(self):
# call() function with sequence argument with spaces on Windows
self.with_spaces([sys.executable, self.fname, "ab cd"])
def test_main():
unit_tests = (ProcessTestCase,
POSIXProcessTestCase,
Win32ProcessTestCase,
ProcessTestCaseNoPoll,
HelperFunctionTests,
CommandsWithSpaces)
test_support.run_unittest(*unit_tests)
test_support.reap_children()
if __name__ == "__main__":
test_main()
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