Proposal: Binary-Only Packages
Author: Russ Cox
Last updated: April 24, 2016
Discussion at golang.org/issue/2775.
We propose a way to incorporate binary-only packages (without complete source code) into a cmd/go workspace.
It is common in C for a code author to provide a C header file and the compiled form of a library but not the complete source code. The go command has never supported this officially.
In very early versions of Go, it was possible to arrange for a binary-only package simply by removing the source code after compiling. But that state looks the same as when the package source code has been deleted because the package itself is no longer available, in which case the compiled form should not continue to be used. For the past many years the Go command has assumed the latter.
Then it was possible to arrange for a binary-only package by replacing the source code after compiling, while keeping the modification time of the source code older than the modification time of the compiled form. But in normal usage, removing an individual source file is cause for recompilation even though that cannot be seen in the modification times. To detect that situation, Go 1.5 started using the full set of source file names that went into a package as one input to a hash that produced the package's ``build ID''. If the go command's expected build ID does not match the compiled package's build ID, the compiled package is out of date, even if the modification times suggest otherwise (see golang.org/cl/9154).
From Go 1.5 then, to arrange for a binary-only package, it has been necessary to replace the source code after compiling but keep the same set of file names and also keep the source modification times older than the compiled package's.
In the future we may experiment with including the source code itself in the hash that produces the build ID, which would completely defeat any attempt at binary-only packages.
Fundamentally, as time goes on the go command gets better and better at detecting mismatches between the source code and the compiled form, yet in some cases it is explicitly desired that the source code not match the compiled form (specifically, that the source code not be included at all). If this usage is to keep working, it must be explicitly supported.
We propose to add official support for binary-only packages to the cmd/go toolchain,
by introduction of a new
The go/build package's type Package will contain a new field
IncompleteSources bool indicating
//go:binary-only-package comment is present.
The go command will refuse to recompile a package containing the comment. If a suitable binary form of the package is already installed, the go command will use it. Otherwise the go command will report that the binary form is missing and cannot be built.
Users must install the package binary into the correct location in the $GOPATH/pkg tree themselves. Distributors of binary-only packages might distribute them as .zip files to be unpacked in the root of a $GOPATH, including files in both the src/ and pkg/ tree.
The “go get” command will still require complete source code and will not recognize or otherwise enable the distribution of binary-only packages.
Various users have reported working with companies that want to provide them with binary but not source forms of purchased packages. We want to define an explicit way to do that instead of fielding bug reports each time the go command gets smarter about detecting source-vs-binary mismatches.
The package source code itself must be present in some form, or else we can't tell if the package was deleted entirely (see background above). The implication is that it will simply not be the actual source code for the package. A special comment is a natural way to signal this situation, especially since the go command is already reading the source code for package name, import information, and build tag comments. Having a “fake” version of the source code also provides a way to supply documentation compatible with “go doc” and “godoc” even though the complete source code is missing.
The compiled form of the package does contain information about the source code, for example source file names, type definitions for data structures used in the public API, and inlined function bodies. It is assumed that the distributors of binary-only packages understand that they include this information.
There are no problems raised by the compatibility guidelines. If anything, the explicit support will help keep such binary-only packages working better than they have in the past.
To the extent that tools process source code and not compiled packages, those tools will not work with binary-only packages. The compiler and linker will continue to enforce that all packages be compiled with the same version of the toolchain: a binary-only package built with Go 1.4 will not work with Go 1.5. Authors and users of binary-only packages must live with these implications.
The implementation is essentially as described in the proposal section above.
One additional detail is that the go command must load the build ID for the package in question from the compiled binary form directly, instead of deriving it from the source files.
I will implement this change for Go 1.7.