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Latest commit a5cfad7 Dec 18, 2016 iagox86 Major update: re-named most of the files, added a README.md file, and…
… added a decryption module. This change breaks compatibility with previous versions, unfortunately.

README.md

Poracle - Padding Oracle Attack Tool

This is Poracle - a tool for demonstrating padding oracle attacks!

This is going to be a fairly brief tutorial simply on how to use this tool; if you want to understand the mechanics behind a padding oracle attack, your best bet is to check out my blog post on the subject or my detailed by-hand walkthrough.

With that out of the way, let's look at how to use this tool!

What can we do, exactly?

The idea of a padding oracle is conceptually simple: if you have a server (we'll call it an "oracle") that accepts data encrypted with a block cipher, then attempts to decrypt it and exposes whether or not the padding was correct, you have a padding oracle vulnerability!

Why this actually works is beyond the scope, but see the blog links above.

Once you have a padding oracle, you can do some cool stuff:

  1. Decrypt any encrypted data you're given (for example, if the data is in a cookie, you can decrypt the cookie!)

  2. Encrypt any arbitrary data, such that it can be cleanly decrypted by the server using their key (for example, if the data in the cookie is a file path).

Poracle requires the user to write a little bit of Ruby code, enough to make a web request and verify the result. The Demo.rb script shows the most common usage and can be trivially modified.

Create a module

A module is simply a little bit of Ruby code. Your best bet is probably to look at Demo.rb and change it as needed.

Let's look at Demo.rb in detail:

require 'httparty'
require './Poracle'

The requires are pretty boring; httparty is a handy little gem for making HTTP requests (you may need to run gem install httparty to use it). Poracle is the meat of the library that does all the heavy lifting.

BLOCKSIZE = 16

It's important to get the right blocksize. You can usually find the blocksize by looking at how long the encrypted data is for a variety of data. If the length is always a multiple of 16, then it's probably got a 16-byte blocksize. If the length is occasionally a multiple of 8, then it's probably got an 8-byte blocksize.

If you don't know the blocksize, just try both 8 and 16 - one of them will almost certainly work.

poracle = Poracle.new(BLOCKSIZE, true) do |data|
  url = "http://localhost:20222/decrypt/#{data.unpack("H*").pop}"
  result = HTTParty.get(url)

  # Return
  result.parsed_response !~ /Fail/
end

This is the most important part: create an instance of Poracle! The block underneath is called with some block of data, which is just a string of bytes.

It's up to you, the user, to figure out what to do with the bytes. The most common thing is to encode them as hex and put them into the URL as a field, and that's exactly what the demo does - it appends the data, encoded to hex, to the URL.

Then, it looks to see if the response contains the word 'Fail'. In RemoteTestServer.rb, that's the response for badly encrypted data.

The last line, being the end of a block, is the return value for the block. You need to return True if the data was successfully decrypted, or False if it was not.

Decryption

Now we start the decrypting stuff!

data = HTTParty.get("http://localhost:20222/encrypt").parsed_response
print "Trying to decrypt: %s" % data

These lines simply get the encrypted string. This will probably be hardcoded most of the time, I get it by making a request here just to show how that can potentially be done.

result = poracle.decrypt([data].pack('H*'))

And finally (for the decryption portion), this tells poracle to go ahead and decrypt the data. This will make all the requests and call the block you defined above a whole bunch of times. result becomes the magic string!

[data].pack('H*') converts the data from a user-readable hex string to a string of binary data.

Encryption

I also include an example of how to use the encryption function, although it's not all that exciting for this particular app:

data = "The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents."
print "Trying to encrypt: %s" % data
result = poracle.encrypt(data)

Basically, we take a string that we want to encrypt, and call poracle.encrypt() on it. Poracle will find an encrypted string that decrypts to what you're looking for!

Two caveats on encryption:

First, this is way slower than decryption. With decryption, we know the result is probably going to be human-readable characters so we optimize the order in which we do the tests to prioritize those. With encryption, it's just a binary output, so we don't know.

Second, and more importantly, unless you control the IV, which you don't in the demo I include, the encrypted string will start with garbage. We can't properly encrypt the first block unless we control the IV, which is a limitation of this attack.

When I ran this test to write this, I got:

-----------------------------
Encrypted string
-----------------------------
aac69a9f8c712bb2f295e98b8ed565ece2d33d47a7d846aca4f7acb19a23de18ad0b7e7b1f10c4e05ed68e90dc27d65b1302a10efbc1a997d226183479946c417abcc1999fde2b148f71747d0f1be3ec26888781dd51c11c33239b3872597c5c9258279de8dcb8bb3cb3e00dfbe2a18570204e7051b04273b5a25088ec6522f941414141414141414141414141414141
-----------------------------

Which decrypts to:

=> "\x1C\xB2i\xE9gOpC\xDCX\xE3\x9B-x8)The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents."