Skip to content

invenia/BlueStyle

master
Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
Type
Name
Latest commit message
Commit time
Nov 22, 2022

Blue: a Style Guide for Julia

Code Style: Blue

This document specifies style conventions for Julia code. These conventions were created from a variety of sources including Python's PEP8, Julia's Notes for Contributors, and Julia's Style Guide.

A Word on Consistency

When adhering to this style it's important to realize that these are guidelines and not rules. This is stated best in the PEP8:

A style guide is about consistency. Consistency with this style guide is important. Consistency within a project is more important. Consistency within one module or function is the most important.

But most importantly: know when to be inconsistent -- sometimes the style guide just doesn't apply. When in doubt, use your best judgment. Look at other examples and decide what looks best. And don't hesitate to ask!

Synopsis

Attempt to follow both the Julia Contribution Guidelines, the Julia Style Guide, and this guide. When convention guidelines conflict this guide takes precedence (known conflicts will be noted in this guide).

  • Use 4 spaces per indentation level, no tabs.
  • Try to adhere to a 92 character line length limit.
  • Use upper camel-case convention for modules and types.
  • Use lower case with underscores for method names (note: contrary to this, it is a common stylistic choice in the Julia base code to use lower case without underscores).
  • Import modules with using, with one module per line and at the top of the file when possible.
  • Comments are good, try to explain the intentions of the code.
  • Use whitespace to make the code more readable.
  • No whitespace at the end of a line (trailing whitespace).
  • Avoid padding brackets with spaces. ex. Int64(value) preferred over Int64( value ).

Contents

Code Formatting

Module Imports

Module imports should occur at the top of the file or right after a module declaration. Files loaded via an include should avoid specifying their own module imports and should instead add them to the file in which they were included (e.g. "src/Example.jl" or "test/runtests.jl").

A module import should only specify a single package per line. The lines should be ordered alphabetically by the package/module name (note: relative imports precede absolute imports).

# Yes:
using A
using B

# No:
using A, B

# No:
using B
using A

Imports which explicitly declare what to bring into scope should be grouped into: modules, constants, types, macros, and functions. These groupings should be specified in that order and each group's contents should be sorted alphabetically, typically with modules on a separate line. As pseudo-code:

using Example: $(sort(modules)...)
using Example: $(sort(constants)...), $(sort(types)...), $(sort(macros)...), $(sort(functions)...)

If you are only explicitly importing a few items you can alternatively use the following one-line form:

using Example: $(sort(modules)...), $(sort(constants)...), $(sort(types)...), $(sort(macros)...), $(sort(functions)...)

In some scenarios there may be alternate ordering within a group which makes more logical sense. For example when explicitly importing subtypes of Period you may want to sort them in units largest to smallest:

using Dates: Year, Month, Week, Day, Hour, Minute, Second, Millisecond

Explicit import lines which exceed the line length should use line-continuation or multiple import statements for the same package. Using multiple import statements should be preferred when creating alternate groupings:

# Yes:
using AVeryLongPackage: AVeryLongType, AnotherVeryLongType, a_very_long_function,
    another_very_long_function

# Yes:
using AVeryLongPackage: AVeryLongType, AnotherVeryLongType
using AVeryLongPackage: a_very_long_function, another_very_long_function

# No:
using AVeryLongPackage:
    AVeryLongType,
    AnotherVeryLongType,
    a_very_long_function,
    another_very_long_function

# No:
using AVeryLongPackage: AVeryLongType
using AVeryLongPackage: AnotherVeryLongType
using AVeryLongPackage: a_very_long_function
using AVeryLongPackage: another_very_long_function

Note: Prefer the use of imports with explicit declarations when writing packages. Doing so will make maintaining the package easier by knowing what functionality the package is importing and when dependencies can safely be dropped.

Prefer the use of using over import to ensure that extension of a function is always explicit and on purpose:

# Yes:
using Example

Example.hello(x::Monster) = "Aargh! It's a Monster!"
Base.isreal(x::Ghost) = false

# No:
import Base: isreal
import Example: hello

hello(x::Monster) = "Aargh! It's a Monster!"
isreal(x::Ghost) = false

If you do require the use of import then create separate groupings for import and using statements divided by a blank line:

# Yes:
import A: a
import C

using B
using D: d

# No:
import A: a
using B
import C
using D: d

Function Exports

All functions that are intended to be part of the public API should be exported. All function exports should occur at the top of the main module file, after module imports. Avoid splitting a single export over multiple lines; either define one export per line, or group them by theme.

# Yes:
export foo
export bar
export qux

# Yes:
export get_foo, get_bar
export solve_foo, solve_bar

# No:
export foo,
    bar,
    qux

Global Variables

Global variables should be avoided whenever possible. When required, global variables should be consts and have an all uppercase name separated with underscores (e.g. MY_CONSTANT). They should be defined at the top of the file, immediately after imports and exports but before an __init__ function. If you truly want mutable global style behaviour you may want to look into mutable containers or closures.

Function Naming

Names of functions should describe an action or property irrespective of the type of the argument; the argument's type provides this information instead. For example, submit_bid(bid) should be submit(bid::Bid) and bids_in_batch(batch) should be bids(batch::Batch).

Names of functions should usually be limited to one or two lowercase words separated by underscores. If you find it hard to shorten your function names without losing information, you may need to factor more information into the type signature or split the function's responsibilities into two or more functions. In general, shorter functions with clearly-defined responsibilities are preferred.

NOTE: Functions that are only intended for internal use should be marked with a leading underscore (e.g., _internal_utility_function(X, y)). Although it should be much less common, the same naming convention can be used for internal types and constants as well (e.g., _MyInternalType, _MY_CONSTANT). Marking a function as internal or private lets other people know that they shouldn't expect any kind of API stability from that functionality.

Method Definitions

Only use short-form function definitions when they fit on a single line:

# Yes:
foo(x::Int64) = abs(x) + 3

# No:
foobar(array_data::AbstractArray{T}, item::T) where {T<:Int64} = T[
    abs(x) * abs(item) + 3 for x in array_data
]
# Yes:
function foobar(array_data::AbstractArray{T}, item::T) where T<:Int64
    return T[abs(x) * abs(item) + 3 for x in array_data]
end

# No:
foobar(
    array_data::AbstractArray{T},
    item::T,
) where {T<:Int64} = T[abs(x) * abs(item) + 3 for x in array_data]

When using long-form functions always use the return keyword:

# Yes:
function fnc(x::T) where T
    result = zero(T)
    result += fna(x)
    return result
end

# No:
function fnc(x::T) where T
    result = zero(T)
    result += fna(x)
end
# Yes:
function Foo(x, y)
    return new(x, y)
end

# No:
function Foo(x, y)
    new(x, y)
end

When using the return keyword always explicitly return a value, even if it is return nothing.

# Yes:
function maybe_do_thing()
    # code
    return nothing
end

# No:
function maybe_do_thing()
    # code
    return
end

Functions definitions with parameter lines which exceed 92 characters should separate each parameter by a newline and indent by one-level:

# Yes:
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame,
    id::Symbol,
    variable::Symbol,
    value::AbstractString,
    prefix::AbstractString="",
)
    # code
end

# Ok:
function foobar(df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString, prefix::AbstractString="")
    # code
end

# No: Don't put any args on the same line as the open parenthesis if they won't all fit.
function foobar(df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString,
    prefix::AbstractString="")

    # code
end

# No: All args should be on a new line in this case.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString,
    prefix::AbstractString=""
)
    # code
end

# No: Indented too much.
function foobar(
        df::DataFrame,
        id::Symbol,
        variable::Symbol,
        value::AbstractString,
        prefix::AbstractString="",
    )
    # code
end

If all of the arguments fit inside the 92 character limit then you can place them on 1 line. Similarly, you can follow the same rule if you break up positional and keyword arguments across two lines.

# Ok:
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString; prefix::String=""
)
    # code
end

# Ok: Putting all args and all kwargs on separate lines is fine.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString;
    prefix::String=""
)
    # code
end

# Ok: Putting all positional args on 1 line and each kwarg on separate lines.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString;
    prefix="I'm a long default setting that probably shouldn't exist",
    msg="I'm another long default setting that probably shouldn't exist",
)
    # code
end

# No: Because the separate line is more than 92 characters.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString; prefix::AbstractString=""
)
    # code
end

# No: The args and kwargs should be split up.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol,
    value::AbstractString; prefix::AbstractString=""
)
    # code
end

# No: The kwargs are more than 92 characters.
function foobar(
    df::DataFrame, id::Symbol, variable::Symbol, value::AbstractString;
    prefix="I'm a long default setting that probably shouldn't exist", msg="I'm another long default settings that probably shouldn't exist",
)
    # code
end

Keyword Arguments

When calling a function always separate your keyword arguments from your positional arguments with a semicolon. This avoids mistakes in ambiguous cases (such as splatting a Dict).

# Yes:
xy = foo(x; y=3)
ab = foo(; a=1, b=2)

# Ok:
ab = foo(a=1, b=2)

# No:
xy = foo(x, y=3)

Whitespace

  • Avoid extraneous whitespace immediately inside parentheses, square brackets or braces.

    # Yes:
    spam(ham[1], [eggs])
    
    # No:
    spam( ham[ 1 ], [ eggs ] )
  • Avoid extraneous whitespace immediately before a comma or semicolon:

    # Yes:
    if x == 4 @show(x, y); x, y = y, x end
    
    # No:
    if x == 4 @show(x , y) ; x , y = y , x end
  • Avoid whitespace around : in ranges. Use brackets to clarify expressions on either side.

    # Yes:
    ham[1:9]
    ham[9:-3:0]
    ham[1:step:end]
    ham[lower:upper-1]
    ham[lower:upper - 1]
    ham[lower:(upper + offset)]
    ham[(lower + offset):(upper + offset)]
    
    # No:
    ham[1: 9]
    ham[9 : -3: 1]
    ham[lower : upper - 1]
    ham[lower + offset:upper + offset]  # Avoid as it is easy to read as `ham[lower + (offset:upper) + offset]`
  • Avoid using more than one space around an assignment (or other) operator to align it with another:

    # Yes:
    x = 1
    y = 2
    long_variable = 3
    
    # No:
    x             = 1
    y             = 2
    long_variable = 3
  • Surround most binary operators with a single space on either side: assignment (=), updating operators (+=, -=, etc.), numeric comparisons operators (==, <, >, !=, etc.), lambda operator (->). Binary operators may be excluded from this guideline include: the range operator (:), rational operator (//), exponentiation operator (^), optional arguments/keywords (e.g. f(x=1; y=2)).

    # Yes:
    i = j + 1
    submitted += 1
    x^2 < y
    
    # No:
    i=j+1
    submitted +=1
    x^2<y
  • Avoid using whitespace between unary operands and the expression:

    # Yes:
    -1
    [1 0 -1]
    
    # No:
    - 1
    [1 0 - 1]  # Note: evaluates to `[1 -1]`
  • Avoid extraneous empty lines. Avoid empty lines between single line method definitions and otherwise separate functions with one empty line, plus a comment if required:

    # Yes:
    # Note: an empty line before the first long-form `domaths` method is optional.
    domaths(x::Number) = x + 5
    domaths(x::Int) = x + 10
    function domaths(x::String)
        return "A string is a one-dimensional extended object postulated in string theory."
    end
    
    dophilosophy() = "Why?"
    
    # No:
    domath(x::Number) = x + 5
    
    domath(x::Int) = x + 10
    
    
    
    function domath(x::String)
        return "A string is a one-dimensional extended object postulated in string theory."
    end
    
    
    dophilosophy() = "Why?"
  • Function calls which cannot fit on a single line within the line limit should be broken up such that the lines containing the opening and closing brackets are indented to the same level while the parameters of the function are indented one level further. In most cases the arguments and/or keywords should each be placed on separate lines. Note that this rule conflicts with the typical Julia convention of indenting the next line to align with the open bracket in which the parameter is contained. If working in a package with a different convention follow the convention used in the package over using this guideline.

    # Yes:
    f(a, b)
    constraint = conic_form!(
        SOCElemConstraint(temp2 + temp3, temp2 - temp3, 2 * temp1),
        unique_conic_forms,
    )
    
    # No:
    # Note: `f` call is short enough to be on a single line
    f(
        a,
        b,
    )
    constraint = conic_form!(SOCElemConstraint(temp2 + temp3,
                                               temp2 - temp3, 2 * temp1),
                             unique_conic_forms)
  • Assignments using expanded notation for arrays or tuples, or function calls should have the first open bracket on the same line assignment operator and the closing bracket should match the indentation level of the assignment. Alternatively you can perform assignments on a single line when they are short:

    # Yes:
    arr = [
        1,
        2,
        3,
    ]
    arr = [
        1, 2, 3,
    ]
    result = func(
        arg1,
        arg2,
    )
    arr = [1, 2, 3]
    
    # No:
    arr =
    [
        1,
        2,
        3,
    ]
    arr =
    [
        1, 2, 3,
    ]
    arr = [
        1,
        2,
        3,
        ]
  • Nested arrays or tuples that are in expanded notation should have the opening and closing brackets at the same indentation level:

    # Yes:
    x = [
        [
            1, 2, 3,
        ],
        [
            "hello",
            "world",
        ],
        ['a', 'b', 'c'],
    ]
    
    # No:
    y = [
        [
            1, 2, 3,
        ], [
            "hello",
            "world",
        ],
    ]
    z = [[
            1, 2, 3,
        ], [
            "hello",
            "world",
        ],
    ]
  • Always include the trailing comma when working with expanded arrays, tuples or functions notation. This allows future edits to easily move elements around or add additional elements. The trailing comma should be excluded when the notation is only on a single-line:

    # Yes:
    arr = [
        1,
        2,
        3,
    ]
    result = func(
        arg1,
        arg2,
    )
    arr = [1, 2, 3]
    
    # No:
    arr = [
        1,
        2,
        3
    ]
    result = func(
        arg1,
        arg2
    )
    arr = [1, 2, 3,]
  • Triple-quotes and triple-backticks written over multiple lines should be indented. As triple-quotes use the indentation of the lowest indented line (excluding the opening quotes) the least indented line in the string or ending quotes should be indented once. Triple-backticks should also follow this style even though the indentation does not matter for them.

    # Yes:
    str = """
        hello
        world!
        """
    cmd = ```
        program
            --flag value
            parameter
        ```
    
    # No:
    str = """
    hello
    world!
    """
    cmd = ```
          program
              --flag value
              parameter
          ```
  • Assignments using triple-quotes or triple-backticks should have the opening quotes on the same line as the assignment operator.

    # Yes:
    str2 = """
           hello
       world!
       """
    
    # No:
    str2 =
       """
           hello
       world!
       """
  • Group similar one line statements together.

    # Yes:
    foo = 1
    bar = 2
    baz = 3
    
    # No:
    foo = 1
    
    bar = 2
    
    baz = 3
  • Use blank-lines to separate different multi-line blocks.

    # Yes:
    if foo
        println("Hi")
    end
    
    for i in 1:10
        println(i)
    end
    
    # No:
    if foo
        println("Hi")
    end
    for i in 1:10
        println(i)
    end
  • After a function definition, and before an end statement do not include a blank line.

    # Yes:
    function foo(bar::Int64, baz::Int64)
        return bar + baz
    end
    
    # No:
    function foo(bar::Int64, baz::Int64)
    
        return bar + baz
    end
    
    # No:
    function foo(bar::In64, baz::Int64)
        return bar + baz
    
    end
  • Use line breaks between control flow statements and returns.

    # Yes:
    function foo(bar; verbose=false)
        if verbose
            println("baz")
        end
    
        return bar
    end
    
    # Ok:
    function foo(bar; verbose=false)
        if verbose
            println("baz")
        end
        return bar
    end

NamedTuples

The = character in NamedTuples should be spaced as in keyword arguments. No space should be put between the name and its value. NamedTuples should not be prefixed with ; at the start. The empty NamedTuple should be written NamedTuple() not (;)

# Yes:
xy = (x=1, y=2)
x = (x=1,)  # Trailing comma required for correctness.
x = (; kwargs...)  # Semicolon required to splat correctly.

# No:
xy = (x = 1, y = 2)
xy = (;x=1,y=2)
x = (; x=1)

Numbers

Floating-point numbers should always include a leading and/or trailing zero:

# Yes:
0.1
2.0
3.0f0

# No:
.1
2.
3.f0

Ternary Operator

Ternary operators (?:) should generally only consume a single line. Do not chain multiple ternary operators. If chaining many conditions, consider using an if-elseif-else conditional, dispatch, or a dictionary.

# Yes:
foobar = foo == 2 ? bar : baz

# No:
foobar = foo == 2 ?
    bar :
    baz
foobar = foo == 2 ? bar : foo == 3 ? qux : baz

As an alternative, you can use a compound boolean expression:

# Yes:
foobar = if foo == 2
    bar
else
    baz
end

foobar = if foo == 2
    bar
elseif foo == 3
    qux
else
    baz
end

For loops

For loops should always use in, never = or . This also applies to list and generator comprehensions

# Yes
for i in 1:10
    #...
end

[foo(x) for x in xs]

# No:
for i = 1:10
    #...
end

[foo(x) for x  xs]

Modules

Normally a file that includes the definition of a module, should not include any other code that runs outside that module. i.e. the module should be declared at the top of the file with the module keyword and end at the bottom of the file. No other code before, or after (except for module docstring before). In this case the code with in the module block should not be indented.

Sometimes, e.g. for tests, or for namespacing an enumeration, it is desirable to declare a submodule midway through a file. In this case the code within the submodule should be indented.

Type annotation

Annotations for function definitions should be as general as possible.

# Yes:
splicer(arr::AbstractArray, step::Integer) = arr[begin:step:end]

# No:
splicer(arr::Array{Int}, step::Int) = arr[begin:step:end]

Using as generic types as possible allows for a variety of inputs and allows your code to be more general:

julia> splicer(1:10, 2)
1:2:9

julia> splicer([3.0, 5, 7, 9], 2)
2-element Array{Float64,1}:
 3.0
 7.0

Annotations on type fields need to be given a little more thought. Using specific concrete types for fields allows Julia to optimize the memory layout but can reduce flexibility. For example lets take a look at the type MySubString which allows us to work with a subsection of a string without having to copy the data:

mutable struct MySubString <: AbstractString
    string::AbstractString
    offset::Integer
    endof::Integer
end

We want the type to be able to hold any subtype of AbstractString but do we need to have offset and endof to be able to hold any subtype of Integer? Really, no, we should be ok to use Int here (Int64 on 64-bit systems and Int32 on 32-bit systems). Note that even though we're using Int a user can still do things like MySubString("foobar", 0x4, 0x6); as provided offset and endof values will be converted to an Int.

mutable struct MySubString <: AbstractString
    string::AbstractString
    offset::Int
    endof::Int
end

If we truly care about performance there is one more thing we can do by making our type parametric. The current definition of MySubString allows us to modify the string field at any time with any subtype of AbstractString. Using a parametric type allows us to use any subtype of AbstractString upon construction but the field type will be set to something concrete (like String) and cannot be changed for the lifetime of the instance.

mutable struct MySubString{T<:AbstractString} <: AbstractString
    string::T
    offset::Integer
    endof::Integer
end

Overall, it is best to keep the types general to start with and later optimize them using parametric types. Optimizing too early in the code design process can impact your ability to refactor the code early on.

Package version specifications

For simplicity and consistency with the wider Julia community, avoid including the default caret specifier when specifying package version requirements.

# Yes:
DataFrames = "0.17"

# No:
DataFrames = "^0.17"

Comments

Comments should be used to state the intended behaviour of code. This is especially important when the code is doing something clever that may not be obvious upon first inspection. Avoid writing comments that state exactly what the code obviously does.

# Yes:
x = x + 1      # Compensate for border

# No:
x = x + 1      # Increment x

Comments that contradict the code are much worse than no comments. Always make a priority of keeping the comments up-to-date with code changes!

Comments should be complete sentences. If a comment is a phrase or sentence, its first word should be capitalized, unless it is an identifier that begins with a lower case letter (never alter the case of identifiers!).

If a comment is short, the period at the end can be omitted. Block comments generally consist of one or more paragraphs built out of complete sentences, and each sentence should end in a period.

Comments should be separated by at least two spaces from the expression and have a single space after the #.

When referencing Julia in documentation note that "Julia" refers to the programming language while "julia" (typically in backticks, e.g. julia) refers to the executable.

Only use inline comments if they fit within the line length limit. If your comment cannot be fitted inline then place the comment above the content to which it refers:

# Yes:

# Number of nodes to predict. Again, an issue with the workflow order. Should be updated
# after data is fetched.
p = 1

# No:

p = 1  # Number of nodes to predict. Again, an issue with the workflow order. Should be
# updated after data is fetched.

Documentation

It is recommended that most modules, types and functions should have docstrings. That being said, only exported functions are required to be documented. Avoid documenting methods like == as the built in docstring for the function already covers the details well. Try to document a function and not individual methods where possible as typically all methods will have similar docstrings. If you are adding a method to a function which already has a docstring only add a docstring if the behaviour of your function deviates from the existing docstring.

Docstrings are written in Markdown and should be concise. Docstring lines should be wrapped at 92 characters.

"""
    bar(x[, y])

Compute the Bar index between `x` and `y`. If `y` is missing, compute the Bar index between
all pairs of columns of `x`.
"""
function bar(x, y) ...

When types or methods have lots of parameters it may not be feasible to write a concise docstring. In these cases it is recommended you use the templates below. Note if a section doesn't apply or is overly verbose (for example "Throws" if your function doesn't throw an exception) it can be excluded. It is recommended that you have a blank line between the headings and the content when the content is of sufficient length. Try to be consistent within a docstring whether you use this additional whitespace. Note that the additional space is only for reading raw markdown and does not affect the rendered version.

Type Template (should be skipped if is redundant with the constructor(s) docstring):

"""
    MyArray{T,N}

My super awesome array wrapper!

# Fields
- `data::AbstractArray{T,N}`: stores the array being wrapped
- `metadata::Dict`: stores metadata about the array
"""
struct MyArray{T,N} <: AbstractArray{T,N}
    data::AbstractArray{T,N}
    metadata::Dict
end

Function Template (only required for exported functions):

"""
    mysearch(array::MyArray{T}, val::T; verbose=true) where {T} -> Int

Searches the `array` for the `val`. For some reason we don't want to use Julia's
builtin search :)

# Arguments
- `array::MyArray{T}`: the array to search
- `val::T`: the value to search for

# Keywords
- `verbose::Bool=true`: print out progress details

# Returns
- `Int`: the index where `val` is located in the `array`

# Throws
- `NotFoundError`: I guess we could throw an error if `val` isn't found.
"""
function mysearch(array::AbstractArray{T}, val::T) where T
    ...
end

If your method contains lots of arguments or keywords you may want to exclude them from the method signature on the first line and instead use args... and/or kwargs....

"""
    Manager(args...; kwargs...) -> Manager

A cluster manager which spawns workers.

# Arguments

- `min_workers::Integer`: The minimum number of workers to spawn or an exception is thrown
- `max_workers::Integer`: The requested number of workers to spawn

# Keywords

- `definition::AbstractString`: Name of the job definition to use. Defaults to the
    definition used within the current instance.
- `name::AbstractString`: ...
- `queue::AbstractString`: ...
"""
function Manager(...)
    ...
end

Feel free to document multiple methods for a function within the same docstring. Be careful to only do this for functions you have defined.

"""
    Manager(max_workers; kwargs...)
    Manager(min_workers:max_workers; kwargs...)
    Manager(min_workers, max_workers; kwargs...)

A cluster manager which spawns workers.

# Arguments

- `min_workers::Int`: The minimum number of workers to spawn or an exception is thrown
- `max_workers::Int`: The requested number of workers to spawn

# Keywords

- `definition::AbstractString`: Name of the job definition to use. Defaults to the
    definition used within the current instance.
- `name::AbstractString`: ...
- `queue::AbstractString`: ...
"""
function Manager end

If the documentation for bullet-point exceeds 92 characters the line should be wrapped and slightly indented. Avoid aligning the text to the :.

"""
...

# Keywords
- `definition::AbstractString`: Name of the job definition to use. Defaults to the
    definition used within the current instance.
"""

For additional details on documenting in Julia see the official documentation.

For documentation written in Markdown files such as README.md or docs/src/index.md use exactly one sentence per line.

Test Formatting

Testsets

Julia provides test sets which allows developers to group tests into logical groupings. Test sets can be nested and ideally packages should only have a single "root" test set. It is recommended that the "runtests.jl" file contains the root test set which contains the remainder of the tests:

@testset "PkgExtreme" begin
    include("arithmetic.jl")
    include("utils.jl")
end

Comparisons

Most tests are written in the form @test x == y. Since the == function doesn't take types into account tests like the following are valid: @test 1.0 == 1. Avoid adding visual noise into test comparisons:

# Yes:
@test value == 0

# No:
@test value == 0.0

Performance and Optimization

Several of these tips are contained within Julia's Performance Tips.

Much of Julia's performance gains come from being able to specialize functions on their input types. Putting variables and functionality in the global namespace or module's namespace thwarts this. One consequence of this is that conventional MATLAB-style scripts will result in surprisingly slow code. There are two ways to mitigate this:

  • Move as much functionality into functions as possible.
  • Declare global variables as constants using const.

Remember that the first time you call a function with a certain type signature it will compile that function for the given input types. Compilation is sometimes a significant portion of time, so avoid profiling/timing functions on their first run. Note that the @benchmark and @btime macros from the BenchmarkTools package can be useful as they run the function many times and report summary statistics of time and memory allocation, alleviating the need to run the function first before benchmarking.

Editor Configuration

Sublime Text Settings

If you are a user of Sublime Text we recommend that you have the following options in your Julia syntax specific settings. To modify these settings first open any Julia file (*.jl) in Sublime Text. Then navigate to: Preferences > Settings - More > Syntax Specific - User

{
    "translate_tabs_to_spaces": true,
    "tab_size": 4,
    "trim_trailing_white_space_on_save": true,
    "ensure_newline_at_eof_on_save": true,
    "rulers": [92]
}

Vim Settings

If you are a user of Vim we recommend that you add to your .vim/vimrc file:

" ~/.vim/vimrc
set tabstop=4       " Set tabstops to a width of four columns.
set softtabstop=4   " Determine the behaviour of TAB and BACKSPACE keys with expandtab.
set shiftwidth=4    " Determine the results of >>, <<, and ==.

" Identify .jl files as Julia. If using julia-vim plugin, this is redundant.
autocmd BufRead,BufNewFile *.jl set filetype=julia

Then create or edit .vim/after/ftplugin/julia.vim, adding the Julia-specific configuration:

" ~/.vim/after/ftplugin/julia.vim
setlocal expandtab       " Replace tabs with spaces.
setlocal textwidth=92    " Limit lines according to Julia's CONTRIBUTING guidelines.
setlocal colorcolumn=+1  " Highlight first column beyond the line limit.

Additionally, you may find is useful to use the julia-vim plugin which adds Julia-aware syntax highlighting and a few cool other features.

Atom Settings

Atom defaults preferred line length to 80 characters. We want that at 92 for julia. To change it:

  1. Go to Atom -> Preferences -> Packages.
  2. Search for the "language-julia" package and open the settings for it.
  3. Find preferred line length (under "Julia Grammar") and change it to 92.

VS-Code Settings

If you are a user of VS Code we recommend that you have the following options in your Julia syntax specific settings. To modify these settings open your VS Code Settings with CMD+, (Mac OS) or CTRL+, (other OS), and add to your settings.json:

{
    "[julia]": {
        "editor.detectIndentation": false,
        "editor.insertSpaces": true,
        "editor.tabSize": 4,
        "files.insertFinalNewline": true,
        "files.trimFinalNewlines": true,
        "files.trimTrailingWhitespace": true,
        "editor.rulers": [92],
    },
}

Additionally you may find the Julia VS-Code plugin useful.

Code Style Badge

Let contributors know your project is following the Blue style guide by adding the badge to your README.md.

[![Code Style: Blue](https://img.shields.io/badge/code%20style-blue-4495d1.svg)](https://github.com/invenia/BlueStyle)

The badge is blue: Code Style: Blue

About

A Julia style guide that lives in a blue world

Topics

Resources

License

Stars

Watchers

Forks

Releases

No releases published

Packages

No packages published