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2017-05-27, version 3.13.3

  • Fixed a bug in function intersection of line and plane. Thanks @viclai.
  • Fixed security vulnerabilities.

2017-05-26, version 3.13.2

  • Disabled function chain inside the expression parser for security reasons (it's not needed there anyway).
  • Fixed #856: function subset not returning non-primitive scalars from Arrays correctly. (like math.eval('arr[1]', {arr: [math.bignumber(2)]}).
  • Fixed #861: physical constants not available in the expression parser.

2017-05-12, version 3.13.1

  • Fixed creating units with an alias not working within the expression parser.
  • Fixed security vulnerabilities. Thanks Sam.

2017-05-12, version 3.13.0

  • Command line application can now evaluate inline expressions like mathjs 1+2. Thanks @slavaGanzin.
  • Function derivative now supports abs. Thanks @tetslee.
  • Function simplify now supports BigNumbers. Thanks @tetslee.
  • Prevent against endless loops in simplify. Thanks @tetslee.
  • Fixed #813: function simplify converting small numbers to inexact Fractions. Thanks @tetslee.
  • Fixed #838: Function simplify now supports constants like e. Thanks @tetslee.

2017-05-05, version 3.12.3

  • Fixed security vulnerabilities. Thanks Dan and Sam.

2017-04-30, version 3.12.2

  • Added a rocket trajectory optimization example.

2017-04-24, version 3.12.1

  • Fixed #804
    • Improved handling of powers of Infinity. Thanks @HarrySarson.
    • Fixed wrong formatting of complex NaN.
  • Fixed security vulnerabilities in the expression parser. Thanks Sam and Dan.

2017-04-17, version 3.12.0

  • Implemented QR decomposition, function math.qr. Thanks @HarrySarson.
  • Fixed #824: Calling math.random() freezes IE and node.js.

2017-04-08, version 3.11.5

  • More security measures in the expression parser. WARNING: the behavior of the expression parser is now more strict, some undocumented features may not work any longer.
    • Accessing and assigning properties is now only allowed on plain objects, not on classes, arrays, and functions anymore.
    • Accessing methods is restricted to a set of known, safe methods.

2017-04-03, version 3.11.4

  • Fixed a security vulnerability in the expression parser. Thanks @xfix.

2017-04-03, version 3.11.3

  • Fixed a security vulnerability in the expression parser. Thanks @xfix.

2017-04-03, version 3.11.2

  • Fixed a security vulnerability in the expression parser. Thanks @xfix.

2017-04-02, version 3.11.1

  • Fixed security vulnerabilities in the expression parser. Thanks Joe Vennix and @xfix.

2017-04-02, version 3.11.0

  • Implemented method Unit.toSI() to convert a unit to base SI units. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Fixed #821, #822: security vulnerabilities in the expression parser. Thanks @comex and @xfix.

2017-03-31, version 3.10.3

  • More security fixes related to the ones fixed in v3.10.2.

2017-03-31, version 3.10.2

  • Fixed a security vulnerability in the expression parser allowing execution of arbitrary JavaScript. Thanks @CapacitorSet and @denvit.

2017-03-26, version 3.10.1

  • Fixed xgcd for negative values. Thanks @litmit.
  • Fixed #807: function transform of existing functions not being removed when overriding such a function.

2017-03-05, version 3.10.0

  • Implemented function reshape. Thanks @patgrasso and @ericman314.
  • Implemented configuration option seedRandom for deterministic random numbers. Thanks @morsecodist.
  • Small fixes in the docs. Thanks @HarrySarson.
  • Dropped support for component package manager (which became deprecated about one and a half year ago).

2017-02-22, version 3.9.3

  • Fixed #797: issue with production builds of React Native projects.
  • Fixed math.round not accepting inputs NaN, Infinity, -Infinity.
  • Upgraded all dependencies.

2017-02-16, version 3.9.2

  • Fixed #795: Parse error in case of a multi-line expression with just comments.

2017-02-06, version 3.9.1

  • Fixed #789: Math.js not supporting conversion of string to BigNumber, Fraction, or Complex number.
  • Fixed #790: Expression parser did not pass function arguments of enclosing functions via scope to functions having rawArgs = true.
  • Small fixes in the docs. Thanks @HarrySarson.

2017-01-23, version 3.9.0

  • Implemented support for algebra: powerful new functions simplify and derivative. Thanks @ericman314, @tetslee, and @BigFav.
  • Implemented Kronecker Product kron. Thanks @adamisntdead.
  • Reverted FunctionNode not accepting a string as function name anymore.
  • Fixed #765: FunctionAssignmentNode.toString() returning a string incompatible with the function assignment syntax.

2016-12-15, version 3.8.1

  • Implemented function mad (median absolute deviation). Thanks @ruhleder.
  • Fixed #762: expression parser failing to invoke a function returned by a function.

2016-11-18, version 3.8.0

  • Functions add and multiply now accept more than two arguments. See #739.
  • OperatorNode now supports more than two arguments. See #739. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Implemented a method Node.cloneDeep for the expression nodes. See #745.
  • Fixed a bug in Node.clone() not cloning implicit multiplication correctly. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Fixed #737: Improved algorithm determining the best prefix for units. It will now retain the original unit like 1 cm when close enough, instead of returning 10 mm. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Fixed #732: Allow letter-like unicode characters like Ohm \u2126.
  • Fixed #749: Units rad, deg, and grad can now have prefixes like millirad.
  • Some fixes in the docs and comments of examples. Thanks @HarrySarson.

2016-11-05, version 3.7.0

  • Implemented method Node.equals(other) for all nodes of the expression parser.
  • Implemented BigNumber support in function arg().
  • Command Line Interface loads faster.
  • Implicit conversions between Fractions and BigNumbers throw a neat error now (See #710).

2016-10-21, version 3.6.0

  • Implemented function erf(). THanks @patgrasso.
  • Extended function cross() to support n-d vectors. Thanks @patgrasso.
  • Extended function pickRandom with the option to pick multiple values from an array and give the values weights: pickRandom(possibles, number, weights). Thanks @woylie.
  • Parser now exposes test functions like isAlpha which can be replaced in order to adjust the allowed characters in variables names (See #715).
  • Fixed #727: Parser not throwing an error for invalid implicit multiplications like -2 2 and 2^3 4 (right after the second value of an operator).
  • Fixed #688: Describe allowed variable names in the docs.

2016-09-21, version 3.5.3

  • Some more fixes regarding numbers ending with a decimal mark (like 2.).

2016-09-20, version 3.5.2

  • Fixed numbers ending with a decimal mark (like 2.) not being supported by the parser, solved the underlying ambiguity in the parser. See #707, #711.

2016-09-12, version 3.5.1

  • Removed a left over console.log statement. Thanks @eknkc.

2016-09-07, version 3.5.0

  • Comments of expressions are are now stored in the parsed nodes. See #690.
  • Fixed function print not accepting an Object with formatting options as third parameter Thanks @ThomasBrierley.
  • Fixed #707: The expression parser no longer accepts numbers ending with a dot like 2..

2016-08-08, version 3.4.1

  • Fixed broken bundle files (dist/math.js, dist/math.min.js).
  • Fixed some layout issues in the function reference docs.

2016-08-07, version 3.4.0

  • Implemented support for custom units using createUnit. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Implemented function splitUnits. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Implemented function isPrime. Thanks @MathBunny.

2016-07-05, version 3.3.0

  • Implemented function isNaN.
  • Function math.filter now passes three arguments to the callback function: value, index, and array.
  • Removed the check on the number of arguments from functions defined in the expression parser (see #665).
  • Fixed #665: functions map, forEach, and filter now invoke callbacks which are a typed-function with the correct number of arguments.

2016-04-26, version 3.2.1

  • Fixed #651: unable to perform calculations on "Unit-less" units.
  • Fixed matrix.subset mutating the replacement matrix when unsqueezing it.

2016-04-16, version 3.2.0

  • Implemented #644: method Parser.getAll() to retrieve all defined variables.
  • Upgraded dependencies (decimal.js@5.0.8, fraction.js@3.3.1, typed-function@0.10.4).
  • Fixed #601: Issue with unnamed typed-functions by upgrading to typed-function v0.10.4.
  • Fixed #636: More strict toTex templates, reckon with number of arguments.
  • Fixed #641: Bug in expression parser parsing implicit multiplication with wrong precedence in specific cases.
  • Fixed #645: Added documentation about engineering notation of function math.format.

2016-04-03, version 3.1.4

  • Using ES6 Math functions like Math.sinh, Math.cbrt, Math.sign, etc when available.
  • Fixed #631: unit aliases weeks, months, and years where missing.
  • Fixed #632: problem with escaped backslashes at the end of strings.
  • Fixed #635: Node.toString options where not passed to function arguments.
  • Fixed #629: expression parser throws an error when passing a number with decimal exponent instead of parsing them as implicit multiplication.
  • Fixed #484, #555: inaccuracy of math.sinh for values between -1 and 1.
  • Fixed #625: Unit in (inch) not always working due to ambiguity with the operator a in b (alias of a to b).

2016-03-24, version 3.1.3

  • Fix broken bundle.

2016-03-24, version 3.1.2

  • Fix broken npm release.

2016-03-24, version 3.1.1

  • Fixed #621: a bug in parsing implicit multiplications like (2)(3)+4.
  • Fixed #623: nthRoot of zero with a negative root returned 0 instead of Infinity.
  • Throw an error when functions min, max, mean, or median are invoked with multiple matrices as arguments (see #598).

2016-03-19, version 3.1.0

  • Hide multiplication operator by default when outputting toTex and toString for implicit multiplications. Implemented and option to output the operator.
  • Implemented unit kip and alias kips. Thanks @hgupta9.
  • Added support for prefixes for units mol and mole. Thanks @stu-blair.
  • Restored support for implicit multiplications like 2(3+4) and (2+3)(4+5).
  • Some improvements in the docs.
  • Added automatic conversions from boolean and null to Fraction, and conversions from Fraction to Complex.

2016-03-04, version 3.0.0

breaking changes

  • More restricted support for implicit multiplication in the expression parser: (...)(...) is now evaluated as a function invocation, and [...][...] as a matrix subset.

  • Matrix multiplication no longer squeezes scalar outputs to a scalar value, but leaves them as they are: a vector or matrix containing a single value. See #529.

  • Assignments in the expression parser now return the assigned value rather than the created or updated object (see #533). Example:

    A = eye(3)
    A[1,1] = 2   # this assignment now returns 2 instead of A
  • Expression parser now supports objects. This involves a refactoring and extension in expression nodes:

    • Implemented new node ObjectNode.
    • Refactored AssignmentNode, UpdateNode, and IndexNode are refactored into AccessorNode, AssignmentNode, and IndexNode having a different API.
  • Upgraded the used BigNumber library decimal.js to v5. Replaced the trigonometric functions of math.js with those provided in decimal.js v5. This can give slightly different behavior qua round-off errors.

  • Replaced the internal Complex.js class with the complex.js library created by @infusion.

  • Entries in a matrix (typically numbers, BigNumbers, Units, etc) are now considered immutable, they are no longer copied when performing operations on the entries, improving performance.

  • Implemented nearly equal comparison for relational functions (equal, larger, smaller, etc.) when using BigNumbers.

  • Changed the casing of the configuration options matrix (Array or Matrix) and number (number, BigNumber, Fraction) such that they now match the type returned by math.typeof. Wrong casing gives a console warning but will still work.

  • Changed the default config value for epsilon from 1e-14 to 1e-12, see #561.

non-breaking changes

  • Extended function pow to return the real root for cubic roots of negative numbers. See #525, #482, #567.
  • Implemented support for JSON objects in the expression parser and the function math.format.
  • Function math.fraction now supports BigNumber, and function math.bignumber now supports Fraction.
  • Expression parser now allows function and/or variable assignments inside accessors and conditionals, like A[x=2] or a > 2 ? b="ok" : b="fail".
  • Command line interface:
    • Outputs the variable name of assignments.
    • Fixed not rounding BigNumbers to 14 digits like numbers.
    • Fixed non-working autocompletion of user defined variables.
  • Reorganized and extended docs, added docs on classes and more. Thanks @hgupta9.
  • Added new units acre, hectare, torr, bar, mmHg, mmH2O, cmH2O, and added new aliases acres, hectares, sqfeet, sqyard, sqmile, sqmiles, mmhg, mmh2o, cmh2o. Thanks @hgupta9.
  • Fixed a bug in the toString method of an IndexNode.
  • Fixed angle units deg, rad, grad, cycle, arcsec, and arcmin not being defined as BigNumbers when configuring to use BigNumbers.

2016-02-03, version 2.7.0

  • Added more unit aliases for time: secs, mins, hr, hrs. See #551.
  • Added support for doing operations with mixed Fractions and BigNumbers.
  • Fixed #540: math.intersect() returning null in some cases. Thanks @void42.
  • Fixed #546: Cannot import BigNumber, Fraction, Matrix, Array. Thanks @brettjurgens.

2016-01-08, version 2.6.0

  • Implemented (complex) units VA and VAR.
  • Implemented time units for weeks, months, years, decades, centuries, and millennia. Thanks @owenversteeg.
  • Implemented new notation engineering in function math.format. Thanks @johnmarinelli.
  • Fixed #523: In some circumstances, matrix subset returned a scalar instead of the correct subset.
  • Fixed #536: A bug in an internal method used for sparse matrices.

2015-12-05, version 2.5.0

  • Implemented support for numeric types Fraction and BigNumber in units.
  • Implemented new method toNumeric for units.
  • Implemented new units arcsec, arcsecond, arcmin, arcminute. Thanks @devdevdata222.
  • Implemented new unit Herts (Hz). Thanks @SwamWithTurtles.
  • Fixed #485: Scoping issue with variables both used globally as well as in a function definition.
  • Fixed: Function number didn't support Fraction as input.

2015-11-14, version 2.4.2

  • Fixed #502: Issue with format in some JavaScript engines.
  • Fixed #503: Removed trailing commas and the use of keyword import as property, as this gives issues with old JavaScript engines.

2015-10-29, version 2.4.1

  • Fixed #480: nthRoot not working on Internet Explorer (up to IE 11).
  • Fixed #490: nthRoot returning an error for negative values like nthRoot(-2, 3).
  • Fixed #489: an issue with initializing a sparse matrix without data. Thanks @Retsam.
  • Fixed: #493: function combinations did not throw an exception for non-integer values of k.
  • Fixed: function import did not override typed functions when the option override was set true.
  • Fixed: added functions math.sparse and math.index to the reference docs, they where missing.
  • Fixed: removed memoization from gamma and factorial functions, this could blow up memory.

2015-10-09, version 2.4.0

  • Added support in the expression parser for mathematical alphanumeric symbols in the expression parser: unicode range \u{1D400} to \u{1D7FF} excluding invalid code points.
  • Extended function distance with more signatures. Thanks @kv-kunalvyas.
  • Fixed a bug in functions sin and cos, which gave wrong results for BigNumber integer values around multiples of tau (i.e. sin(bignumber(7))).
  • Fixed value of unit stone. Thanks @Esvandiary for finding the error.

2015-09-19, version 2.3.0

  • Implemented function distance. Thanks @devanp92.
  • Implemented support for Fractions in function lcm. Thanks @infusion.
  • Implemented function cbrt for numbers, complex numbers, BigNumbers, Units.
  • Implemented function hypot.
  • Upgraded to fraction.js v3.0.0.
  • Fixed #450: issue with non sorted index in sparse matrices.
  • Fixed #463, #322: inconsistent handling of implicit multiplication.
  • Fixed #444: factorial of infinity not returning infinity.

2015-08-30, version 2.2.0

  • Units with powers (like m^2 and s^-1) now output with the best prefix.
  • Implemented support for units to abs, cube, sign, sqrt, square. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Implemented function catalan (Combinatorics). Thanks @devanp92.
  • Improved the canDefineProperty check to return false in case of IE8, which has a broken implementation of defineProperty. Thanks @golmansax.
  • Fixed function to not working in case of a simplified unit.
  • Fixed #437: an issue with row swapping in lup, also affecting lusolve.

2015-08-12, version 2.1.1

  • Fixed wrong values of the physical constants speedOfLight, molarMassC12,
    and magneticFluxQuantum. Thanks @ericman314 for finding two of them.

2015-08-11, version 2.1.0

  • Implemented derived units (like 110 km/h in m/s). Thanks @ericman314.
  • Implemented support for electric units. Thanks @ericman314.
  • Implemented about 50 physical constants like speedOfLight, gravity, etc.
  • Implemented function kldivergence (Kullback-Leibler divergence). Thanks @saromanov.
  • Implemented function mode. Thanks @kv-kunalvyas.
  • Added support for unicode characters in the expression parser: greek letters and latin letters with accents. See #265.
  • Internal functions Unit.parse and Complex.parse now throw an Error instead of returning null when passing invalid input.

2015-07-29, version 2.0.1

  • Fixed operations with mixed fractions and numbers be converted to numbers instead of fractions.

2015-07-28, version 2.0.0

  • Large internal refactoring:
    • performance improvements.
    • allows to create custom bundles
    • functions are composed using typed-function and are extensible
  • Implemented support for fractions, powered by the library fraction.js.
  • Implemented matrix LU decomposition with partial pivoting and a LU based linear equations solver (functions lup and lusolve). Thanks @rjbaucells.
  • Implemented a new configuration option predictable, which can be set to true in order to ensure predictable function output types.
  • Implemented function intersect. Thanks @kv-kunalvyas.
  • Implemented support for adding toTex properties to custom functions. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Implemented support for complex values to nthRoot. Thanks @gangachris.
  • Implemented util functions isInteger, isNegative, isNumeric, isPositive, and isZero.

breaking changes

  • String input is now converted to numbers by default for all functions.
  • Adding two strings will no longer concatenate them, but will convert the strings to numbers and add them.
  • Function index does no longer accept an array [start, end, step], but instead accepts an array with arbitrary index values. It also accepts a Range object as input.
  • Function typeof no longer returns lower case names, but now returns lower case names for primitives (like number, boolean, string), and upper-camel-case for non-primitives (like Array, Complex, Function).
  • Function import no longer supports a module name as argument. Instead, modules can be loaded using require: math.import(require('module-name')).
  • Function import has a new option silent to ignore errors, and throws errors on duplicates by default.
  • Method Node.compile() no longer needs math to be passed as argument.
  • Reintroduced method Node.eval([scope]).
  • Function sum now returns zero when input is an empty array. Thanks @FSMAxB.
  • The size of Arrays is no longer validated. Matrices will validate this on creation.

2015-07-12, version 1.7.1

  • Fixed #397: Inaccuracies in nthRoot for very large values, and wrong results for very small values. (backported from v2)
  • Fixed #405: Parser throws error when defining a function in a multiline expression.

2015-05-31, version 1.7.0

  • Implemented function quantileSeq and partitionSelect. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Implemented functions stirlingS2, bellNumbers, composition, and multinomial. Thanks @devanp92.
  • Improved the performance of median (see #373). Thanks @BigFav.
  • Extended the command line interface with a mode option to output either the expressions result, string representation, or tex representation. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Fixed #309: Function median mutating the input matrix. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Fixed Node.transform not recursing over replaced parts of the node tree (see #349).
  • Fixed #381: issue in docs of randomInt.

2015-04-22, version 1.6.0

  • Improvements in toTex. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Fixed #328: abs(0 + 0i) evaluated to NaN.
  • Fixed not being able to override lazy loaded constants.

2015-04-09, version 1.5.2

  • Fixed #313: parsed functions did not handle recursive calls correctly.
  • Fixed #251: binary prefix and SI prefix incorrectly used for byte. Now following SI standards (1 KiB == 1024 B, 1 kB == 1000 B).
  • Performance improvements in parsed functions.

2015-04-08, version 1.5.1

  • Fixed #316: a bug in rounding values when formatting.
  • Fixed #317, #319: a bug in formatting negative values.

2015-03-28, version 1.5.0

  • Added unit stone (6.35 kg).
  • Implemented support for sparse matrices. Thanks @rjbaucells.
  • Implemented BigNumber support for function atan2. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Implemented support for custom LaTeX representations. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Improvements and bug fixes in outputting parentheses in Node.toString and Node.toTex functions. Thanks @FSMaxB.
  • Fixed #291: function format sometimes returning exponential notation when it should return a fixed notation.

2015-02-28, version 1.4.0

  • Implemented trigonometric functions: acosh, acoth, acsch, asech, asinh, atanh, acot, acsc, asec. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Added BigNumber support for functions: cot, csc, sec, coth, csch, sech. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Implemented support for serialization and deserialization of math.js data types.
  • Fixed the calculation of norm() and abs() for large complex numbers. Thanks @rjbaucells.
  • Fixed #281: improved formatting complex numbers. Round the real or imaginary part to zero when the difference is larger than the configured precision.

2015-02-09, version 1.3.0

  • Implemented BigNumber implementations of most trigonometric functions: sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, cosh, sinh, tanh. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Implemented function trace. Thanks @pcorey.
  • Faster loading of BigNumber configuration with a high precision by lazy loading constants like pi and e.
  • Fixed constants NaN and Infinity not being BigNumber objects when BigNumbers are configured.
  • Fixed missing parentheses in the toTex representation of function permutations.
  • Some minor fixes in the docs. Thanks @KenanY.

2014-12-25, version 1.2.0

  • Support for bitwise operations bitAnd, bitNot, bitOr, bitXor, leftShift, rightArithShift, and rightLogShift. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Support for boolean operations and, not, or, xor. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Support for gamma function. Thanks @BigFav.
  • Converting a unit without value will now result in a unit with value, i.e. inch in cm will return 2.54 cm instead of cm.
  • Improved accuracy of sinh and complex cos and sin. Thanks @pavpanchekha.
  • Renamed function select to chain. The old function select will remain functional until math.js v2.0.
  • Upgraded to decimal.js v4.0.1 (BigNumber library).

2014-11-22, version 1.1.1

  • Fixed Unit divided by Number returning zero.
  • Fixed BigNumber downgrading to Number for a negative base in pow.
  • Fixed some typos in error messaging (thanks @andy0130tw) and docs.

2014-11-15, version 1.1.0

  • Implemented functions dot (dot product), cross (cross product), and nthRoot.
  • Officially opened up the API of expression trees:
    • Documented the API.
    • Implemented recursive functions clone, map, forEach, traverse, transform, and filter for expression trees.
    • Parameter index in the callbacks of map and forEach are now cloned for every callback.
    • Some internal refactoring inside nodes to make the API consistent:
      • Renamed params to args and vice versa to make things consistent.
      • Renamed Block.nodes to Block.blocks.
      • FunctionNode now has a name: string instead of a symbol: SymbolNode.
      • Changed constructor of RangeNode to new RangeNode(start: Node, end: Node [, step: Node]).
      • Nodes for a BlockNode must now be passed via the constructor instead of via a function add.
  • Fixed 2e giving a syntax error instead of being parsed as 2 * e.

2014-09-12, version 1.0.1

  • Disabled array notation for ranges in a matrix index in the expression parser (it is confusing and redundant there).
  • Fixed a regression in the build of function subset not being able to return a scalar.
  • Fixed some missing docs and broken links in the docs.

2014-09-04, version 1.0.0

  • Implemented a function filter(x, test).
  • Removed math.distribution for now, needs some rethinking.
  • math.number can convert units to numbers (requires a second argument)
  • Fixed some precedence issues with the range and conversion operators.
  • Fixed an zero-based issue when getting a matrix subset using an index containing a matrix.

2014-08-21, version 0.27.0

  • Implemented functions sort(x [, compare]) and flatten(x).
  • Implemented support for null in all functions.
  • Implemented support for "rawArgs" functions in the expression parser. Raw functions are invoked with unevaluated parameters (nodes).
  • Expressions in the expression parser can now be spread over multiple lines, like '2 +\n3'.
  • Changed default value of the option wrap of function math.import to false.
  • Changed the default value for new entries in a resized matrix when to zero. To leave new entries uninitialized, use the new constant math.uninitialized as default value.
  • Renamed transform property from __transform__ to transform, and documented the transform feature.
  • Fixed a bug in math.import not applying options when passing a module name.
  • A returned matrix subset is now only squeezed when the index consists of scalar values, and no longer for ranges resolving into a single value.

2014-08-03, version 0.26.0

  • A new instance of math.js can no longer be created like math([options]), to prevent side effects from math being a function instead of an object. Instead, use the function math.create([options]) to create a new instance.
  • Implemented BigNumber support for all constants: pi, tau, e, phi, E, LN2, LN10, LOG2E, LOG10E, PI, SQRT1_2, and SQRT2.
  • Implemented BigNumber support for functions gcd, xgcd, and lcm.
  • Fixed function gxcd returning an Array when math.js was configured as {matrix: 'matrix'}.
  • Multi-line expressions now return a ResultSet instead of an Array.
  • Implemented transforms (used right now to transform one-based indices to zero-based for expressions).
  • When used inside the expression parser, functions concat, min, max, and mean expect an one-based dimension number.
  • Functions map and forEach invoke the callback with one-based indices when used from within the expression parser.
  • When adding or removing dimensions when resizing a matrix, the dimensions are added/removed from the inner side (right) instead of outer side (left).
  • Improved index out of range errors.
  • Fixed function concat not accepting a BigNumber for parameter dim.
  • Function squeeze now squeezes both inner and outer singleton dimensions.
  • Output of getting a matrix subset is not automatically squeezed anymore except for scalar output.
  • Renamed FunctionNode to FunctionAssignmentNode, and renamed ParamsNode to FunctionNode for more clarity.
  • Fixed broken auto completion in CLI.
  • Some minor fixes.

2014-07-01, version 0.25.0

  • The library now immediately returns a default instance of mathjs, there is no need to instantiate math.js in a separate step unless one ones to set configuration options:

      // instead of:
      var mathjs = require('mathjs'),  // load math.js
          math = mathjs();             // create an instance
      // just do:
      var math = require('mathjs');
  • Implemented support for implicit multiplication, like math.eval('2a', {a:3}) and math.eval('(2+3)(1-3)'). This changes behavior of matrix indexes as well: an expression like [...][...] is not evaluated as taking a subset of the first matrix, but as an implicit multiplication of two matrices.

  • Removed utility function ifElse. This function is redundant now the expression parser has a conditional operator a ? b : c.

  • Fixed a bug with multiplying a number with a temperature,
    like math.eval('10 * celsius').

  • Fixed a bug with symbols having value undefined not being evaluated.

2014-06-20, version 0.24.1

  • Something went wrong with publishing on npm.

2014-06-20, version 0.24.0

  • Added constant null.
  • Functions equal and unequal support null and undefined now.
  • Function typeof now recognizes regular expressions as well.
  • Objects Complex, Unit, and Help now return their string representation when calling .valueOf().
  • Changed the default number of significant digits for BigNumbers from 20 to 64.
  • Changed the behavior of the conditional operator (a ? b : c) to lazy evaluating.
  • Fixed imported, wrapped functions not accepting null and undefined as function arguments.

2014-06-10, version 0.23.0

  • Renamed some functions (everything now has a logical, camel case name):

    • Renamed functions edivide, emultiply, and epow to dotDivide, dotMultiply, and dotPow respectively.
    • Renamed functions smallereq and largereq to smallerEq and largerEq.
    • Renamed function unary to unaryMinus and added support for strings.
  • end is now a reserved keyword which cannot be used as function or symbol name in the expression parser, and is not allowed in the scope against which an expression is evaluated.

  • Implemented function unaryPlus and unary plus operator.

  • Implemented function deepEqual for matrix comparisons.

  • Added constant phi, the golden ratio (phi = 1.618...).

  • Added constant version, returning the version number of math.js as string.

  • Added unit drop (gtt).

  • Fixed not being able to load math.js using AMD/require.js.

  • Changed signature of math.parse(expr, nodes) to math.parse(expr, options) where options: {nodes: Object.<String, Node>}

  • Removed matrix support from conditional function ifElse.

  • Removed automatic assignment of expression results to variable ans. This functionality can be restored by pre- or postprocessing every evaluation, something like:

      function evalWithAns (expr, scope) {
        var ans = math.eval(expr, scope);
        if (scope) {
          scope.ans = ans;
        return ans;

2014-05-22, version 0.22.0

  • Implemented support to export expressions to LaTeX. Thanks Niels Heisterkamp (@nheisterkamp).
  • Output of matrix multiplication is now consistently squeezed.
  • Added reference documentation in the section /docs/reference.
  • Fixed a bug in multiplying units without value with a number (like 5 * cm).
  • Fixed a bug in multiplying two matrices containing vectors (worked fine for arrays).
  • Fixed random functions not accepting Matrix as input, and always returning a Matrix as output.

2014-05-13, version 0.21.1

  • Removed crypto library from the bundle.
  • Deprecated functions Parser.parse and Parser.compile. Use math.parse and math.compile instead.
  • Fixed function add not adding strings and matrices element wise.
  • Fixed parser not being able to evaluate an exponent followed by a unary minus like 2^-3, and a transpose followed by an index like [3]'[1].

2014-04-24, version 0.21.0

  • Implemented trigonometric hyperbolic functions cosh, coth, csch, sech, sinh, tanh. Thanks Rogelio J. Baucells (@rjbaucells).
  • Added property type to all expression nodes in an expression tree.
  • Fixed functions log, log10, pow, and sqrt not supporting complex results from BigNumber input (like sqrt(bignumber(-4))).

2014-04-16, version 0.20.0

  • Switched to module decimal.js for BigNumber support, instead of bignumber.js.
  • Implemented support for polar coordinates to the Complex datatype. Thanks Finn Pauls (@finnp).
  • Implemented BigNumber support for functions exp, log, and log10.
  • Implemented conditional operator a ? b : c in expression parser.
  • Improved floating point comparison: the functions now check whether values are nearly equal, against a configured maximum relative difference epsilon. Thanks Rogelio J. Baucells (@rjbaucells).
  • Implemented function norm. Thanks Rogelio J. Baucells (@rjbaucells).
  • Improved function ifElse, is now specified for special data types too.
  • Improved function det. Thanks Bryan Cuccioli (@bcuccioli).
  • Implemented BigNumber support for functions det and diag.
  • Added unit alias lbs (pound mass).
  • Changed configuration option decimals to precision (applies to BigNumbers only).
  • Fixed support for element-wise comparisons between a string and a matrix.
  • Fixed: expression parser now trows IndexErrors with one-based indices instead of zero-based.
  • Minor bug fixes.

2014-03-30, version 0.19.0

  • Implemented functions compare, sum, prod, var, std, median.
  • Implemented function ifElse Thanks @mtraynham.
  • Minor bug fixes.

2014-02-15, version 0.18.1

  • Added unit feet.
  • Implemented function compile (shortcut for parsing and then compiling).
  • Improved performance of function pow for matrices. Thanks @hamadu.
  • Fixed broken auto completion in the command line interface.
  • Fixed an error in function combinations for large numbers, and improved performance of both functions combinations and permutations.

2014-01-18, version 0.18.0

  • Changed matrix index notation of expression parser from round brackets to square brackets, for example A[1, 1:3] instead of A(1, 1:3).
  • Removed need to use the function keyword for function assignments in the expression parser, you can define a function now like f(x) = x^2.
  • Implemented a compilation step in the expression parser: expressions are compiled into JavaScript, giving much better performance (easily 10x as fast).
  • Renamed unit conversion function and operator in to to. Operator in is still available in the expression parser as an alias for to. Added unit in, an abbreviation for inch. Thanks Elijah Insua (@tmpvar).
  • Added plurals and aliases for units.
  • Implemented an argument includeEnd for function range (false by default).
  • Ranges in the expression parser now support big numbers.
  • Implemented functions permutations and combinations. Thanks Daniel Levin (@daniel-levin).
  • Added lower case abbreviation l for unit litre.

2013-12-19, version 0.17.1

  • Fixed a bug with negative temperatures.
  • Fixed a bug with prefixes of units squared meter m2 and cubic meter m3.

2013-12-12, version 0.17.0

  • Renamed and flattened configuration settings:
    • number.defaultType is now number.
    • number.precision is now decimals.
    • matrix.defaultType is now matrix.
  • Function multiply now consistently outputs a complex number on complex input.
  • Fixed mod and in not working as function (only as operator).
  • Fixed support for old browsers (IE8 and older), compatible when using es5-shim.
  • Fixed support for Java's ScriptEngine.

2013-11-28, version 0.16.0

  • Implemented BigNumber support for arbitrary precision calculations. Added settings number.defaultType and number.precision to configure big numbers.
  • Documentation is extended.
  • Removed utility functions isScalar, toScalar, isVector, toVector from Matrix and Range. Use math.squeeze and math.size instead.
  • Implemented functions get and set on Matrix, for easier and faster retrieval/replacement of elements in a matrix.
  • Implemented function resize, handling matrices, scalars, and strings.
  • Functions ones and zeros now return an empty matrix instead of a number 1 or 0 when no arguments are provided.
  • Implemented functions min and max for Range and Index.
  • Resizing matrices now leaves new elements undefined by default instead of filling them with zeros. Function resize now has an extra optional parameter defaultValue.
  • Range operator : in expression parser has been given a higher precedence.
  • Functions don't allow arguments of unknown type anymore.
  • Options be set when constructing a math.js instance or using the new function config(options. Options are no longer accessible via math.options.
  • Renamed scientific notation to exponential in function format.
  • Function format outputs exponential notation with positive exponents now always with + sign, so outputs 2.1e+3 instead of 2.1e3.
  • Fixed function squeeze not being able squeeze into a scalar.
  • Some fixes and performance improvements in the resize and subset functions.
  • Function size now adheres to the option matrix.defaultType for scalar input.
  • Minor bug fixes.

2013-10-26, version 0.15.0

  • Math.js must be instantiated now, static calls are no longer supported. Usage:
    • node.js: var math = require('mathjs')();
    • browser: var math = mathjs();
  • Implemented support for multiplying vectors with matrices.
  • Improved number formatting:
    • Function format now support various options: precision, different notations (fixed, scientific, auto), and more.
    • Numbers are no longer rounded to 5 digits by default when formatted.
    • Implemented a function format for Matrix, Complex, Unit, Range, and Selector to format using options.
    • Function format does only stringify values now, and has a new parameter precision to round to a specific number of digits.
    • Removed option math.options.precision, use math.format(value [, precision]) instead.
    • Fixed formatting numbers as scientific notation in some cases returning a zero digit left from the decimal point. (like "0.33333e8" rather than "3.3333e7"). Thanks @husayt.
  • Implemented a function print to interpolate values in a template string, this functionality was moved from the function format.
  • Implemented statistics function mean. Thanks Guillermo Indalecio Fernandez (@guillermobox).
  • Extended and changed max and min for multi dimensional matrices: they now return the maximum and minimum of the flattened array. An optional second argument dim allows to calculate the max or min for specified dimension.
  • Renamed option math.options.matrix.default to math.options.matrix.defaultType.
  • Removed support for comparing complex numbers in functions smaller, smallereq, larger, largereq. Complex numbers cannot be ordered.

2013-10-08, version 0.14.0

  • Introduced an option math.options.matrix.default which can have values matrix (default) or array. This option is used by the functions eye, ones, range, and zeros, to determine the type of matrix output.
  • Getting a subset of a matrix will automatically squeeze the resulting subset, setting a subset of a matrix will automatically unsqueeze the given subset.
  • Removed concatenation of nested arrays in the expression parser. You can now input nested arrays like in JavaScript. Matrices can be concatenated using the function concat.
  • The matrix syntax [...] in the expression parser now creates 1 dimensional matrices by default. math.eval('[1,2,3,4]') returns a matrix with size [4], math.eval('[1,2;3,4]') returns a matrix with size [2,2].
  • Documentation is restructured and extended.
  • Fixed non working operator mod (modulus operator).

2013-09-03, version 0.13.0

  • Implemented support for booleans in all relevant functions.
  • Implemented functions map and forEach. Thanks Sebastien Piquemal (@sebpic).
  • All construction functions can be used to convert the type of variables, also element-wise for all elements in an Array or Matrix.
  • Changed matrix indexes of the expression parser to one-based with the upper-bound included, similar to most math applications. Note that on a JavaScript level, math.js uses zero-based indexes with excluded upper-bound.
  • Removed support for scalars in the function subset, it now only supports Array, Matrix, and String.
  • Removed the functions get and set from a selector, they are a duplicate of the function subset.
  • Replaced functions get and set of Matrix with a single function subset.
  • Some moving around with code and namespaces:
    • Renamed namespace math.expr to math.expression (contains Scope, Parser, node objects).
    • Renamed namespace to
    • Moved math.expr.Selector to math.chaining.Selector.
  • Fixed some edge cases in functions lcm and xgcd.

2013-08-22, version 0.12.1

  • Fixed outdated version of
  • Fixed a broken unit test.

2013-08-22, version 0.12.0

  • Implemented functions random([min, max]), randomInt([min, max]), pickRandom(array). Thanks Sebastien Piquemal (@sebpic).
  • Implemented function distribution(name), generating a distribution object with functions random, randomInt, pickRandom for different distributions. Currently supporting uniform and normal.
  • Changed the behavior of range to exclude the upper bound, so range(1, 4) now returns [1, 2, 3] instead of [1, 2, 3, 4].
  • Changed the syntax of range, which is now range(start, end [, step]) instead of range(start, [step, ] end).
  • Changed the behavior of ones and zeros to geometric dimensions, for example ones(3) returns a vector with length 3, filled with ones, and ones(3,3) returns a 2D array with size [3, 3].
  • Changed the return type of ones and zeros: they now return an Array when arguments are Numbers or an Array, and returns a Matrix when the argument is a Matrix.
  • Change matrix index notation in parser from round brackets to square brackets, for example A[0, 0:3].
  • Removed the feature introduced in v0.10.0 to automatically convert a complex value with an imaginary part equal to zero to a number.
  • Fixed zeros being formatted as null. Thanks @TimKraft.

2013-07-23, version 0.11.1

  • Fixed missing development dependency

2013-07-23, version 0.11.0

  • Changed math.js from one-based to zero-based indexes.
    • Getting and setting matrix subset is now zero-based.
    • The dimension argument in function concat is now zero-based.
  • Improvements in the string output of function help.
  • Added constants true and false.
  • Added constructor function boolean.
  • Fixed function select not accepting 0 as input. Thanks Elijah Manor (@elijahmanor).
  • Parser now supports multiple unary minus operators after each other.
  • Fixed not accepting empty matrices like [[], []].
  • Some fixes in the end user documentation.

2013-07-08, version 0.10.0

  • For complex calculations, all functions now automatically replace results having an imaginary part of zero with a Number. (2i * 2i now returns a Number -4 instead of a Complex -4 + 0i).
  • Implemented support for injecting custom node handlers in the parser. Can be used for example to implement a node handler for plotting a graph.
  • Implemented end user documentation and a new help function.
  • Functions size and squeeze now return a Matrix instead of an Array as output on Matrix input.
  • Added a constant tau (2 * pi). Thanks Zak Zibrat (@palimpsests).
  • Renamed function unaryminus to unary.
  • Fixed a bug in determining node dependencies in function assignments.

2013-06-14, version 0.9.1

  • Implemented element-wise functions and operators: emultiply (x .* y), edivide (x ./ y), epow (x .^ y).
  • Added constants Infinity and NaN.
  • Removed support for Workspace to keep the library focused on its core task.
  • Fixed a bug in the Complex constructor, not accepting NaN values.
  • Fixed division by zero in case of pure complex values.
  • Fixed a bug in function multiply multiplying a pure complex value with Infinity.

2013-05-29, version 0.9.0

  • Implemented function math.parse(expr [,scope]). Optional parameter scope can be a plain JavaScript Object containing variables.
  • Extended function math.expr(expr [, scope]) with an additional parameter scope, similar to parse. Example: math.eval('x^a', {x:3, a:2});.
  • Implemented function subset, to get or set a subset from a matrix, string, or other data types.
  • Implemented construction functions number and string (mainly useful inside the parser).
  • Improved function det. Thanks Bryan Cuccioli (@bcuccioli).
  • Moved the parse code from prototype math.expr.Parser to function math.parse, simplified Parser a little bit.
  • Strongly simplified the code of Scope and Workspace.
  • Fixed function mod for negative numerators, and added error messages in case of wrong input.

2013-05-18, version 0.8.2

  • Extended the import function and some other minor improvements.
  • Fixed a bug in merging one dimensional vectors into a matrix.
  • Fixed a bug in function subtract, when subtracting a complex number from a real number.

2013-05-10, version 0.8.1

  • Fixed an npm warning when installing mathjs globally.

2013-05-10, version 0.8.0

  • Implemented a command line interface. When math.js is installed globally via npm, the application is available on your system as 'mathjs'.
  • Implemented end keyword for index operator, and added support for implicit start and end (expressions like a(2,:) and b(2:end,3:end-1) are supported now).
  • Function math.eval is more flexible now: it supports variables and multi-line expressions.
  • Removed the read-only option from Parser and Scope.
  • Fixed non-working unequal operator != in the parser.
  • Fixed a bug in resizing matrices when replacing a subset.
  • Fixed a bug in updating a subset of a non-existing variable.
  • Minor bug fixes.

2013-05-04, version 0.7.2

  • Fixed method unequal, which was checking for equality instead of inequality. Thanks @FJS2.

2013-04-27, version 0.7.1

  • Improvements in the parser:
    • Added support for chained arguments.
    • Added support for chained variable assignments.
    • Added a function remove(name) to remove a variable from the parsers scope.
    • Renamed nodes for more consistency and to resolve naming conflicts.
    • Improved stringification of an expression tree.
    • Some simplifications in the code.
    • Minor bug fixes.
  • Fixed a bug in the parser, returning NaN instead of throwing an error for a number with multiple decimal separators like 2.3.4.
  • Fixed a bug in Workspace.insertAfter.
  • Fixed: math.js now works on IE 6-8 too.

2013-04-20, version 0.7.0

  • Implemented method math.eval, which uses a readonly parser to evaluate expressions.
  • Implemented method xgcd (extended eucledian algorithm). Thanks Bart Kiers (@bkiers).
  • Improved math.format, which now rounds values to a maximum number of digits instead of decimals (default is 5 digits, for example math.format(math.pi) returns 3.1416).
  • Added examples.
  • Changed methods square and cube to evaluate matrices element wise (consistent with all other methods).
  • Changed second parameter of method import to an object with options.
  • Fixed method math.typeof on IE.
  • Minor bug fixes and improvements.

2013-04-13, version 0.6.0

  • Implemented chained operations via method For example will return 5.
  • Implemented methods gcd and lcm.
  • Implemented method, which creates a clone of the unit with a fixed representation. For example math.unit('5.08 cm').in('inch') will return a unit which string representation always is in inch, thus 2 inch. is the same as method, unit).
  • Implemented Unit.toNumber(unit), which returns the value of the unit when represented with given unit. For example math.unit('5.08 cm').toNumber('inch') returns the number 2, as the representation of the unit in inches has 2 as value.
  • Improved: method, unit) now supports a string as second parameter, for example'5.08 cm'), 'inch').
  • Split the end user documentation of the parser functions from the source files.
  • Removed function help and the built-in documentation from the core library.
  • Fixed constant i being defined as -1i instead of 1i.
  • Minor bug fixes.

2013-04-06, version 0.5.0

  • Implemented data types Matrix and Range.
  • Implemented matrix methods clone, concat, det, diag, eye, inv, ones, size, squeeze, transpose, zeros.
  • Implemented range operator :, and transpose operator ' in parser.
  • Changed: created construction methods for easy object creation for all data types and for the parser. For example, a complex value is now created with math.complex(2, 3) instead of new math.Complex(2, 3), and a parser is now created with math.parser() instead of new math.parser.Parser().
  • Changed: moved all data types under the namespace math.type, and moved the Parser, Workspace, etc. under the namespace math.expr.
  • Changed: changed operator precedence of the power operator:
    • it is now right associative instead of left associative like most scripting languages. So 2^3^4 is now calculated as 2^(3^4).
    • it has now higher precedence than unary minus most languages, thus -3^2 is now calculated as -(3^2).
  • Changed: renamed the parsers method 'put' into 'set'.
  • Fixed: method 'in' did not check for units to have the same base.

2013-03-16, version 0.4.0

  • Implemented Array support for all methods.
  • Implemented Array support in the Parser.
  • Implemented method format.
  • Implemented parser for units, math.Unit.parse(str).
  • Improved parser for complex values math.Complex.parse(str);
  • Improved method help: it now evaluates the examples.
  • Fixed: a scoping issue with the Parser when defining functions.
  • Fixed: method 'typeof' was not working well with minified and mangled code.
  • Fixed: errors in determining the best prefix for a unit.

2013-03-09, version 0.3.0

  • Implemented Workspace
  • Implemented methods cot, csc, sec.
  • Implemented Array support for methods with one parameter.

2013-02-25, version 0.2.0

  • Parser, Scope, and expression tree with Nodes implemented.
  • Implemented method import which makes it easy to extend math.js.
  • Implemented methods arg, conj, cube, equal, factorial, im, largereq, log(x, base), log10, mod, re, sign, smallereq, square, unequal.

2013-02-18, version 0.1.0

  • Reached full compatibility with Javascripts built-in Math library.
  • More functions implemented.
  • Some bugfixes.

2013-02-16, version 0.0.2

  • All constants of Math implemented, plus the imaginary unit i.
  • Data types Complex and Unit implemented.
  • First set of functions implemented.

2013-02-15, version 0.0.1

  • First publish of the mathjs package. (package is still empty)