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Meta Transactions and Executable Signed Txns

Conceived by Dr. Christian Lundkvist, meta txns enable users to interact with Ethereum without holding any ether.

2016 Snapshot of Slack post by Lundkvist


Jim can use his private key to sign some data and then send this signed data to a relayer (which he has specifically given permission to forward his data). This relayer can then pay the gas for this transaction, and send the data through Jim’s proxy contract.

Avsa / Executable Signed Transactions

Allowing users to sign messages to show intent of execution, but allowing a third party relayer to execute them is an emerging pattern being used in many projects.

Gnosis Safe

Aims to provide all users with a convenient, yet secure way to manage their funds and interact with decentralized applications on Ethereum.

Austin Griffith /

Sandbox for experimenting with etherless meta transactions. The heart of the trick is to sign and recover transactions using Ethereum key pairs both on and off chain.

HatchCrypto unilogin

This is a React - Web3 - Solidity Proof of Concept signup / login design pattern with a minimal Ethereum native scheme that doesn't require passwords, backing up private keys nor typing seed phrases. It also allows for a user to sign messages to show intent of execution along similar guidelines.