Source material for "Functional Pearl: Getting a Quick Fix on Comonads"
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Functional Pearl: Getting a Quick Fix on Comonads

This repository is the source for the paper: K. Foner. "Functional Pearl: Getting a Quick Fix on Comonads." In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Haskell. ACM, 2015.

A preview of what's inside...

The quickest way to read the paper is to download the rendered pre-print (PDF).

The paper is written in literate Haskell of the LaTeX flavor. It can be compiled both to a readable PDF and to executable code for the library it describes. This means you can read the source code or play around with it in a REPL if you build the accompanying artifacts.

You may also want to look at the slides from the talk (complete with fancy animations like below!).


A piece of functional programming folklore due to Piponi provides Löb's theorem from modal provability logic with a computational interpretation as an unusual fixed point. Interpreting modal necessity as an arbitrary Functor in Haskell, the "type" of Löb's theorem is inhabited by a fixed point function allowing each part of a structure to refer to the whole.

However, Functor's logical interpretation may be used to prove Löb's theorem only by relying on its implicit functorial strength, an axiom not available in the provability modality. As a result, the well known loeb fixed point "cheats" by using functorial strength to implement its recursion.

Rather than Functor, a closer Curry analogue to modal logic's Howard inspiration is a closed (semi-)comonad, of which Haskell's ComonadApply typeclass provides analogous structure. Its computational interpretation permits the definition of a novel fixed point function allowing each part of a structure to refer to its own context within the whole. This construction further guarantees maximal sharing and asymptotic efficiency superior to loeb for locally contextual computations upon a large class of structures. With the addition of a distributive law, closed comonads may be composed into spaces of arbitrary dimensionality while preserving the performance guarantees of this new fixed point.

From these elements, we construct a small embedded domain-specific language to elegantly express and evaluate multidimensional "spreadsheet-like" recurrences for a variety of cellular automata.

Building the Artifacts

To build all the paper's artifacts, you need:

  • A version of GHC 7.8 or greater
  • A version of cabal supporting sandboxes (i.e. 1.18 or greater)
  • A working LaTeX installation
  • latexmk (which may have come with your LaTeX distribution)
  • lhs2TeX (to get it: cabal install lhs2tex)
  • unlit (to get it: cabal install unlit)

The script ./build-everything creates a cabal sandbox and builds all artifacts.

After that, you can...

  • open ./GQFC.pdf to read the paper
  • run cabal repl to launch a REPL with the paper's code
  • open ./GQFC.hs to read only the code, eliding the paper text

To re-build an individual artifact:

  • ./build-paper to re-render the paper
  • ./build-code to re-compile the library
  • ./extract-code to re-extract the library code